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Prevuius group

Group No. 94


E. The Dead

Group No.

E700 – E799

Group name

The soul


E700. The Soul. **Tobler; **Feilberg Sjæletro (København, 1914); Åke Hultkrantz Conceptions of the Soul among the North American Indians (Stockholm, 1953); Hilda R. Ellis The Road to Hell, A Study in the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature (London, 1943) 170ff. – Greek: Waser Über die äussere Erscheinung der Seele in den Vorstellungen der Völker, zumal der alten Griechen (Archiv für Religionswissenschaft XVI [1914] 336); Irish myth: *Cross; Skandinavian: *K. S. Kramer Die Dingbeseelung in der germanischen Überlieferung (München, 1939); Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 182 – 190, 251 – 266, 491 – 506; German: Meyer Germanen 68ff.; Jewish: Neuman; N. A. Indian (Iroquois): Hewitt The Iroquoian Concept of the Soul (JAFL VIII 107).
E700.1. Names given the soul. Jewish: Neuman.
E701. Soul of object. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 13; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 464.
E701.1. Soul of the earth. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 240.
E701.2. Soul of water. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 214.
E701.3. Soul of tree. Feilberg Am Urquell V 88ff., 119ff.
E701.4. Soul of fire. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 236.
E701.5. Soul of corn. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 241.
E702. Composition of the soul. Jewish: *Neuman.
E703. Creation of souls. Jewish: *Neuman.
E705. Soul forgets everything at birth. Jewish: Neuman. Cf. Wordsworth “Ode on Intimations of Immortality”.
E706. Abode of unborn souls. Jewish: *Neuman.
E707. Person with more than one soul. Jewish: Neuman.
E708. Soul sustained on pleasant odors. Jewish: Neuman.
E710. External soul. A person (often a giant or ogre) keeps his soul or life separate from the rest of his body. *Type 302; *BP III 440; *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; *MacCulloch Childhood 118ff.; *Chauvin V 176 No. 100, II 193 No. 12; Fb “hjærte” IV 318b; Mélusine XI 263; *Penzer X 143 s.v. “External Soul”; Clouston Tales I 347; Köhler-Bolte I 161, 515; Gittée RTP II 283; Krappe Revue Archéologique (May-June 1933) 195 – 211. – Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “corps”, “âme”; Icelandic: Fripjofssaga (Wenz ed., Halle 1914) 16; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 11; Greek: Grote I 136f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 178; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 346 n. 246a, *Hultkrantz 330 – 341; Africa (Swahili): Steere 3ff.
E710.1. Ferocious animal guardian of separable soul of ogress. India: Thompson-Balys.
E710.2. External soul avenges murder. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 145.
E711. Soul kept in object. (Cf. E765.) *Penzer I 129ff, VIII 107; Indonesian: Dixon 237 n. 50; India: Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: *Cross.
E711.1. Soul in egg. *Type 302; *BP III 439; Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; *Fb “hjærte” I 631a, “liv” II 438b, “æg” III 1141b. – Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “oeuf”; Missouri French: Carrière; Scotch: Campbell Tales I 1ff.; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 355, 217 No. 73; India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.1.1. Soul in three separate eggs. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
E711.2. Soul in plant. India: *Thompson-Balys.
E711.2.1. Soul in calabash (gourd). Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 55 No. 24; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 572 No. 116.
E711.2.2. Soul in flower. India: *Thompson-Balys.
E711.2.3. Soul in chilly plant. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.2.4. Soul in pomegranate. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.2.5. Soul in coconut. India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 148.
E711.2.6. Soul in bamboo. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.3. Soul in jewel. BP III 439. – India: *Thompson-Balys.
E711.4. Soul in necklace. BP III 439. – India: *Thompson-Balys.
E711.5. Soul in sack. Fb “pose” II 864.
E711.6. Life in stick. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.7. Soul in stone. (Cf. E761.5.5.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.
E711.8. Soul in golden apple. (Cf. F813.1.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E711.9. Soul in golden ball. Irish myth: Cross.
E711.10. Soul in sword. India: *Thompson-Balys.
E711.11. Soul in snow. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.12. Soul in dice. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.13. Soul in arrow. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.14. Soul in axe. India: Thompson-Balys.
E711.15. Soul in bird cage. India: Thompson-Balys.
E712. Hidden soul (life).
E712.1. Soul hidden in tree. *BP III 440; India: *Thompson-Balys, *Penzer V 127 n. 1.
E712.2. Soul hidden in safe. India: Thompson-Balys.
E712.3. Soul hidden in urn. India: Thompson-Balys.
E712.4. Soul hidden in box. India: Thompson-Balys.
E712.5. Soul hidden in pillar. India: Thompson-Balys.
E712.6. Soul hidden in fish basket. India: Thompson-Balys.
E712.7. Soul hidden in water bottle. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/174).
E713. Soul hidden in a series of coverings. This motif is combined with several others. Usually the soul will be hidden in an egg, in a duck, in a well, in a church, or a similar series. *BP III 439; MacCulloch Childhood 134; Penzer I 131; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.
E713.1. Soul hidden in apple (ball) in a salmon which appears every seven years in certain fountain. (Cf. D1651.10.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E714. Soul (or life) kept in special part of body. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 117 n. 3; N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 166-178.
E714.1. Soul (life) in the blood. *Fb “blod” IV 46b, “sjæl” III 213b; Paris Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 12 n. 1; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 4; Jewish: Neuman.
E714.2. Serpent‘s life in its gold crown. Type 672B; *BP II 463; Chinese: Graham.
E714.3. Soul in head. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 83.
E714.3.1. Troll’s life in his brother‘s forehead. *Fb “hjærte” I 631a.
E714.4. Soul (life) in the heart. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 4; India: Thompson-Balys.
E714.4.1. Eaten heart gives one the owner’s qualities. Fb “hjærte” IV 218b; N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 397 – 411; Jewish: Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg.
E714.5. Soul (life) in the liver. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 4.
E714.6. Soul (life) in the breath. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 179 – 208.
E714.7. Soul (life) in left hand. Penzer I 127, VIII 109 n. 3.
E714.7.1. Soul (life) in thumb. India: Thompson-Balys.
E714.8. Monster with life in his neck. (One vulnerable place.) India: Thompson-Balys.
E714.9. Giant‘s soul in a mole in the hollow of his palm. Irish myth: Cross.
E714.10. Ogre’s soul in “pale spot” below his right ear. (Cf. Z311.2.) Irish myth: Cross.
E714.11. Life (soul) in entrails. India: Thompson-Balys.
E714.12. Soul in hair. Greek: *Grote I 203.
E714.13. Soul fastened to spine. Jewish: Neuman.
E715. Separable soul kept in animal. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Fb “liv” II 438b.
E715.1. Separable soul in bird. BP III 440; India: *Thompson-Balys.
E715.1.1. Separable soul in duck. *Fb “and” IV 12b.
E715.1.2. Separable soul in crop of sparrow. Penzer I 131f.
E715.1.3. Separable soul in parrot. India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer I 131.
E715.1.3.1. Ogre’s life in parrot‘s feather in man’s pocket. India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.1.3.2. Ogre with life in parrot, speaks from inside parrot. India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.1.4. Soul in crane. India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.1.5. Soul in starling. India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.1.6. Soul in raven. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 56.
E715.2. Separable soul in fish. (Cf. B175.) BP III 440; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.3. Separable soul in insect.
E715.3.1. Separable soul in bee. BP III 440; India: *Thompson-Balys.
E715.3.2. Separable soul in fly. Africa (Bambara): Equilbecq II 88ff. No. 25.
E715.3.3. Separable soul in hornet. India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.4. Separable soul in wild animal.
E715.4.1. Separable soul in deer. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.
E715.4.2. Separable soul in wolf. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.
E715.4.3. Separable soul in walrus. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.
E715.4.4. Separable soul in seal. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.
E715.5. Separable soul in snake. India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.5.1. Separable soul in toad. India: Thompson-Balys.
E715.6. Separable soul in hydra‘s head. Penzer I 132.
E718. Multiple separable souls: ogre’s separable spirits live in a tree (plant), fish, honey bee. India: Thompson-Balys.
E720. Soul leaves or enters the body.
E720.1. Souls of human beings seen in dream. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E721. Soul journeys from the body. *Frazer Golden Bough III 36ff.; Penzer I 37 n. 1. – *Celtic: H. Hartmann Ueber Krankheit, Tod und Jenseitsvorstellungen in Irland (Erster Teil: Krankheit und Fairyentrückung) (Halle, 1942); Irish myth: *Cross; Norwegian: Solheim Register 16; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 289 – 295, 305 – 311; Slavic: Máchal 227; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 267; Japanese: Ikeda; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 171, 178, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 326; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 241 – 291.
E721.0.1. Mark inflicted on wandering soul seen on body after soul‘s return. Irish myth: Cross.
E721.1. Soul wanders from body in sleep. Dreams explained as experiences of the soul on these wanderings. *Frazer Golden Bough III 36ff.; Fb “sjæl” III 213a; Tobler 22, 37, 67; Herbert III 209; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 172. – English: Guy of Warwick (EETS extra ser. XXV) lines 9358ff.; Icelandic: Boberg; Irish: Plummer clxxii, *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3520; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 93; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 144, 173f.; Cook Islands: Clark 81; Marquesas: Handy 81; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 56, 363; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 62; Africa (Fang): Trilles 133.
E721.1.1. Sleeper not to be awakened, since soul is absent. *Frazer Golden Bough III 37ff.; Tobler 38.
E721.1.2. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning to his body. Frazer Golden Bough III 38; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 320.
E721.1.2.1. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning when it is captured in animal form. Frazer Golden Bough III 38.
E721.1.2.2. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning by moving the sleeper’s body. (Cf E431.7.2.1.) Frazer Golden Bough III 41; Irish myth: Cross.
E721.1.2.3. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning by burning the body. India: Thompson-Balys, *Penzer I 39 n. 2.
E721. Body dismembered so soul cannot return. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 287.
E721.1.2.4. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning to his body when soul as bee leaves body and enters hole in wall beside which he is sleeping. (Cf. E734.2.) England: Baughman.
E721.1.2.5. Frightened soul cannot return to body. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 452.
E721.2. Body in trance while soul is absent. *Fb “legeme” II 393a, “heks” I 581a, “sjæl” III 215a; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 299 – 300.
E721.3. Wandering soul cause of sickness. Frazer Golden Bough III 53ff.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 6; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473f.; N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 448 – 463.
E721.3.1. Madness from spirit leaving body: comes back with cough. India: Thompson-Balys.
E721.4. Wandering soul detained by ghosts. Frazer Golden Bough III 52ff.
E721.5. Wandering soul assumes various shapes. Fb “sjæl” III 214a.
E721.5.1. Wandering soul assumes shape of wolf. (Cf. D113.1.1, E731.) Irish myth: Cross.
E721.6. On return to body soul crosses on scythe-blade as bridge. *Fb “høle” I 747a; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E721.7. Soul leaves body to visit hell (heaven). (Cf. V511.1, V511.2.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.
E721.8. Soul leaves body to converse with dead. Irish myth: Cross.
E721.9. Soul of embryo wanders. Jewish: Neuman.
E721.10. Soul takes voyage. Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 157.
E722. Soul leaves body at death. India: Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: Cross.
E722.1. Form of soul as it leaves body at death.
E722.1.1. Soul as black or white spirit over coffin. Black if condemned. Can be seen by peeping between horse‘s ears. Fb “sjæl” III 214b.
E722.1.2. Soul as black or white entity. Black if condemned. Irish myth: *Cross.
E722.1.3. Soul leaves body as small point of light. England: Baughman.
E722.1.4. Soul leaves the body in form of bird. (Cf. E732.) England: Baughman; Korean: Zong in-Sob 30.
E722.2. Manner of soul‘s leaving body. Jewish: Neuman.
E722.2.1. Soul borne away on cloud. (Cf. E754.6.) Chinese: Werner 267.
E722.2.2. Soul borne away on wind. Chinese: Werner 314.
E722.2.3. Roof taken off above sick man who cannot die. This done so that the soul can escape. Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk XVIII 445; *Fb “engel” I 250.
E722.2.4. Condemned soul forked from body by Satan. (Cf. E752.2.) Irish myth: Cross.
E722.2.5. Saved soul leaps from body on hearing heavenly music. (Cf. E754.) Irish myth: Cross.
E722.2.6. Doors fly open when one dies. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 685.
E722.2.7. Soul weeps when departing from body. (Cf. E551.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3504.
E722.2.8. Soul reluctant to leave body.
E722.2.8.1. Soul lingers in body at death. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts, Balys Index No. 3503.
E722.2.8.2. Soul hovers over body, reluctant to part. India: Thompson-Balys.
E722.2.9. Dead friends come for dying man’s soul. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3501, Balys Ghosts.
E722.2.10. Soul taken away by God (angel). Jewish: Neuman.
E722.2.10.1. Chariot of gods bears astral bodies of dead to heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.
E722.2.11. Soul leaves body through eye. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 144.
E722.2.12. Soul leaves body because of God‘s kiss on mouth. Jewish: Neuman.
E722.3. Circumstances of soul on leaving dead body.
E722.3.1. Soul cannot go far from grave. Fb “sjæl” III 214b.
E722.3.1.1. Soul remains about dead body. Chinese: Graham.
E722.3.2. Soul wanders till corpse decays. Fb “lig” II 413a; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 3f.; Jewish: *Neuman; Marshall Islands: Davenport 222; Chinese: Graham.
E722.3.3. Soul visits places of birth, death, baptism, and burial after leaving body. Irish myth: Cross.
E723. Wraiths of persons separate from body. England, U.S.: Baughman.
E723.1. Person sees his own wraith. U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
E723.1.1. Person sees his own wraith; the wraith saves his life. (Cf. E363.2.) England: Baughman.
E723.2. Seeing one’s wraith a sign that person is to die shortly. (Cf. F405.4.) England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
E723.3. Wraith takes place of person unable to do duty at the necessary time. Scotland: Baughman.
E723.4. Wraith does what person wishes to do but is unable to do in the flesh.
E723.4.1. Wraith returns to home and goes to bed while body is at home of friends in deep reverie. Ireland: Baughman.
E723.4.2. Wraith of murderer tells authorities where to find girl he has murdered. The murderer is in church at the time. Scotland: Baughman.
E723.4.3. Wraith of debtor tries to find his creditor at time of death. England: Baughman.
E723.4.4. Wraith of dying woman goes to see children for last time before death. England: Baughman.
E723.4.5. Wraith gives information of death in family. England: Baughman.
E723.4.6. Wraith investigates welfare of absent person. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E723.5. Wraith of sweetheart stays in room where lover has died. It disappears only after her death at far distant point twenty years after death of lover. U.S.: Baughman.
E723.6. Appearance of his wraith as announcement of person‘s death. (Cf. E723.2.) England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.
E723.7. Actions of wraith.
E723.7.1. Wraith speaks. England, Wales: *Baughman.
E723.7.2. Wraith rings doorbell. Scotland: Baughman.
E723.7.3. Wraith opens and closes door. England: Baughman.
E723.7.4. Wraith slams gate. England: Baughman.
E723.7.5. Wraith selects wood for coffin. Scotland: Baughman.
E723.7.6. Wraith binds grain in field. Scotland: Baughman.
E723.7.7. Wraith rides horse. (Cf. E922. Scotland: Baughman.
E723.7.8. Wraiths of persons drowning appear in dripping clothes. England: *Baughman.
E723.8. Appearance of wraith as calamity omen.
E723.8.1. Wraith appears before mine disaster. England: Baughman.
E725. Soul leaves one body and enters another. *L. Bloomfield Proc. Am. Philosophical Soc. LVI 1; Penzer I 38; Hartland Science 227; Slavic: Máchal 228; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 438 – 440.
E725.1. Soul leaves man’s body and enters animal‘s. *Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 208; India: Thompson-Balys.
E725.2. Ghost possesses girl and she speaks in dialect unknown to her. India: Thompson-Balys.
E726. Soul enters body and animates it. *Chauvin V 287 No. 171; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 266; N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 149 – 179.
E726.1. Soul received at birth. Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 472.
E726.2. Soul of unborn son comes out of mother’s mouth (in form of stone), is kept by her, and later is given to son. (Cf. E711.7.) Irish myth: Cross.
E726.3. Soul reunited with body. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 89.
E727. Relation of body to soul.
E727.1. Debate of body and soul. Soul having left body enters into debate with the body concerning relative merits of body and soul. (Cf. H500.) English: *Wells 411; Irish: Gaidoz and Dottin Revue Celtique X part 4, *Cross.
E727.1.1. Soul curses body. (Cf. M400.) Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
E727.2. Soul as vital principle. N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 149 – 179.
E727.3. Body dependent on soul. N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 430 – 440.
E728. Evil spirit possesses person. India: *Thompson-Balys.
E728.1. Evil spirit cast out of person. England, U.S.: Baughman; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E728.1.1. Evil spirit cast out of person by killing and resuscitating. Köhler-Bolte I 442ff.
E730. Soul in animal form. (Cf. E721.1.2.4, E722.1.4, E734.2.) Bugiel RTP XVII 602; Tobler 19; England: Baughman; Icelandic: *MacCulloch Eddic 233; Montenegrin: Máchal 228; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 266f., 496.
E730.1. Souls of animals. Slavic: Máchal 227; Jewish: *Neuman.
E731. Soul in form of mammal.
E731.1. Soul in form of dog. Tobler 49, 54, 68; Icelandic: Boberg; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 213.
E731.2. Soul in form of cat. Tobler 42, 47, 56.
E731.3. Soul in form of mouse. Tobler 13ff.; *Fb “heks” I 581a, “høle” I 747a, “mus” II 631b; Sébillot RTP XX 189, 489; J. Grimm Kleinere Schriften VI 192ff.; Germanic: De la Saussaye 296, E. H. Meyer Germanische 64; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Indonesia: Kruyt 176f.
E731.4. Soul in form of weasel. Tobler 19; Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 209; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 172; *E. H. Meyer Germanische 64.
E731.5. Soul in form of hare. Tobler 20.
E731.6. Soul in form of seal. *Fb “sælhund”; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 56, 172.
E731.7. Soul in form of bat. Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1591; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7.
E731.8. Soul in form of bear. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E731.9. Soul in form of wolf. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E731.10. Soul in form of fox. Icelandic: Boberg.
E731.11. Soul in form of lion. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E731.12. Soul in form of hog. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E731.13. Soul in form of bull. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E731.14. Soul in form of deer. Icelandic: Boberg.
E732. Soul in form of bird. (Cf. G251.1.1.) **Weicker Der Seelenvogel in der alten Literatur und Kunst; *Dh III 482; *Fb “fugl” I 380b, “sjæl” III 214a; *Patch PMLA XXXIII 626 n. 88; De Gubernatis Die Thiere in der indogermanischen Mythologie (Leipzig, 1874) 469ff.; Meyer Germanische 64; *Krappe Balor 95ff., Romanic Review XV 94ff.; *Penzer VI 283; *BP II 394 (Type 707); Tobler 30f.; Wimberly 44; Kruyt 175f.; J. E. Harrison Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion 199ff.; Irish myth: *Cross, Beal XXI 322, O‘Suilleabhain 99; Icelandic: *Boberg; Slavic: Máchal 229f.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 398, 473; Egyptian: Müller 174; Jewish: *Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda; Marquesas: Handy 36; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 266f., 363; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 60 No. 9.
E732.1. Soul in form of dove. (Cf. E423.3.1.) Type 756B; Andrejev FFC LXIX 154; Tobler 28f.; *Crane Miraculis 93 No. 27; Alphabet Nos. 204, 269; Meyer Germanische 63; *Loomis White Magic 66; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 317, 320, 332, O’Suilleabhain 45, 99, 53; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 320 No. 35, 323 No. 133; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.
E732.2. Soul in form of crow. (Cf. B141.4.) Tobler 31; Fb “krage” II 285b.
E732.3. Soul in form of hen. Tobler 36; Fb “sjæl” III 214a.
E732.4. Soul in form of magpie. Tobler 34.
E732.5. Soul in form of seagull. Tobler 34; Fb “måge” II 655b.
E732.6. Soul in form of eagle. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E732.7. Soul in form of swan. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E732.8. Soul in form of raven. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 127 – 31, (1928) 91 – 95; Icelandic: Boberg.
E732.9. Soul in form of hawk, or falcon seen in dream. (Cf. E720.1.) Icelandic: Boberg.
E733. Soul in form of reptile.
E733.1. Soul in form of serpent. Tobler 22ff., 74; Fb “lindorm” II 433b; Meyer Germanische (1891) 63f.; Lévy-Bruhl L’âme primitive 369ff.; Kruyt 177ff.; Schreuer Zs. f. vgl. Rechtsgeschichte XXXIII (1916) 406f. – Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 217, Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda; Oceanic: Dixon 119; Africa: Werner African 193.
E734. Soul in form of insect. *Krappe Balor 95 n. 8.
E734.1. Soul in form of butterfly. Tobler 37; Meyer Germanische 63; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1627f.; Güntert Kalypso 215ff.; Frazer Golden Bough I 259. – Irish: Beal XXI 307, O’Suilleabhain 24; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “âme”, “papillon”; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473; Japanese: Anesaki 337; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 266; Hawaii: Dixon 76, Beckwith Myth 148.
E734.2. Soul in form of bee. Type 808**; Hdwb. d. Abergl. IV 468; Tobler 37; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473; Japanese: Ikeda.
E734.3. Soul in form of spider. [1] Tobler 38.
E734.4. Soul in form of wasp. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473.
E734.5. Soul in form of cricket. Meyer Germanische 63.
E734.6. Soul in form of beetle. Hdwb. d. Abergl. IV 906.
E734.7. Soul in form of fly. Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 201.
E734.8. Soul in form of grasshopper. Jewish: *Neuman.
E735. Soul in form of fish. Dh. III 482.
E736. Soul in form of amphibian.
E736.1. Soul in form of frog. Tobler 26, 75.
E736.2. Soul in form of toad. Tobler 25, 29; Meyer Germanische (1891) 64.
E738. Soul in form of a mythical animal.
E738.1. Soul in form of dragon. (Cf. B11.) Tobler 81; Icelandic: *Boberg.
E740. Other forms of the soul.
E741. Soul in form of heavenly body.
E741.1. Soul in form of star. (Cf. V515.1.2.)
E741.1.1. Shooting star signifies that someone is dying. One star for each person. At his death it falls. *BP III 235; *G. Bellucci Le stelle cadenti e le lore leggende (Perugia, 1895); *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX n. 770f.; Fb “lys” II 483a, “stjerne” III 577b. – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3906; Slavic: Máchal 273; India: Thompson-Balys.
E741.1.1.1. New star for each birth. A star in the sky for each person. Fb “menneske” II 577b.
E741.1.1.2. Star as sign of birth of hero. Irish myth: Cross.
E741.1.2. Shooting star signifies a birth. Stars are the dead. When they fall they are being reborn. At death they are replaced in the sky. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX N. 770f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 395; N. A. Indian (Mandan): Alexander N. Am. 96.
E742. Soul as light. *Type 332; Fb “sjæl” III 214b, “lys” II 482a; BP I 377ff., *388; Icelandic: *Boberg; Irish: Plummer cxxxviii, Cross, Beal XXI 315, O‘Suilleabhain 41; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “vie”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 24; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 82 No. 708A*; Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 48; N. A. Indian: *Hultkrantz 260ff.; Africa (Fang): Trilles 133.
E742.1. Soul as taper (candle). Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 82.
E742.2. Soul as will-o-the-wisp. Appears as a ball or fire or a figure in a fiery garment. – Tobler 82 – 86 passim; Meyer Germanische 63; Fb “ild” II 11b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 84; Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts; Slavic: Máchal 229ff.; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677.
E742.3. Souls of dead as Aurora Borealis. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 81; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 284ff.
E743. Soul as shadow. Tobler 89; Meyer Germanische 66; Fb “skygge” (1) III 347b, “sjæl” III 214b; Wundt Völkerpsychologie IV 125ff.; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 137; *Frazer Golden Bough III 77ff.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 6, 12; Jewish: Neuman; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 257ff, 302ff.
E743.1. Soul as smoke. Tobler 87; Fb “sjæl” III 214b.
E743.2. Soul as reflection or image. N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 309 – 316.
E744. Soul as weather phenomenon.
E744.1. Soul as mist (fog). Fb “sjæl” III 214b.
E744.2. Soul as cloud. Tobler 87f.
E744.3. Soul as whirlwind. Tobler 89.
E745. Soul as object. (Cf. E765.) N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 268; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 11, (Greenland): Rasmussen 1 136.
E745.1. Soul as feather. Tobler 51; Fb “sjæl” III 214b (shower of feathers).
E745.2. Soul as needle. Tobler 51.
E745.3. Soul as straw. Tobler 51.
E745.4. Soul as flower. BP II 394; Icelandic: Boberg.
E745.4.1. Soul as lotus flower. India: Thompson-Balys.
E745.5. Soul as fruit.
E745.5.1. Souls as golden apples. Later turn into birds and fly away. Hdwb. d. Märch. I 91b s.v. “Apfel”.
E745.5.2. Soul as bulb. Icelandic: Boberg.
E745.6. Soul as ghi (clarified butter). India: Thompson-Balys.
E747. Soul as mannikin (child). Frazer Golden Bough III 26ff.; Tobler 67; Meyer Germanische 66; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 262 – 266.
E747.1. Soul as small replica of body. India: Thompson-Balys.
E748. The soul as a guardian spirit. Hilda R. Ellis The Road to Hell, A Study of the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature (Cambridge [Eng.], 1943) 127ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg.
E750. Perils of the soul. *Frazer Golden Bough III 26ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 464 – 480.
E750.0.1. Soul cannot enter heaven till body is buried. (Cf. E235.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E750.1. Souls wander after death. *v. Negelein Zs. f. Vksk. XI 16ff., 149ff., 263ff.; Jewish: *Neuman; Japanese: Anesaki 237ff.
E750.1.1. Virgins condemned to wander at death. Korean: Zong in-Sob 39.
E750.2. Perilous path for soul to world of dead. (Cf. F151.1.) Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 484.
E750.2.1. Dead person of good life goes over bridge to otherworld without fear. India: Thompson-Balys.
E750.2.2. Perilous valley in (on way to) land of dead. Irish myth: Cross.
E750.2.3. Branching tree as roadway for souls. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 154.
E750.3. Journey of soul to world of dead on reindeer. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 485.
E750.4. Soul leaves possessions on road to final resting place. India: Thompson-Balys.
E751. Souls at Judgment Day. Irish: *Cross; O’Suilleabhain 62, 78, Beal XXI 324, 327; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.
E751.0.1. There are to be two resurrections. Irish myth: Cross.
E751.1. Souls weighed at Judgment Day. (Cf. Q155.1.) Fb “veje” III 1025b; Irish myth: Cross.
E751.2. Souls await Judgment Day in shapes of birds. Irish myth: *Cross.
E751.3. Souls of Irish to be judged by St. Patrick on Judgment Day. (Cf. Q173.) Irish myth: Cross.
E751.4. *Cross.
E751.5. Souls of sinners to spend seven years under waters of the sea before Doomsday. Irish myth: Cross.
E751.6. Resurrection to take place on Sunday. Irish myth: Cross.
E751.7. Judgment day on Monday. Irish myth: Cross.
E752. Lost souls. Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Arme Seelen”; Irish myth: *Cross.
E752.1. Soul in jeopardy after leaving body. Fb “sjæl” III 214b.
E752.1.1. Devil in disguise hunts souls. (Cf. G303.7.1.3.) French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 91 No. *773A.
E752.1.2. Fiends play ball with a soul. Alphabet No. 699.
E752.1.2.1. Demons amuse themselves by plaguing souls in hell. Irish myth: *Cross.
E752.1.3. Souls of dead captured on leaving corpse. Africa (Fang): Einstein 70ff., Trilles Bulletin de la Société Neuchâteloise de Géographie XVI 190ff.
E752.2. Soul carried off by demon (Devil). Frazer Golden Bough III 60; *Fb “djævel” IV 99b. – Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 464.
E752.3. Raven carries off souls of damned. Tobler 31; Fb “ravn” III 22a.
E752.4. Lost soul in raven feathers. Fb “ravn” III 22a.
E752.5. Hell-hounds accompany soul to lower world. Wimberly 120.
E752.6. Soul bound for hell given sight of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
E752.7. Lost soul gnawed by worms. Irish myth: Cross.
E752.7.1. Abandoned souls feed on spiders and night moths. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 154.
E752.8. Souls of dead eaten by sky-spirits. India: Thompson-Balys.
E752.9. Souls of wicked eaten by deity. Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 312.
E752.10. Precautions taken with corpse before burial to prevent evil spirits from getting, using body. (Cf. E431.)
E752.10.1. Corpse must be watched carefully before burial. England: Baughman.
E752.10.2. Light must be kept burning by corpse to keep evil spirits away. England: Baughman.
E754. Saved souls. *Frazer Golden Bough III 55ff.; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 327.
E754.1. Condemned soul recovered. Irish myth: *Cross.
E754.1.1. Condemned soul saved by prayer. Alphabet No. 592; Wells 171 (The Gast of Gy); Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 331, O’Suilleabhain 98; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 89 No. 760C*, Keller; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 294 No. 7.
E754.1.1.1. Demons powerless over souls commended to God before sleep. Jewish: bin Gorion I 238.
E754.1.2. Condemned soul saved by Virgin Mary. (Cf. V250.) Crane Miraculis 84 No. 5, 86 No. 10, 87 No. 12, 93 No. 27; Ward II 605 No. 11, *607 No. 16, 635 No. 36, 670 No. 3, 672 No. 7; Wells 167 (Vernon Miracles).
E754.1.3. Condemned soul saved by penance. (Cf. Q520.) Alphabet No. 697; Irish myth: Cross.
E754.1.4. Condemned soul saved by holy person. Irish myth: *Cross.
E754.1.5. Condemned soul released by God. Irish myth: Cross.
E754.1.6. Condemned soul released from hell by Christ. Irish myth: Cross.
E754.1.7. Few grains of earth from river bed translates soul destined to an evil future to Paradise. India: Thompson-Balys.
E754.1.8. Condemned soul released because of tears of living. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 21, 74.
E754.2. Saved soul goes to heaven. Fb “sjæl” III 213b; Wells 50, 175; Alphabet No. 316; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 307f., 322, O’Suilleabhain 24, 27, 99; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E754.2.0.1. Souls of warriors go to Valhalla. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 239.
E754.2.1. Souls carried to heaven by doves. Tobler 31; *Fb “himmerige” I 610b.
E754.2.2. Souls carried to heaven by angels. (Cf V232.2.) Hdwb. d. Märch. s.v. “Engel”; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.
E754.2.2.1. Angels of death fail to bring soul to heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.
E754.2.3. Dead and living go together to gate of heaven. Fb “død” I 228a.
E754.2.4. Dead children invited to eat at God‘s table. BP III 463.
E754.3. Burial in certain ground assures going to heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
E754.4. Soul of hermit who fasts to death for worldly fame would be damned but for past good deeds. Nouvelles de Sens No. 20.
E754.5. Souls carried to heaven in chariot of light. Jewish: *Neuman.
E754.6. Souls climb pillars of smoke and light on way to heaven. (Cf. E722.2.1.) Jewish: *Neuman.
E754.7. Souls of pious as angels. Jewish: *Neuman.
E755. Destination of the soul.
E755.0.1. Resurrected boys choose to return to heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
E755.0.2. Angels separate souls going to heaven or hell. Jewish: Neuman.
E755.0.3. Souls of dead presented to Adam. Jewish: Neuman.
E755.1. Souls in heaven. (Cf. A661.) K. Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York, 1923); Irish myth: Cross.
E755.1.1. Heavenly hierarchy. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman. Maori: Clark 182.
E755.1.2. River in heaven burns wicked and gives joy to righteous. Irish myth: *Cross.
E755.1.3. Souls on way to heaven pass through Garden of Eden. Jewish: Neuman.
E755.1.4. Sixty thousand Jewish souls in heaven. Jewish: Neuman.
E755.2. Souls in hell (Hades). A. Graf Miti, leggende et superstizioni del medio evo I 241ff.; K. Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York, 1923); Fb “helvede” I 589; Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 122, 281, 406; Alphabet No. 43; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 320, O’Suilleabhain 53; *Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.
E755.2.0.1. Souls leave hell on Sundays. (Cf. Q560.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross.
E755.2.1. Souls of drowned in heated kettles in hell. *Type 475; BP II 423, III 487; Köhler-Bolte I 69; Fb “potte” II 867a.
E755.2.1.1. Souls in hell wrenched from bodies with hot pitchforks by devils. Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E755.2.2. Souls in chains in hell. (Cf. A671.2.4.7, Q566.1.) Chinese: Werner
E755.2.3. Lost soul to serve as porter in hell for seven years. Köhler-Bolte I 320; Wimberly 416, 426.
E755.2.4. Ghosts gather wood for hell fires. Jewish: bin Gorion II 154ff., 348.
E755.2.4.1. Hell fires kindled according to sins of sinners. Irish myth: Cross.
E755.2.5. Icy hell. (Cf. A677, Q567f.) Alphabet No. 662.
E755.2.6. Dead flailed by demons. Irish myth: *Cross.
E755.2.7. Devils torment sinners in hell. India: Thompson-Balys.
E755.2.8. Dialogue between Christ and the souls in hell. (Cf. V211.7.2.) Irish myth: Cross.
E755.2.8. Series of hells. (Cf. A651.2.) Jewish: Neuman.
E755.3. Souls in purgatory. **Landau Hölle und Fegefeuer in Volksglaube, Dichtung und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 464, 467, 469, Crane Liber de Miraculis 86 No. 10; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Fegefeuer”; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 440ff.; Herbert ibid. III 330; Alphabet Nos. 504, 661. – Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 330 – 333, O‘Suilleabhain 95, 100, 102f.
E755.3.1. Soul in purgatory sends letter bidding his son reward one who has prayed him from purgatory. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *769.
E755.4. Other destinations of souls.
E755.4.1. Souls of dead imprisoned in tree. Icelandic: De la Saussaye 298; Irish: Beal XXI 332.
E755.4.2. Soul of dead in a temple. Chinese: Werner 314.
E756. Contest over souls. (Cf. E754.1.) Type 808**.
E756.1. Devils and angels contest for man’s soul. *Wesselski Märchen 199; *Fb “djævel” IV 99b; *Crane Miraculis 87 No. 11; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. 808*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *808; Estonian: Aarne in FFC XXV No. 808*; Jewish: *Neuman.
E756.2. Soul won from devil in card game. Fb “spille” III 487b; Irish: Beal XXI 329, O‘Suilleabhain 90; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 52 No. 345.
E756.3. Raven and dove fight over man’s soul. Type 756B; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 157f., *249ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchen I 356a. s.v. “Busse des Räubers”; England, Wales: Baughman.
E756.4. Saint wrests soul from demons. (Cf. V229.5.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E756.4.1. Soul of gambler won by saint in dice game. Dice miraculously split to make higher score for saint. – Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E756.5. Saved soul of woman assists her husband‘s soul in battle against demons. (Cf. E754.) Irish myth: Cross.
E757. The soul prays. Jewish: *Neuman; Chinese: Werner 268.
E758. Rejoicing at arrival of rich man in heaven. Event so rare as to cause rejoicing. Poor man enters unnoticed. – Type 802; BP III 274; Fb “rig” III 55a; Hdwb. d. Märch. I 351a s.v. “Burli im Himmel”.
E759. The soul – miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross.
E759.1. Soul strives to be heard by the living. Irish myth: Cross.
E759.2. Angel gives soul information concerning mortal. Irish myth: Cross.
E760. Life Index. Object or animal has mystic connection with person. Changes in one correspond to changes in the other. – India: Thompson-Balys.
E761. Life token. (Cf. E760.) Object (animal, person) has mystic connection with the life of a person, so that changes in the life-token indicate changes in the person, usually disaster or death. *Type 303; **Polivka The Life Tokens in Folk-Tales, Custom, and Belief (Národopisny Vestnik Ceskoslovansky XII [Prague, 1917]); *Chauvin V 87 No. 27 n. 1, V 295, VII 98 No. 375 n. 1; Penzer I 130, III 272 n. 1, X 210; Clouston Tales I 169ff.; Jacobs’ list s.v. “Life index”; *BP I 545, II 392; *Hartland Legend of Perseus II 1 – 54; **Nelson The Life-Index, a Hindu Fiction Motif (Studies in Honor of Maurice Bloomfield) 211ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “danger”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Oceanic (New Hebrides, Torres Straits, New Guinea, Indonesia): Dixon 133 n. 5; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 317 n. 149, *Hultkrantz 338 – 340, (California): Gayton and Newman 69; S. A. Indian (Quiché): Alexander Lat. Am. 173; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 81, (Basuto): Jacottet 212, 218 Nos. 31, 32.
E761.1. Blood as life token.
E761.1.1. Life token: water turns to blood. (Cf. F961.3.1, V211.2.3.2.) Fb “vand” III 1000b. – England: Baughman; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.1.2. Life token: horn fills with blood. Africa (Congo): Weeks 203.
E761.1.3. Life token: track fills with blood. *Type 303; Icelandic: Boberg.
E761.1.3.1. Life token: earth, water, or blood in footprint. Earth: dead by disease; water: drowned; blood: killed in battle. Icelandic: Boberg.
E761.1.4. Life token: blood of fish calls out. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 187.
E761.1.5. Life token: blood boils. French: Cosquin Lorraine No. 5; Jewish: *Neuman.
E761.1.5.1. Blood stops boiling. Gaster Exempla 224 No. 194.
E761.1.6. Life token: blood changes color. Gaster Exempla 251 No. 373; Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales 102.
E761.1.7. Life token: comb drips blood. Finnish: Kalevala runes 12, 15.
E761.1.7.1. Life token: gloves drip blood. Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales 67.
E761.1.7.2. Life token: scissors (razor, knife) drip blood. Chauvin VII 198; Armenian: Macler Contes Arméniens 28.
E761.1.8. Life token: cloth becomes bloody. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 3.
E761.1.9. Life token: hero‘s horse stands in stable in blood up to his knees. Russian: Rambaud La Russie Epique (Paris, 1876) 378.
E761.1.10. Life token: milk becomes bloody. England: Baughman; India: *Thompson-Balys.
E761.1.11. Life token: roof spouts of castle run with blood. England: Baughman.
E761.1.12. Life token: meal ground in mill is the color of blood. England: Baughman.
E761.1.13. Blood stops flowing from wound when captives escape. Papua: Ker 64.
E761.2. Life token: staff stuck in ground. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.2.1. Life token: staff stuck in ground shakes. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 212 No. 31, (Kaffir): Theal 82.
E761.2.2. Life token: staff stuck in ground falls. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 8; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 220 No. 32.
E761.3. Life token: tree (flower) fades. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 1; Fb “lilie”; Böckel Psychologie der Volksdichtung 255; *Loomis White Magic 125f. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “flétrissement”; French: Sébillot France III 433; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 93, 96 n. 3, 97; Papua: Ker 61; Indonesian, Polynesian: Dixon 234 n. 46; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 87 No. 5, (Kaffir): Kidd 225, (Madagascar): Dandouau Contes Populaires de Sakalava 231.
E761.3.1. Life token: bamboo stalks grow with joints upside down. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.3.1.1. Life token: bananas ripen from bottom up. Papua: Ker 61.
E761.3.2. Lifen token: fruit decays on tree. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.3.3. Life token: fruit falls from tree. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.3.4. Life token: trees prostrate themselves. Jewish: Neuman.
E761.4. Life token: object darkens or rusts.
E761.4.1. Life token: knife stuck in tree rusts (becomes bloody). *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 2; *Fb “kniv” II 221a.
E761.4.2. Life token: picture burns black. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 4.
E761.4.3. Life token: mirror becomes black (misty). (Cf. D1163.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 5; Armenian: Macler contes Arméniens 28; Japanese: Ikeda.
E761.4.4. Life token: ring rusts. English: Child I 201; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 4.
E761.4.5. Life token: silver object turns dark. Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales (London, 1875) 91.
E761.4.6. Life token: charm dries. Africa (Lamba): Doke MAFLS XX 14 No. 11.
E761.4.7. Life token: sword rusts. India: *Thompson-Balys.
E761.4.8. Life token: beads cling together. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.4.9. Life token: milk turns dark. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.5. Life token: object breaks (bursts). India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.5.1. Life token: pot breaks. (Cf. D1171.1.) Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 188 No. 27.
E761.5.2. Life token: zither string breaks. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 9.
E761.5.3. Life token: ring springs asunder. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 68f. n. 4; Fb “ring” III 60a.
E761.5.4. Life token: cup springs asunder. (Cf. D1171.6.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 7.
E761.5.5. Life token: stone breaks. (Cf. E711.7.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E761.5.5.1. Life token: stones prostrate themselves. Jewish: Neuman.
E761.5.6. Life token: sheaves prostrate themselves. Jewish: Neuman.
E761.6. Life token: troubled liquid. (Cf. D1242.)
E761.6.1. Italian: Basile Pentamerone No. 9; India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.6.2. Life token: milk becomes red. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 1; England: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.6.3. Life token: boiling liquid. *Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 270 No. 82.
E761.6.4. Life token: beer foams. (Cf. D1045.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 69 n. 5.
E761.6.5. Life token: wine turns to vinegar. Gaster Exempla 219 No. 156 (155.)
E761.6.6. Life token: milk becomes agitated in pan at death of relative. (Cf. E761.6.2.) England, U.S.: Baughman.
E761.7. Life token: miscellaneous.
E761.7.1. Life token: ring presses finger. (Cf. D1076.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 6.
E761.7.2. Life token: spring goes dry. (Cf. D927.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 10.
E761.7.3. Life token: leaves full from tree. (Cf. D955.) Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 185.
E761.7.4. Life token: light goes out. (Cf. E765.1.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 11; Gaster Thespis 275ff.
E761.7.5. Life token: dogs pulling on leash. Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 123.
E761.7.6. Life token: bird sent each day to tell of hero’s condition; when owl comes it will be to announce death. Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 265.
E761.7.7. Life token: bird feathers sink in river at hero‘s death. Kirghiz: Radloff Proben der Volksliteratur der türkischen Stämme Südsiberiens III 85.
E761.7.8. Life token: great wind blows. Irish myth: Cross.
E761.7.9. Life token: flaming shield goes out. (Cf. D1101.1.) Irish myth: Cross.
E761.7.10. Life token: armor rattles at home when owner is killed away from home. England: Baughman.
E761.7.11. Life token: music box plays by itself as owner awaits burial. U.S.: Baughman.
E761.7.12. Life token: arrow falls down. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.7.13. Life token: paddy productive or unproductive. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.7.14. Life token: rings will exchange places on girls’ fingers. India: Thompson-Balys.
E761.7.15. Life token: direction dagger points determines if ogress has been killed. India: Thompson-Balys.
E765. Life dependent on external object or event. Person‘s life is mystically connected with something else and comes to an end when that thing is destroyed. India: Thompson-Balys.
E765.1. Life bound up with light (flame). Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “vie”; Fb “lys” II 483ab; Gaster Thespis 275f.; Icelandic: *Boberg.
E765.1.1. Life bound up with candle. When the candle goes out, person dies. – *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Anderson Die Meleagrossage bei den Letten (Philologus N. F. XXXIII [1923]); Icelandic: De la Saussaye 315, *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 82 No. 708*A.
EE765.1.2. Life bound up with burning brand (torch). Hartland Science 205 (Olger the Dane); Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 65 n. 5 (Meleager).
E765.1.3. Life-lights in lower world. Each light mystically connected with the life of a person. When light is extinguished, person dies. *Type 332; BP I 377ff., *388.
E765.2. Life bound up with that of animal. Person to live as long as animal lives. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Irish myth: *Cross (Diarmaid); Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 5; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 364 – 374.
E765.3. Life bound up with object. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 364.
E765.3.0.1. Life bound up with magic object. When magic object is lost, person dies. Irish myth: *Cross.
E765.3.1. Person to live as long as church stands. Fb “kirke” II 126a, “leve” II 401b.
E765.3.2. Life bound up with calabash. As calabash grows, so does girl. Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 55 No. 24.
E765.3.3. Life bound up with tree. India: Thompson-Balys.
E765.3.4. Girl lives until her cowslip is pulled. England: Baughman.
E765.3.5. Man’s magic contains his life essence. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 541.
E765.4. Life bound up with external event. Death to come when certain thing happens.
E765.4.1. Father will die when daughter marries. (Cf. E765.4.3.) Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 187.
E765.4.2. Mother will die when daughter is wooed. Irish myth: Cross.
E765.4.3. Father will die when daughter bears son. (Cf. E765.4.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E765.4.3.1. Father (and mother) will die on same day as daughter. Irish myth: Cross.
E765.4.4. Person will die year he marries. Irish myth: *Cross.
E765.4.5. Person will die when he drinks from horn. (Cf. D1793.) Irish myth: Cross.
E765.4.6. Snake can die only if it gives away hoarded treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.
E765.4.7. Man dies when tortoise shell is dug up. Tonga: Gifford 52.
E765.5. One person’s life dependent on another‘s. Penzer I 131.
E766. Object dies or stops when owner dies.
E766.1. Clock stops at moment of owner’s death. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E766.2. Tree dies when owner dies. England: *Baughman.
E766.3. Post falls when owners lose estate. England: Baughman.
E767. Affinity of person and object.
E767.1. Ash pole appears at doorway several times on day owner‘s daughter dies. (It is used for coffin rests. The pole has previously mysteriously escaped being used for other purposes.) – Canada: Baughman.
E767.2. Clothes of wicked person burn when owner dies. U.S.: Baughman.
E770. Vital objects. Objects that have life in them. (Cf. D1620, D1640.)
E771. Ring with life in it. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “animisme”.
E772. Sickle with life in it. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “animisme”.
E780. Vital bodily members. They possess life independent of the rest of the body. (Cf. F1096.) India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 346 n. 246b.
E780.1. Vital body: kills attacking enemies. India: Thompson-Balys.
E780.2. Animal bodily members transferred to person or other animal retains animal powers and habits. (Cf. E781, E782.) Type 660; Haiti: Parsons MAFLS XVII (1) 59 – 62.
E781. Eyes successfully replaced. Jacobs’ list s.v. “Eyes exchanged”; Fb “øje” III 1166a; Köhler-Bolte I 434ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Gaster Thespis 333f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 139 No. 13.
E781.1. Substituted eyes. Lost eyes are replaced by those of another person or animal. (Cf. F512.1.4.) *Type 660; BP II 552; Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Ikeda; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 299 n. 94.
E781.1.1. Prince regains his eyesight after theft of eyes from water maidens. India: Thompson-Balys.
E781.2. Eyes bought back and replaced. *Type 533; *BP II 278 n. 1; *Köhler-Bolte I 463; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 83 No. 711A*; Missouri French: Carrière.
E781.3. Eyes borrowed by animal. Later returned. – Africa (Kaffir): Theal 166.
E782. Limbs successfully replaced. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 248 No. 36.
E782.0.1. Substituted limbs. Man borrows various limbs and successfully uses them. Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 267 No. 4.
E782.1. Hands restored. *Type 706; *BP I 295; Fb “hånd” I 765b; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller, Nouvelles de Sens No. 12; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
E782.1.1. Substituted hand. Man exchanges his hand for that of another. *Type 660; BP II 552.
E782.2. Substituted ribs (chariot ribs). Irish myth: Cross.
E782.3. Arms restored. Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “bras”.
E782.3.1. Substituted arm. Injured arm replaced by another. (Cf. A128.4.1.) Irish myth: Cross.
E782.4. Horse’s leg cut off and replaced. *Type 753; *BP III 198; *Lowes Romanic Review V 368; Saintyves Saints Successeurs 248 – 251; Köhler-Bolte I 132, 297 n. 1; Dh II 169; Hoefler Zs. f. Vksk. I 304; Ons Volksleven III 43, V 28, 136f.
E782.4.1. Substituted leg. Injured leg replaced by another. Alphabet No. 219.
E782.4.2. Severed leg(s) regrow(s). Africa (Somali): Kirk A Grammar of the Somali Language (Cambridge [Eng.], 1905) 162f., (Ishhak): Kirk FL XV 391ff. No. 3, (Saho): Reinisch Die Saho-Sprache I 76ff. No. 3.
E782.5. Substituted tongue. Haiti: Parsons MAFLS XVII (1) 59 – 62.
E783. Vital head. Retains life after being cut off. (Cf. D992, F511.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 432.
E783.1. Head cut off and successfully replaced. *Kittredge Gawain 147ff.; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 61, *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Quiché): Alexander Lat. Am. 175; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 113 No. 8, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 10.
E783.2. Severed head regrows. Penzer III 268 n. 1. – Greek: Fox 81.
E783.2.1. Origin of Pegasus from neck of slain Medusa. Greek: Fox 34.
E783.3. Severed head reddens and whitens. Irish myth: *Cross.
E783.4. Severed head opens eyes. Irish myth: Cross.
E783.5. Vital head speaks. India: Thompson-Balys.
E783.6. Headless body vital. Irish myth: Cross.
E783.7. Headless man lives four (seven) years. (Cf. Q551.8.5.) Irish myth: Cross.
E783.8. Dead head grateful for burying it. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 34.
E784. Flesh regrows. Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “chair”; India: Thompson-Balys.
E785. Vital skin. Retains life after death of owner. Africa (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 3.
E785.1. Substituted skin. Irish myth: Cross.
E785.1.1. Ewe‘s hide grafted to skinless head of wounded man. Irish myth: Cross.
E786. Heart successfully replaced. *Type 660.
E787. Stomach borrowed by animal. Later returned. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 167.
E788. Severed pap regrows when woman bears child. Child V 177.
E789. Vital bodily members – miscellaneous. India: Thompson-Balys.
E789.1. Organs exchanged with those of animal. India: Thompson-Balys.
E790. The soul – miscellaneous.
E791. Man who forgets to count himself dies immediately after. India: Thompson-Balys.
[1] In folk thought, an insect.

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