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Prevuius group

Group No. 99


F. Marvels

Group No.

F400 – F449

Group name

Spirits and demons I


F400. F400. Spirits and demons (general). *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s.v. “Demons and Spirits”; Roscher s.v. “Daimon” I 938; Pauly-Wissowa s.v. “Daimon” IV 2010; Wehrhan Die Sage 59f.; *Runeberg Witches, Demons and Fertility Magic (Helsinki, 1947); *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Dämonen”. – Irish myth: *Cross; Dutch: *Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 52ff.; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37ff. Nos. 1 – 39; Slovenian: *L. Kretzenbacher Germanische Mythen in der epischen Volksdichtung der Slowenen (Graz, 1941); Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 316, IV passim, Neuman; Chinese: Werner 402; Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 244.
F400.1. F400.1. Geniti (geilti) glinne, bánánaig, bocánaig, and other supernatural beings associated with confusion or strife. Irish myth: *Cross.
F401. F401. Appearance of spirits.
F401.1. F401.1. Spirits dressed in antique clothes. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 19. See Irving‘s Rip Van Winkle.
F401.2. F401.2. Luminous spirits. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 306 No. 13.
F401.3. F401.3. Spirit in animal form. West Indies: Flowers 433.
F401.3.0.1. F401.3.0.1. Demons on animal feet. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 307 No. 33.
F401.3.1. F401.3.1. Spirit in form of horse. Demon horse. *Howey 35ff.
F401.3.2. F401.3.2. Ox demon. Chinese: Werner 362.
F401.3.3. F401.3.3. Spirit as black dog. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 25.
F401.3.3.1. F401.3.3.1. Waumpaus: monster with huge dog tracks. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 687.
F401.3.4. F401.3.4. Spirit as fly going into bottle. Fb “lille” II 428.
F401.3.4.1. F401.3.4.1. Demon in form of wasp. Irish myth: Cross.
F401.3.4.2. F401.3.4.2. Spirit in ant form. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 75.
F401.3.5. F401.3.5. Spirits with goose (chicken) feet. Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 225.
F401.3.6. F401.3.6. Demon in form of hare. Irish myth: Cross.
F401.3.7. F401.3.7. Spirit in form of a bird.
F401.3.7.1. F401.3.7.1. Demon in form of crow. Irish myth: Cross.
F401.3.7.2. F401.3.7.2. Demons in form of black birds. Irish myth: *Cross.
F401.3.8. F401.3.8. Spirits in form of snake. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 15, 54.
F401.4. F401.4. Spirits without heads (or with heads under arms). *Grunwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXX – XXXI 317 (cf. F511.0.1., F531.2.1); Irish myth: *Cross.
F401.4.1. F401.4.1. Spirit has half head. Irish myth: *Cross.
F401.5. F401.5. Spirits appear horrible. Irish myth: *Cross.
F401.5.1. F401.5.1. Spirit in form of horrible head. Irish myth: Cross.
F401.6. F401.6. Spirit in human form. Irish myth: *Cross.
F401.7. F401.7. Fire-breathing spirit. Irish myth: Cross.
F401.8. F401.8. Gigantic spirit. Irish myth: *Cross.
F401.9. F401.9. Spirit with feet turned wrong way. (Cf. F451.2.2.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.
F402. F402. Evil spirits. Demons. See whole chapter “G” for witches and ogres. – Greek: Grote I 66.
F402.1. F402.1. Deeds of evil spirits.
F402.1.1. F402.1.1. Spirit leads person astray. *Kittredge Witchcraft 215, 523 nn. 19, 20. – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 83; India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.1.2. F402.1.2. Spirit blocks person‘s road. Irish myth: *Cross, O’Suilleabhain 99, Beal XXI 331; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 12.
F402.1.3. F402.1.3. Spirits tangle up peasant‘s cows. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 121.
F402.1.4. F402.1.4. Demons assume human forms in order to deceive. Kittredge Witchcraft 223f., 530 nn. 98 – 101. – Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 4, 6f., 18f., 32, 39, 41f., 46, 49, 51f., 60f., 61, 188.
F402.1.4.1. F402.1.4.1. Demon takes on form of God to deceive faithful. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
F402.1.5. F402.1.5. Demon causes disease. Irish myth: *Cross.
F402.1.5.1. F402.1.5.1. Demons seek to carry off king‘s soul. Irish myth: *Cross.
F402.1.6. F402.1.6. Spirit causes weakness. Irish myth: *Cross.
F402.1.7. F402.1.7. Demon of gluttony devours man’s food in his throat. Irish myth: Cross.
F402.1.8. F402.1.8. Spirits put corpse into river. Irish myth: Cross.
F402.1.9. F402.1.9. Spirit delivers false message. Irish myth: Cross.
F402.1.10. F402.1.10. Spirit pursues person. Irish myth: Cross.
F402.1.11. F402.1.11. Spirit causes death.
F402.1.11.1. F402.1.11.1. Spirit (devil) sent by druids cause death of Christian king. Irish myth: Cross.
F402.1.11.2. F402.1.11.2. Evil spirit kills and eats person. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 88.
F402.1.11.3. F402.1.11.3. Evil spirit harpoons sleepers. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 68.
F402.1.11.4. F402.1.11.4. Evil spirit‘s kiss fatal. Korean: Zong in-Sob 18.
F402.1.12. F402.1.12. Spirit fights against person. Irish myth: *Cross.
F402.1.13. F402.1.13. Ship held back by otherworld women. Irish myth: Cross.
F402.1.14. F402.1.14. Spirit and horses. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.
F402.1.15. F402.1.15. Demon suitors of girl. India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.1.15.1. F402.1.15.1. Demon seduces princess as she bathes at seashore. India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.2. F402.2. Government of demons.
F402.2.1. F402.2.1. King of demons (Asmodeus). Jewish: *Ginzberg Jewish Encyclopaedia s.v. “Asmodeus”, bin Gorion Born Judas I 230, *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.2.2. F402.2.2. Queen of demons. Jewish: Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas II 177, 351.
F402.2.3. F402.2.3. Child of demon king marries mortal. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 234ff., 243ff., 249, 376f.
F402.3. F402.3. City of demons. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 229.
F402.4. F402.4. Demons eat ravenously. Irish myth: *Cross.
F402.5. F402.5. Creation of demons.
F402.5.1. F402.5.1. Demon formed from charmed apples. Irish myth: Cross.
F402.6. F402.6. Dwelling of demons.
F402.6.1. F402.6.1. Demon lives in tree. India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.6.1.1. F402.6.1.1. Demon lives at root of tree. Cook Island: Beckwith Myth 252.
F402.6.2. F402.6.2. Demons live in waste mound. India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.6.3. F402.6.3. Demons live in well. India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.6.4. F402.6.4. Demons live in white cliff with hole in it. (Cf. F460) India: Thompson-Balys.
F402.6.4.1. F402.6.4.1. Spirits live in caves. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 6f, 18f, 32, 34, 39, 41f., 46, 49, 51f, 60f, 188.
F402.7. F402.7. Family of demons. India: Thompson-Balys.
F403. F403. Good spirits. Greek: Grote I 66.
F403.1. F403.1. Spirits give money to mortal. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 319 No. 24.
F403.2. F403.2. Spirits help mortal. Familiar spirits. **Feilberg Nissens Historie; *Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 226 n. 8, XXVIII 41 n. 2; Dickson 121 n. 64, 213 n. 143; Kittredge Witchcraft 613 s.v. “familiars”. – Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 97, 267, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 91; West Indies: Flowers 433.
F403.2.1. F403.2.1. Acquisition of familiar spirit.
F403.2.1.1. F403.2.1.1. Familiar spirit acquired by carrying egg under left arm-pit. *Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXVIII 41ff.
F403.2.2. F403.2.2. Form of familiar spirit.
F403.2.2.1. F403.2.2.1. Familiar spirit in animal form. *Kittredge Witchcraft 613 s.v. “familiars”; Tobler 37; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 61.
F403.2.2.2. F403.2.2.2. Angels as familiar spirits. Act as servants about the house of saints and serve them otherwise. Irish: Plummer clxxxi, *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.
F403.2.2.3. F403.2.2.3. Familiar spirit equivalent to man’s soul. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 10f.
F403.2.2.4. F403.2.2.4. Spirit in bottle (bag) as helper. Norlind Skattsägner 47ff.
F403.2.2.5. F403.2.2.5. Demon as familiar spirit. Irish myth: *Cross.
F403.2.2.6. F403.2.2.6. Spirit as small black man. German: Grimm No. 116.
F403.2.3. F403.2.3. Deeds of familiar spirits.
F403.2.3.1. F403.2.3.1. Spirit in hornet form guards a treasure. Tobler 37.
F403.2.3.2. F403.2.3.2. Spirit gives warning. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 22; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 225, Rink 120.
F403.2.3.3. F403.2.3.3. Spirits teach boy how to sing. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 26.
F403.2.3.4. F403.2.3.4. Familiar spirit brings news with magic speed. Kittredge Witchcraft 216f., 524 n. 36.
F403.2.3.5. F403.2.3.5. Familiar spirit reveals infidelity of man‘s wife. Irish myth: Cross.
F403.2.3.6. F403.2.3.6. Spirit gives counsel. Irish myth: Cross.
F403.2.3.7. F403.2.3.7. Army of spirits and ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.
F404. F404. Means of summoning spirits.
F404.1. F404.1. Spirit must speak as soon as addressed. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 125.
F404.2. F404.2. Conjuring spirits. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 301 No. 22, 304 No. 24, 313 No. 98, 319 No. 31; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 78.
F405. F405. Means of combating spirits.
F405.1. F405.1. Priest bans spirit with sword. (Cf. D1081.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 17.
F405.2. F405.2. Spirits driven off by knife-thrusts and pistol shots. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 97.
F405.3. F405.3. Spirits deceived by drum-beats and hoodwinkings. Chinese: Werner 163.
F405.4. F405.4. Spirit (demon) baffled by scolding and getting last word. English: Child I 20 – 22, 485a, II 496b, 509a, III 496a, IV 440a.
F405.5. F405.5. Cat, dog, and mouse ward off evil spirit. Man takes these animals along with him as protection. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 297 No. 28.
F405.5.1. F405.5.1. Dogs protect house from spirits. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 61.
F405.6. F405.6. Grain scattered as a means of dispersing spirits. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 329 No. 50.
F405.7. F405.7. Spirit leaves when report is made of the death of one of his kind. *Taylor Washington University Studies X (Humanistic Series) 23 – 60; **Boberg Sagnet om den Store Pans Død (København, 1934). – Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 45 No. 374; Scandinavian: Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen (Stuttgart, 1936) 73; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 58 No. 101.
F405.7.1. F405.7.1. “Tell to mill-mouse that the field-mouse is dead.” India: Thompson-Balys.
F405.8. F405.8. Spirits leave when report is made of fire at their home. Denied readmittance. *Taylor Washington University Studies X (Humanistic Series) 77 – 79 n. 181.
F405.9. F405.9. Spirit overcome by driving stake through body it inhabits. Irish myth: *Cross.
F405.10. F405.10. Demons flee stone (when saint steps upon it). Irish myth: *Cross
F405.11. F405.11. House spirit leaves when gift of clothing is left for it. (Cf. F348.11.) England: *Baughman.
F405.12. F405.12. Demons flee from fire. Chinese: Graham.
F405.13. F405.13. Man captures spirit by hiding his stick and leg-wrappers of copper. When spirit gets them back by trickery he disappears. India: Thompson-Balys.
F405.14. F405.14. Evil spirit laid after it is tormented by exorciser. India: Thompson-Balys.
F406. F406. Spirits propitiated.
F406.1. F406.1. Doors left open to let night creatures pass to and fro. *Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol@2 590.
F406.2. F406.2. Food left out for spirits at night. *Fb “offre” II 735a.
F406.3. F406.3. Spirits allow people with faces to ground to pass. Irish myth: Cross.
F406.4. F406.4. Demon of gluttony coaxed from man’s throat with bits of food. Irish myth: Cross.
F407. F407. Departure of spirits.
F407.1. F407.1. Spirit vanishes in smoke. *Kittredge Witchcraft 215f., 524 n. 26.
F407.1.1. F407.1.1. Spirits ascend to heaven by building fire. New Hebrides: Codrington 379.
F407.2. F407.2. Spirit fades into air. Irish myth: Cross.
F408. F408. Habitation of spirit.
F408.1. F408.1. Demon occupies (speaks from) lance (sword). Irish myth: *Cross.
F408.2. F408.2. Spirit in heart of man (fairy). Irish myth: Cross.
F411. F411. How spirits travel.
F411.0.1. F411.0.1. Spirit travels with extraordinary speed. Irish myth: Cross.
F411.1. F411.1. Demon travels in whirlwind. *Taylor FFC LXX 24 n. 1; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 190 – 197.
F411.2. F411.2. Spirit floats in air. (Cf. F418.) Irish myth: *Cross.
F411.3. F411.3. Demon ship sails against the wind. Irish myth: Cross.
F412. F412. Visibility of spirits.
F412.1. F412.1. Invisible spirit speaks. Tobler 93.
F412.1.1. F412.1.1. Spirits visible to only one person. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 172.
F412.2. F412.2. Spirit made visible by standing on another’s foot. Irish: Beal XXI 336; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 297 No. 1, 298 No. 7.
F413. F413. Origin of spirits. India: *Thompson-Balys.
F414. F414. Spirit carries people.
F414.1. F414.1. Lover transported to girl‘s apartments in fortress by spirit. India: Thompson-Balys.
F414.2. F414.2. Spirit transports miser to treasure-wood. India: Thompson-Balys.
F415. F415. Demon occupies oracular artificial head and gives responses to questions. Dickson 193 n. 75, 201 n. 95.
F416. F416. Spirits set fire to mill. Meet on Christmas (Easter) night. Cease to meet after mortal spies upon them. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 46 No. 379.
F416.1. F416.1. Spirits keep mill from working. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
F417. F417. Spirits receive their share of everything made at certain specified times. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 46 No. 380.
F417.1. F417.1. Spirits borrow from mortals at weddings, return goods later. India: Thompson-Balys.
F418. F418. Spirits (demons) hover in air shrieking over battle. (Cf. F411.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.
F418.1. F418.1. Spirits answer war cry. Irish myth: *Cross.
F419. F419. Spirits and demons – miscellaneous.
F419.1. F419.1. Demons hold horse-race. Irish myth: Cross.
F419.2. F419.2. Thieving spirit. India: Thompson-Balys.
F419.3. F419.3. Special spirit for each species of animal to act as its protector. S.A. Indian (Caviña, Tumupasa): Métraux RBAE CXLIII (3) 448.
F420. F420. Water-spirits.1 *Wehrhan Die Sage 74; *Meyer 101f.; W. Gregor Guardian Spirits of Wells and Locks (FL III 67 – 73); Roberts 121; Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 210; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 142ff., (1928) 100ff., FochF XI 37; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 45f. Nos. 55 – 65; Finnish: *Holmberg Finno-Ugric 191ff.; Finnish-Swedish: *Wessman 52ff.; Swedish: Hartmann 27; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 52; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40ff. Nos. 23 – 32; Slavic: Máchal 270ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 298; India: Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff RBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 50. See also F200 – F399 (fairies and elves), F451 (dwarfs) and F460 (mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.
Baader, B., Volkssagen aus dem Lande Baden, Karlsruhe 1951. – Bechstein, L., Die Sagen des Kyffhäusers, 3d. ed., Frankenhausen a. Kyffh., C. Werneburg, 1926. – Bindewald, Th., Oberhessisches Sagenbuch, Frankfurt a. M. 1873. – Böklen, E. A., Sneewittchenstudien, Berlin 1910. – Brüger, K., Thüringer Sagen, Leipzig 1928. – Calliano, C., Niederösterreichischer Sagenschatz, 2v., Wien, 1924. – Diezel, K., Oberfränkische Sagen, Bayreuth 1924. – Dümke, O., Havelsagen, Leipzig 1924. – Ebermann, O., Donausagen, Leipzig 1927; Elbsagen, Leipzig 1921. – Eckart, R., Südhannoversches Sagenbuch, Leipzig 1921. – Ey, A., Harzmärchenbuch, oder Sagen und Märchen aus dem Oberharz, Stade 1862. – Findeisen, H., Sagen, Märchen und Schwänke von der Insel Hiddensee, Stettin 1925. – Förstner, Clara, Kyffhäusersagen, 2ed ed. 1926. – Förstner, Clara, Aus Sagen u. Märchenwelt des Harzes, Quedlinburg 1922. – Frey, A., Schweizersagen, Leipzig 1921. – Gloning, K. A., Oberösterreichische Volkssagen, 2d ed., Linz 1912. – Gradl, H., Sagenbuch des Egergaues, Eger 1913. – Grässe, J. G., Th., Sagenbuch des Preussischen Staats, 2v., Glogau 1866 – 71. – Grimm, Brüder, Deutsche Sagen, 4th ed., Berlin 1903. – Haas, A., Greifswalder Sagen, Greifswald 1925; Haas, A., Sagen des Kreises Grimmen, Greifswald 1925; Haas, H., Pommersche Sagen, Berlin 1912. – Handrick, E., Müllersagen, Leipzig 1928. – Heese, Anhaltisches Sagen und Geschichtenbuch, Dessau 1925. – Henne-Am Rhyn, O., Die deutsche Volkssage, Leipzig 1874. – Henninger, K., Niederdeutsche Volkssagen, Hannover 1927. – Hessler, C., Hessischer Sagenkranz, Cassel 1928. – Hohaus, W., Die Sagen der Grafschaft Glatz, Habelschwert 1926. – Huber, H., and Zaural, J., Volkssagen aus dem Bezirk Kornenburg, Gratz 1926. – Jahn, U., Volkssagen aus Pommern und Rügen, 2d ed., Berlin 1890. – Janosh, H., Unsere Hultschiner Heimat, Ratibor 1924, – Kahlo, G., Niedersächsische Sagen, Leipzig 1923, Sagen des Harzes, Leipzig 1923. – Kapff, R., Schwäbische Sagen, Jena 1926. – Karstens, H., Meer, Marsch und Heide, Leipzig 1926. – Karstens-Goslar, H., Vom Harz zur Heide, Leipzig 1926. – Kern, J., Die Sagen des Leitmeritzer Gaues, Reichenberg 1922. – Knoop, O., Sagen u. Erzählungen aus der Provinz Posen, Posen 1893. – Kratzner, A. and Popelka, F., Sagen aus der Lausitz, Leipzig 1928. – Kuhn, A., Sagen, Gebräuche und Märchen aus Westfalen, Leipzig 1859. – Kuhn, A. und Schwartz, W., Norddeutsche Sagen, Märchen und Gebräuche, Leipzig 1848. – Kühnau, R., Schlesische Sagen, 3v., Leipzig 1910 – 13. – Kühne, H., Ortssagen und geographische Bilder, Leipzig 1884. – Künzig, J., Badische Sagen, Leipzig 1925; Schwarzwald Sagen, Jena 1930. – Kurs, A., Des Rheinlandes Sagen und Legenden, Leipzig 1881. – Lohre, H., Märkische Sagen, Leipzig 1921. – Mackensen, L., Hanseatische Sagen, Leipzig 1928; Niedersächsische Sagen, Leipzig 1925. – Meier, E., Deutsche Sagen, Sitten und Gebräuche aus Schwaben, 2v., Stuttgart 1852. – Müllenhoff, K., Sagen, Märchen und Lieder der Herzogthümer Schleswig-Holstein u. Lauenburg, Kiel, 1845. – Nies, R., Nassauische Sagen, Leipzig 1927. – Paul, R., Sagen und Geschichten des Kreises Beeskow-Storkow, Beeskow 1925. – v. Pfister, H., Sagen und Aberglaube aus Hessen u. Nassau, Marburg 1885. – Plöckinger, H., Sagen der Wachau, Krems 1916 – Pröhle, H.C.F., Deutsche Sagen, 2d ed., Berlin 1879; Harzsagen, Leipzig 1886; Unterharzische Sagen, Aschersleben 1856. – Realis, Ranke und Schwänke der heimatischen Vorzeit, Wien 1846. – Richter, J. W. O., Deutscher Sagenschatz: eine Auswahl der schönsten deutschen Sagen, 3v., Glogau 1899 – 1901. – Rosenow, K., Sagen des Kreises Schlawe, Rügenwald 1924. – Schambach, G., and Müller, W., Niedersächsische Sagen und Märchen, Göttingen 1855. – Schnetzler, F.A.A., Aurelias Zauberkreis, Karlsruhe 1809 – 1853. – Schöppner, A., Sagenbuch der bayerischen Lande, 3 v., München 1874. – Schultz-Gallara, S. von., Sagen der Stadt Halle, Halle 1922. – Sieber, Fr., Harzland Sagen, Jena 1928. – Siebert, R. and H., Anhalter Sagenbuch, Bernberg 1924. – Sommert, H., Tillenwunder: Ein Sagenkranz aus dem Egerlande, 2d ed., Eger 1924. – Stöber, A., Die Sagen des Elsasses, 3d ed., Strassburg 1892. – Vernaleken, Th., Mythen und Bräuche des Volkes in Österreich, Wien 1859. – Weichelt, H., Hannoverische Geschichten und Sagen, 4v., Norden 1895. – Wiener, O., Röhmische Sagen, Wien 1919. – Winckler, G., Sagenkranz des Kyffhäusers, Querfurt 1927. – Zaunert, P., Westfälische Sagen, Jena 1927; Hessen-Nassauische Sagen, Jena 1929. – Zinck, Paul, Leipzigs Sagen, Leipzig 1924.
F420.1. F420.1. Form and appearance of water-spirits. See F420.5.2.7. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 280 – 81.
F420.1.1. F420.1.1. Water-spirit as man. Takelau (New Zealand): Beckwith Myth 150.
F420.1.1.1. F420.1.1.1. Water-spirit appears as handsome man. German: Ebermann Elbsagen 93 (No. 55); French: Sébillot France II 409; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 57 No. 487.
F420.1.1.2. F420.1.1.2. Water-spirit appears as black man. German: Knoop 89 (No. 145), Sommert 108.
F420.1.1.3. F420.1.1.3. Water-spirit as small gray man. Has green eyes and gray hair. Tobler 99.
F420.1.1.4. F420.1.1.4. Water-spirit as man clothed in white and accompanied by a dozen attendants. Chinese: Werner 182.
F420.1.1.5. F420.1.1.5. Water-spirits have one eye. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
F420.1.2. F420.1.2. Water-spirit as woman (water-nymph, water-nix). (Cf. F423.1.) *Type 316; *BP III 322; *Fb “nøkke” II 725ab. – England, Ireland, Wales: Baughman, Ireland: Beal VII 11; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 261; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 55 Nos. 468 – 469; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 58; Germanic: Meyer Germanen 199ff., 202ff., De la Saussaye 323; Slavic: Máchal 254f., 271f.; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 126 No. 58; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 42 No. 30; Armenian: Ananikian 84; Japanese: Ikeda.
F420.1.2.1. F420.1.2.1. Water-maidens are of unusual beauty. German: Ebermann Elbsagen 115 (No. 66), Meier I 67 (No. 1); French: Sébillot France II 196, 345; Icelandic: Boberg.
F420.1.2.2. F420.1.2.2. Water-maidens mute. *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXV 107ff.
F420.1.3. F420.1.3. Water-spirits in animal form. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 53 No. 445; Icelandic: Boberg.
F420.1.3.1. F420.1.3.1. Water-spirit as toad. German: Künzig Schwarzwald. 170, Kühnau 38 (No. 55).
F420.1.3.2. F420.1.3.2. Water-spirit as fish. Tobler 97; Icelandic: Boberg, German: Henne-Am Rhyn 113 (No. 216), Ebermann Elbsagen 74 (No. 39); French: Sébillot France II 196.
F420. F420. Water-spirit as one-eyed fish. (Cf. F420.1.1.5.) Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 53.
F420.1.3.3. F420.1.3.3. Water-spirit as horse. England, Scotland, Ireland: Baughman; Icelandic: Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1893) 163ff., (1928) 112ff.; Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; Swedish: Hartmann 27; German: Künzig Badische 31 (No. 87), Karstens Sagen 79.
F420.1.3.4. F420.1.3.4. Water-spirit as bull. England: Baughman; German: Weichert II 176 (No. 166), Pfeil 292; Icelandic: Boberg.
F420.1.3.5. F420.1.3.5. Water-spirit as stork. German: Lohre 48 (No. 81).
F420.1.3.6. F420.1.3.6. Water-spirit as cat. Tobler 97.
F420.1.3.7. F420.1.3.7. Water-spirit as goat. Tobler 97; French: Sébillot France II 347ff.
F420.1.3.8. F420.1.3.8. Water-spirit as mouse. Tobler 97.
F420.1.3.9. F420.1.3.9. Water-spirit as snake. Tobler 97; India: Thompson-Balys.
F420.1.3.10. F420.1.3.10. Water-spirit as frog. Tobler 97.
F420.1.3.11. F420.1.3.11. Water-spirit as ape-like creature. Tobler 97.
F420.1.3.12. F420.1.3.12. Water-spirit as otter. Icelandic: *Boberg.
F420.1.4. F420.1.4. Water-spirits in abnormal form.
F420.1.4.1. F420.1.4.1. Body of water-spirit is half human and half fish or snake. Icelandic: *Boberg; German: Künzig Schwarzwald 168, Henninger 72.
F420.1.4.2. F420.1.4.2. Water-spirits have body covered with fish scales. German: Mackensen Niedersächs 56 (No. 74), Ebermann Donausagen 113 (No. 70).
F420.1.4.3. F420.1.4.3. Water-spirits as dwarfs. (Cf. F451.) Austrian: Calliano I 141; German: Henninger 74; French: Sébillot France II 202, 347, 417.
F420.1.4.4. F420.1.4.4. Water-spirits have hunchback. (Cf. F451.2.1.4.) German: Plöckinger 87, Ebermann Donausagen 139 (No. 85); French: Sébillot France II 202.
F420.1.4.5. F420.1.4.5. Water-spirits with human body and webbed feet and hands. Tobler 98; German: Henne-Am Rhyn 113, Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 153 (No. 119); French: Sébillot France II 403.
F420.1.4.6. F420.1.4.6. Water-spirits with horse feet. German: Handrick 21, Janosch 6.
F420.1.4.7. F420.1.4.7. Water-spirits with green hair and beard. England, Wales: Baughman; German: Bindewald 95, Siess 1.
F420.1.4.8. F420.1.4.8. Water-spirits with green teeth. England: Baughman; German: Schöppner I 219 – 223, Schultze-Gallara 23; French: Sébillot France II 343 (green eyes).
F420.1.4.9. F420.1.4.9. Water-giants. Icelandic: Boberg.
F420.1.4.10. F420.1.4.10. Water-spirit with extraordinarily long hair. India: Thompson-Balys.
F420.1.5. F420.1.5. Water-spirits invisible.
F420.1.5.1. F420.1.5.1. Invisible water-spirit claps hands and speaks. Tobler 99.
F420.1.5.2. F420.1.5.2. Mysterious voice – water-spirit – is calling from sea. German: Mackensen Hanseat. 22 (No. 32), Schultze 160; French: Sébillot France II 213, 344.
F420.1.5.3. F420.1.5.3. The seas become heavy without natural cause. (Cf. F420.2.4.) German: Meier 73 (No. 78).
F420.1.6. F420.1.6. Dress of water-spirits.
F420.1.6.1. F420.1.6.1. Water-spirits are dressed like people of surroundings. German: Schultze 69, Künzig Schwarzwald 167; French: Sébillot France II 342.
F420.1.6.2. F420.1.6.2. Water-spirits are clad in clothes of gold and silver. German: Gradl 33 No. 69, Schnetzler 266 No. 6.
F420.1.6.3. F420.1.6.3. Water-spirits wear precious adornment. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 261; German: Förstner Märchenwelt 111, Schnetzler 266 No. 6.
F420.1.6.4. F420.1.6.4. Water-spirits wear wreath of flowers and reed on hair and dress. German: Plöckinger 7, Huber and Zaurel 19.
F420.1.6.5. F420.1.6.5. Water-maidens have long veil. German: Richter III 236 No. 32, Schnetzler 292.
F420.1.6.6. F420.1.6.6. Color of water-spirit‘s clothes.
F420. F420. Water-spirits are clad in red. German: Dümke 51, Lohre 43 No. 73.
F420. F420. Water-spirits are clad in gray. (Cf. F236.1.4, F451.2.7.3.) German: Schnetzler 277 No. 10, Ebermann Donausagen 139 No. 85.
F420. F420. Water-spirits are dressed in green. (Cf. F451.2.7.2.) Scotland: Baughman; Germanic: Calliano 162, Handrick 30; French: Sébillot France II 346.
F420. F420. Water-spirits are dressed in white. England: Baughman; Germanic: Kühne 164, Meier 67 No. 1; French: Sébillot France II 199 – 200.
F420. F420. Water-spirits are dressed in blue. Icelandic: Lagerholm 166, Boberg.
F420.1.6.7. F420.1.6.7. Water-spirits are nude. (Cf. F238.) German: Meier I 74 No. 81, Kern 85 No. 11; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 53; French: Sébillot France II 197.
F420.1.7. F420.1.7. Water-spirits appearing like human beings are recognized by traces of water.
F420.1.7.1. F420.1.7.1. Corner of water-spirits‘ dress is always wet. German: Zinck 12, Kahlo Niedersächsische 63 No. 107.
F420.1.7.2. F420.1.7.2. Coat pockets of water-spirits are dripping with water. Wiener 118; Handrick 30.
F420.1.7.3. F420.1.7.3. Water-spirits leave trace of water when standing or walking. German: Kühnau 39 No. 56, Henne-Am Rhyn 113.
F420.2. F420.2. Home of water-spirits. (Cf. F420.7.1.)
F420.2.1. F420.2.1. Water-spirits live in castles of crystal under water. (Cf. F451.4.3.4.) Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 23; Czech: Wiener 114, Gradl 33 No. 69; French: Sébillot France II 196, 200, 343.
F420.2.1.1. F420.2.1.1. Water-spirits’ under-water castle is luxuriously furnished. Austrian: Mailly Niederöst. 33 No. 69, 48 No. 102; Czech: Wiener 114; German: Henne-Am Rhyn 114, Wiechert 73 No. 129.
F420.2.2. F420.2.2. Water-spirits live in village under water. Icelandic: Lagerholm 167 – 68, Boberg; Swiss: Frey 5.
F420.2.3. F420.2.3. Water-spirits have garden. German: Henne-Am Rhyn 117.
F420.2.4. F420.2.4. When water-spirits are outside their homes the seas are heavy. (Cf. F420.1.5.3.) *Fb “havfolk” I 569.
F420.2.5. F420.2.5. Water-spirits have hearth made of three human skulls. India: Thompson-Balys.
F420.3. F420.3. Social life among water-spirits.
F420.3.1. F420.3.1. Water-spirits have family life under water. German: Schnetzler 289; French: Sébillot France II 346.
F420.3.2. F420.3.2. Water-spirits have likings and occupations like human beings.
F420.3.2.1. F420.3.2.1. Water-spirits dance. India: Thompson-Balys.
F420. F420. Water-maidens dance at village fair. German: Janosch 9, Schöppner I 277 No. 235.
F420.3.2.2. F420.3.2.2. Water-women come to market and store. German: Zinck 12, Kahlo Nieders. 63 No. 107; French: Sébillot France II 344.
F420.3.2.3. F420.3.2.3. Water-women wash and hang up laundry on beach. German: Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 220 No. 173; French: Sébillot France II 200, 351f.
F420.3.2.4. F420.3.2.4. Water-spirits bake. German: Meier I 75 No. 82.
F420.3.2.5. F420.3.2.5. Water-spirits mend clothes. German: Bindewald 95, Kern 85 No. 11.
F420.3.2.6. F420.3.2.6. Water-maidens spin. German: Baader 100 No. 133, Lohre 50 No. 85.
F420.3.2.7. F420.3.2.7. Water-man cuts osier to make wicker basket. German: Kern 85 No. 11; Austrian: Calliano 107.
F420.3.3. F420.3.3. Water-spirits have kingdom under water: queen, king, attendants, vassals. German: Schnetzler 277 No. 10; Czech: Gradl 22 No. 69; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 23.
F420.3.4. F420.3.4. Water-spirits have laws.
F420.3.4.1. F420.3.4.1. Water-spirits must be in water before midnight; delay is punished with death indicated by blood in water. German: Pfister 70, Meier 71 No. 79.
F420.3.4.2. F420.3.4.2. Water-spirits must be in water before dawn; delay is punished with death. (Cf. F451.3.2.1. and cross-references there given.) German: Schöppner I 221, 227; French: Sébillot France II 340.
F420.3.5. F420.3.5. Water-spirits visited by mortal. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 56.
F420.4. F420.4. Characteristics of water-spirits.
F420.4.1. F420.4.1. Water-spirits possess magic power. German: Weichert II 199 No. 182, Künzig Schwarzwald 168; French: Sébillot France II 197, 347, 410.
F420.4.1.1. F420.4.1.1. Protean transformation of water-spirit. Greek: Fox 87, 122 (Nereus, Thetis), Frazer Apollodorus II 67 n. 6; Slavic: Máchal 270.
F420.4.2. F420.4.2. Water-spirits have supernatural lapse of time: days seem like years. (Cf. F377.)
F420.4.3. F420.4.3. Water-spirits are cannibals: devour mortal victim, suck blood. German: Meier I 70 No. 6, Lohre 51 No. 87.
F420.4.4. F420.4.4. Water-spirits are grateful. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 143ff., (1928) 101ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 58 Nos. 495 – 500; German: Pfister 50; Austrian: Calliano I 141.
F420.4.5. F420.4.5. Water-spirits are jealous. Paul 14.
F420.4.6. F420.4.6. Water-man is rendered powerless if kept away from water. German: Kratzer 90 No. 34; French: Sébillot France II 352.
F420.4.6.1. F420.4.6.1. Water-women are powerless when their garments are taken. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 261.
F420.4.7. F420.4.7. Seeing and observing of water-spirits has fatal consequences. German: Knoop 150 No. 114, Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 150 No. 114; French: Sébillot France II 198, 345.
F420.4.8. F420.4.8. Water-spirits have treasures under water. German: Künzig Badische 48 No. 137, Stöber 87 No. 118; French: Sébillot France II 312, 410.
F420.4.9. F420.4.9. Water-spirit controls water-supply. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Shangang): Bourhill and Drake 78ff. No. 8.
F420.4.10. F420.4.10. Water-spirits are prophetic. (Cf. F420.5.1.1.) Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 53 No. 31.
F420.5. F420.5. Deeds and actions of water-spirits.
F420.5.1. F420.5.1. Kind water-spirits.
F420.5.1.1. F420.5.1.1. Water-spirits protect and warn sailor against storm and in tempest. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 58 Nos. 495 – 500; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 58; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 41 No. 29; Austrian: Gloning 37, Ebermann Donausagen 143 No. 88.
F420. F420. Water-spirits save shipwrecked people. Icelandic: Lagerholm 167 – 68, Boberg.
F420.5.1.2. F420.5.1.2. Water-spirits help poor. German: Schnetzler 273 No. 9, Haas Grimmen 36 No. 75.
F420.5.1.3. F420.5.1.3. Water-spirits help lovers. Gradl 22 No. 46, Richter III 152 No. 5.
F420.5.1.4. F420.5.1.4. Water-spirits work as servants for mortal for small compensation. German: Haas Grimmen 36 No. 75, Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 7 No. 9; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 55 No. 475.
F420.5.1.5. F420.5.1.5. Water-spirits work as servants for mortal but disappear when compensation is offered or origin suspected. *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 44; German: Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 220 No. 173, Meier I 68 No. 5; Czech: Wiener 45.
F420.5.1.6. F420.5.1.6. Water-spirits work at night in home of mortals. German: Schnetzler 294, Meier I 71 No. 79.
F420.5.1.7. F420.5.1.7. Water-spirits give gifts to mortals. (Cf. F342, F451.5.1.5.)
F420. F420. Water-spirits give money, gold, or precious stones. (Cf. F451.5.1.5.) German: Plöckinger 8, Kern 87 No. 11.
F420. F420. Seemingly worthless gifts of water-spirits turn to gold. (Cf. F451.5.1.4. and cross references there given.) German: Henne-Am Rhyn 119, Meier I 71, 79.
F420. F420. Water-spirits give magic gifts. Austrian: Calliano 236, Huber and Zaural 106.
F420. F420. Water-spirit returns to the woodchopper a silver axe in place of the one he has lost. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 65; Japanese: Ikeda.
F420. F420. Water-spirit gives mortal fish. India: Thompson-Balys.
F420.5.1.8. F420.5.1.8. Water-spirits give advice. Austrian: Calliano I 68.
F420.5.1.9. F420.5.1.9. Water-spirits adopt human foundling. German: Schnetzler 264 No. 5.
F420.5.1.10. F420.5.1.10. Water-spirits save man from drowning. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga II 395, Lagerholm 166, Boberg.
F420.5.2. F420.5.2. Malevolent water-spirits. Icelandic: Grettis Saga ch. 65 – 66 in RSB VI (1897), Boberg.
F420.5.2.1. F420.5.2.1. Water-spirits lure mortal into water. Irish myth: *Cross Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1893) 163ff., (1928) 112ff.
F420. F420. Water-maiden enamors man and draws him under water. (Cf. F302.3.4, G264.) U.S.: Baughman; German: *Wehrhan 74, Nies 118 No. 86, Plöckinger 39 No. 31; Icelandic: Boberg; French: Sébillot France II 197, 342, 348, 411; Greek: Fox 110 (Hylas); India: Thompson-Balys.
F420. F420. Water-spirits lure children into water, offering objects. Austrian: Calliano II 24, Huber and Zaural 19; French: Sébillot France II 310, 343, 417; England: Baughman.
F420. F420. Hero drowned by water-spirits, who draw him down as he crosses ice. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 277 n. 23.
F420. F420. Water-goddess allows body of drowning person to come up three times. India: Thompson-Balys.
F420. F420. Water-spirit drags children into river. England: *Baughman.
F420. F420. Water-spirit claims a life every seven years. England: *Baughman.
F420.5.2.2. F420.5.2.2. Water-spirits kidnap mortals and keep them under water. Irish: Beal VII 49; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 60; German: Paul 46, Brüger 130; French: Sébillot France II 342, 409, 410; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 352; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 46ff.
F420. F420. Water-spirit returns kidnapped man in return for release of his long hair. Victim‘s father has wound the hair around his fingers. India: Thompson-Balys.
F420. F420. Mistreated boy sings unto water spirits to take him: waters rise up in tank to engulf him. India: Thompson-Balys.
F420.5.2.3. F420.5.2.3. Water-spirit keeps souls of drowned persons in dishes in his home. German: Mailly Niederöst. 46 No. 101.
F420.5.2.4. F420.5.2.4. Water-spirits steal children and leave changeling. German: Kahlo Nieders. I 66 No. 111, Künzig Schwarzwald 171.
F420.5.2.5. F420.5.2.5. Water-spirits interfere with building bridges, dams. (Cf. F451.5.2.5.) German: Kratzer 93 No. 36, Ebermann Elbsagen 117 No. 67.
F420.5.2.6. F420.5.2.6. Water-spirits take revenge on mortals.
F420. F420. Water-spirits take revenge if yearly tribute is not given. German: Meier III 428 No. 121, Haas Pommersche 38 No. 78; French: Sébillot France II 338, 339; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 156ff., (1928) 108ff.
F420. F420. Water-spirits take revenge for trespassing on ground they claim as theirs. German: Siebert 186.
F420. F420. Water-spirits take revenge for being harmed. German: Schultze 140, Dumke 52; French: Sébillot France II 342.
F420. F420. Water-spirits avenge selves on mortal who fails to keep promise. German: Realis 163, Kurs 322; French: Sébillot France II 342.
F420. F420. Water-maidens avenge selves for scorned love. German: Nies 118 No. 86.
F420. F420. Water-spirits take revenge on mortals for pollution of water. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
F420.5.2.7. F420.5.2.7. Water-spirit turns boat in circle. German: Heese 116.
F420. F420. Water-spirit crushes boat. Icelandic: Boberg.
F420. F420. Water-spirit shakes ship. Icelandic: Ketils saga H. 116, Gríms saga L. 145, Örvar-Odds saga 42, *Boberg.
F420. F420. Water-spirit wrecks ship. Icelandic: Lagerholm 164 – 65, *Boberg; S. A. Indian (Tiatinagua): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 447.
F420. F420. Water-spirit holds ship back. Icelandic: *Boberg.
F420.5.2.8. F420.5.2.8. Water-spirit splashes passing people. Stöber 37 No. 53.
F420.5.2.9. F420.5.2.9. Water-spirits lead travelers astray. German: Hartmann 35, Schnetzler 269 No. 8.
F420.5.2.10. F420.5.2.10. Water-man sits on back of persons as heavy burden. German: Kern 89.
F420.5.2.11. F420.5.2.11. Water-spirits cause blindness. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
F420.5.2.12. F420.5.2.12. Water-spirit causes illness and death. Africa (Bakuba): Einstein 164.
F420.5.3. F420.5.3. Other actions of water-spirits.
F420.5.3.1. F420.5.3.1. Water-spirits sit on beach combing their long hair. Austrian: Mailly Niederöst. 47 No. 101; French: Sébillot France II 340, 346, 411.
F420.5.3.2. F420.5.3.2. Water-spirit calls human midwife. (Cf. F372.1, F451.3.5.5, F451.5.5.) German: Meier I 68 No. 2, Hessler 143.
F420.5.3.3. F420.5.3.3. Water-spirits call human godmother. (Cf. F451.5.6.) German: Künzig Schwarzwald 170, Meier II 69 No. 4.
F420.5.3.4. F420.5.3.4. Water-spirit flees if holy name, ceremony, or blessed object is used. German: Ebermann Donausagen 120 No. 75, Janosch 13; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1893) 163ff., (1928) 114ff.
F420.5.3.5. F420.5.3.5. Nix flees from benediction in church. English: Child I 366n.
F420.5.3.6. F420.5.3.6. Water-spirit demands food from those it takes across stream. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 267 No. 76.
F420.5.3.7. F420.5.3.7. Water-spirits prophesies. Icelandic: Boberg.
F420.6. F420.6. Marriage of water-spirits.
F420.6.1. F420.6.1. Marriage or liaison of mortals and water-spirits. India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer VII 240.
F420.6.1.1. F420.6.1.1. Water-man woos mortal girl. (Cf. F451.5.18.) England, Wales: Baughman; German: Pfister 53, Lohre 48 No. 80; India: *Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F420.6.1.2. F420.6.1.2. Water-spirit offers gift to mortal to win love. German: Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 213 No. 168, Henne-Am Rhyn 119 No. 347; S. A. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 686.
F420.6.1.3. F420.6.1.3. Mortal goes to home of water-spirits and marries. (Cf. F301.3.) German: Schultze 25; Czech: Wiener 118; French: Sébillot France II 409; India: Thompson-Balys.
F420.6.1.4. F420.6.1.4. Water-maiden goes to home of mortal and marries. Icelandic: Boberg.
F420.6.1.5. F420.6.1.5. Water-maidens make conditions for lovers. German: Kurs 322; French: Sébillot France II 409; India: Thompson-Balys.
F420.6.1.6. F420.6.1.6. Offspring of marriage between mortal and water-spirit. Icelandic: *Boberg.
F420.6.1.7. F420.6.1.7. Water-spirit surprises and rapes a mortal woman. A son is born who is sleepless. Krappe Modern Language Review XXIV (1929) 200ff.
F420.6.2. F420.6.2. Love and marriage between water-spirits and other spirits.
F420.6.2.1. F420.6.2.1. Water-man marries fairy. German: Schnetzler 266 No. 6, Diezel 1.
F420.6.2.2. F420.6.2.2. Water-maiden marries giant. (Cf. F531.5.7.) German: Förstner Märchenwelt 111.
F420.6.2.3. F420.6.2.3. Water-maiden is wooed by dwarf. (Cf. F451.5.18.) German: Schöppner I 480 No. 467.
F420.7. F420.7. Miscellaneous motifs connected with water-spirits.
F420.7.1. F420.7.1. Visit to water-goddess‘s underwater home. India: Thompson-Balys.
F421. F421. Lake-spirit. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 675; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 143; N. A. Indian (Iroquois): Alexander N. Am. 28.
F421.1. F421.1. Lady of the Lake. A female lake-spirit. Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXV 112; Hindu: Tawney II 570.
F422. F422. Marsh-spirit. Meyer 104; *Fb “ellefolk”; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 3ff., 120ff., (1928) 5ff., 90ff., MacCulloch Eddic 224 – 25; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 21.
F423. F423. Sea spirits. Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 675, 1160; Japanese: Anesaki 266ff.; Papua: Ker 25; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 37, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 621; S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F423.1. F423.1. Nereid. A sea-maiden. English: Child V 490 s.v. “Nereid”; Germanic: Meyer Altgermanische 102; Greek: Fox 260, *Frazer Pausanias III 12; Hindu: Penzer VI 209 n. 1.
F424. F424. River-spirit. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 416; S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F424.1. F424.1. Spirit of brook. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 201.
F425. F425. Fountain spirit. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 53 No. 443; Japanese: Anesaki 267.
F426. F426. Spirit of water-fall. Icelandic: *Boberg; Germanic: Meyer Altgermanische 103.
F429. F429. Other water-spirits.
F429.1. F429.1. Spirit of tide-crack. Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 497, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 60, 510ff.
F430. F430. Weather-spirits.
F431. F431. Cloud-spirit. Meyer Altgermanische 100; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 38 No. 8.
F432. F432. Wind-spirit. German: Laistner I 4, Meyer Altgermanische 97; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 No. 6, 38 No. 7; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Werner 181; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 147; N. A. Indian (Yukon): Alexander N. Am. 78.
F433. F433. Storm-spirit. Meyer Altgermanische 99; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 64 No. 186; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 No. 4; Slovenian: *L. Kretzenbacher Germanische Mythen in der epischen Volksdichtung der Slowenen (Graz, 1941) 36-49.
F433.1. F433.1. Spirit of snow. Meyer Altgermanische 104; Icelandic: Boberg.
F434. F434. Spirit of thunder. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 Nos. 1, 2, 3; Chinese: Werner 199f.; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 61f., (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 175.
F436. F436. Spirit of cold. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 38 No. 9; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 nn. 61, 61a.
F437. F437. Spirit of warmth. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 38 No. 10; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 nn. 61, 61a.
F438. F438. Spirit of earthquake.
F438.1. F438.1. Spirit of earthquake lives underground (below earth). India: Thompson-Balys.
F438.2. F438.2. Spirit of earthquake has very long mouth. India: Thompson-Balys.
F439. F439. Other weather-spirits.
F439.1. F439.1. Rainbow spirit. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 135, 152.
F439.1.1. F439.1.1. Rainbow draws to itself fisherman and his boat. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 No. 5.
F439.1.2. F439.1.2. Rainbow spirit as helper on journey. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 515f.
F439.1.3. F439.1.3. Rainbow spirit as messenger. Greek: Fox 241 (Iris); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 521.
F440. F440. Vegetation spirits. *Kittredge Gawain 195ff.; Frazer Golden Bough XII 510 s.v. “Vegetation”; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
F440.1. F440.1. Green vegetation spirit. *Kittredge Gawain 195ff.; *Fb “grön” I 504.
F441. F441. Wood-spirit. *Type 667*; *Hdwb. d. Märchen I 198a; *Mannhardt I 87ff., 311ff. – Irish myth: Cross; U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 204f., 226; Swedish: G. Granberg Skogsrået (Stockholm, 1934); Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 177, 185; Estonian: *Loorits Grundzüge I 521f., 546f., 559ff.; Germanic: Meyer Altgermanische 94; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 22; Slavic: Máchal 261ff.; Persian: Carnoy 298; S. A. Indian (Warrau): *Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Tapirapé): Wagley-Baldao ibid. (3) 178, (Pilcomayo, Chaco): Belaieff ibid. (1) 379; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 247, 251. See also F200 – F399 (Fairies and Elves), F420 (Water-spirits), F461 (Dwarfs) and F460 (Mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.
F441.1. F441.1. Schrätel. An elf-like, male, malevolent wood-spirit. *Type 1161 (Schrätel instead of ogre in many versions); *Taylor MPh XVII 305ff.; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII – XXXIV 33ff.
F441.2. F441.2. Tree-spirit. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 207; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 188; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas@2 II 203; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 211, II 44, 67, 126, 507, 574, 675, 811, 820, 898, 1014, 1158, Jataka Index s.v. “Spirits”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 267, 340; S. A. Indian (Caviña, Tumapasa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448.
F441.2.0.1. F441.2.0.1. Tree-spirit persuades man to spare tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.
F441.2.1. F441.2.1. Wood-nymph. Type 480; Roberts 121; Swedish: Hartmann 26, 27; Slavic: Máchal 262ff.; Armenian: Ananikian 84.
F441.2.1.1. F441.2.1.1. Wood-nymph comes to the fire to warm. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 38ff., (1928) 26ff.; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 56**; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 49 No. 398.
F441.2.1.2. F441.2.1.2. Wood-nymph with breasts so long that she throws them over her shoulder. (Cf. F232.2, F460.1.2, G123.) Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 120ff., (1928) 90ff.; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 321 No. 58.
F441.2.1.3. F441.2.1.3. Wood-nymph wooes and then deserts man. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 205.
F441.2.1.4. F441.2.1.4. Tree maidens bathe at midnight in lake. India: Thompson-Balys.
F441.2.2. F441.2.2. Dryad. Female spirit dwelling among trees. Greek: Fox 270; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 564.
F441.2.3. F441.2.3. Hamadryad. Female spirit of a particular tree. Greek: Fox 270.
F441.2.3.1. F441.2.3.1. Man marries tree maiden. India: Thompson-Balys.
F441. F441. Man marries spirit of willow tree. She must part from him when tree is cut down. Japanese: Anesaki 333.
F441.2.3.2. F441.2.3.2. Tree-spirit in elder tree. England: Baughman.
F441.3. F441.3. Wild man as wood-spirit. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 968 – 980, 984f.; Dickson 114 n. 37; Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 280.
F441.4. F441.4. Form of wood-spirit.
F441.4.1. F441.4.1. Wood-spirit gigantic with one eye in center of forehead. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 182.
F441.4.2. F441.4.2. Wood-spirit without hands, feet, or mouth. Africa (Kpelle): Westermann Zs. f. Afrikan. ozean., u. ostasiat. Spr. VII 161 No. 29a.
F441.4.3. F441.4.3. Forest spirits brighter than moon. India: Thompson-Balys.
F441.4.4. F441.4.4. Forest-spirits with wings and with backward-pointing fingers and toes. (Cf. F401.9, F451.2.2.1.) Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 14, 46.
F441.4.5. F441.4.5. Wood-spirits with such heavy eyebrows they must lie on backs to see upwards. (Cf. F571.1.) S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F441.4.6. F441.4.6. Wood-spirits with teeth on stomach. S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F441.5. F441.5. Size of wood-spirit.
F441.5.1. F441.5.1. Wood-spirit tiny. (Cf. F239.4.3, F535.) S. A. Indian (Pitcomayo-Chaco): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.
F441.5.2. F441.5.2. Wood-spirit gigantic. (Cf. F232.6, F531.) S. A. Indian (Pitcomayo-Chaco): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.
F441.6. F441.6. Deeds of wood-spirits.
F441.6.1. F441.6.1. Wood-spirits responsible for sickness and failure. S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F441.6.2. F441.6.2. Wood-spirits transform men into animals. S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F441.6.3. F441.6.3. Sexual relations with wood-spirit fatal. S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.
F441.6.4. F441.6.4. Wood-spirit calls after one in woods (Hehmann). **E. Rath Der Hehmann (Wien, 1953).
F442. F442. Pan. Wood-spirit (demigod) part goat and part man. Greek: Fox 267.
F442.1. F442.1. Mysterious voice announces death of Pan. *Taylor Washington University Studies X (Humanistic Series) 3ff.; *Fb “röst”; *Boberg Sagnet om den Store Pans Død (København 1934); Boberg Noch einmal die Sage vom Tode des Grossen Pan (Ciassica et Mediaevalia III 119 – 132). – Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 45 No. 50; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3908; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 123 No. 45.
F443. F443. Echo as wood-spirit.
F443.1. F443.1. Echo as wood-spirit kidnaps and crazes man. India: Thompson-Balys.
F445. F445. Field-spirits. Meyer Altgermanische 108, Meyer Germanen 209ff.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 246; Slavic: Máchal 267ff.; Africa (Cameroon): Gantenbein 68.
F445.1. F445.1. Crop-spirits. Wehrhan 75f.
F445.1.1. F445.1.1. Tobacco-spirit. S. A. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.
F447. F447. Flower-spirits. Japanese: Anesaki 342ff.

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