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Prevuius group

Group No. 91


E. The Dead

Group No.

E400 – E499

Group name

Ghosts and revenants – miscellaneous I


E400. Ghosts and revenants – miscellaneous. *Wimberly 451f. s.v. “Ghost”, “ghosts”; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Gespenst”; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 353; *Feilberg Sjæletro (København, 1914). – Irish: O’Suilleabhain 62, Beal XXI 324; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “revenant”; Slavic: Máchal 230; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 44f. Nos. 40 – 77 passim; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 153 – 170, 506 – 519; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 41 Nos. 12 – 16; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 1ff., Landtman Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII pt. 1, 199f. – Melanesian: Dixon 142ff.
E401. Voices of dead heard from graveyard. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 63, Beal XXI 324; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 20.
E401.0.1. Ghostly voice heard on battlefield. (Cf. E502, F418.) Irish myth: Cross.
E402. Mysterious ghostlike noises heard. (Song, animal cries, footsteps, etc.) (Cf. E337.1, E236.7.) Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 24 Nos. 211 – 214; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 250; England: *Baughman.
E402.1. Noises caused by ghost of person.
E402.1.1. Vocal sounds of ghost of human being. (Cf. E545.
E402.1.1.1. Ghost calls. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.1.2. Ghost moans. (Cf. E547.) Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.1.3. Ghost cries and screams. England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.1.4. Ghost sings. (Cf. E546.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.1.5. Ghost snores. U.S.: Baughman.
E402.1.1.6. Ghost sobs. (Cf. E551.) England: Baughman.
E402.1.2. Footsteps of invisible ghost heard. England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.3. Invisible ghost plays musical instrument. (Cf. E548.) England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.3.1. Ghost sounds conch shell. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 349.
E402.1.4. Invisible ghost jingles chains. (Cf. E231.4.) England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.5. Invisible ghost makes rapping or knocking noise. (Cf. F470.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.6. Crash as of breaking glass, though no glass is found broken. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.1.7. Ghost slams door. Canada: Baughman.
E402.1.8. Miscellaneous sounds made by ghost of human being. Canada, England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
E402.2. Sounds made by invisible ghosts of animals. (Cf. E520.)
E402.2.1. Crowing of ghost rooster. England: Baughman.
E402.2.2. Braying of ghost donkey. England: Baughman.
E402.2.3. Hoofbeats of ghost horse. (Cf. E423.1.3, E521.1, E535. 1ff.) U.S.: *Baughman.
E402.3. Sound made by ghostly object. (Cf. E530.) U.S.: Baughman.
E402.4. Sound of ethereal music. U.S.: *Baughman.
E410. The unquiet grave. (Cf. D2151.1.2.3.) Dead unable to rest in peace. Aside from the references given in the numbers immediately following, see E200 – E399 passim. Jewish: *Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 48.
E410.1. Ground trembles or rumbles when ghost rises from grave. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E410.2. Ghost shakes off earth when he rises from grave. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E411. Dead cannot rest because of sin. *Herbert III 380 No. 127; Alphabet Nos. 198, 300, 386, 701, 703, 752; Irish: Beal XXI 330, O’Suilleabhain 96; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 Nos. 31 – 34; Spanish Exempla: Keller; England, Wales: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 242; Africa (Fang): Trilles 134.
E411.0.1. Hand of sinner sticks out of grave. *BP II 550.
E411.0.2. Unquiet dead sinner taken to priest for absolution. Type 760; Alphabet Nos. 17, 178, 303, 331, 337.
E411.0.2.1. Return from dead to do penance. Alphabet Nos. 363, 616. – Lithuanian: *Balys Ghosts; U.S.: Baughman.
E411.0.2.2. Unconfessed person cannot rest in grave. Spanish Exempla: Keller; England: Baughman.
E411.0.3. Horse unable to draw evil dead man. McKay Bealoideas III 141; Icelandic: *Boberg; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 113 No. 4; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 4; Finnish-Swedish: cf. Wessman 1 Nos. 7 – 9; U.S.: *Baughman.
E411.0.3.1. Dead body cannot be moved from where it lies. India: Thompson-Balys.
E411.0.4. Sinner wanders between earth and heaven. Fb “selvmord” III 183b.
E411.0.5. Other dead drive sinner from graveyard. Fb “lig” II 412b.
E411.0.5.1. Rich man dragged from grave by demons in hallowed ground and flung into grave in unblessed ground. Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E411.0.6. Earth rejects buried body. (Cf. V62.1.) Loomis White Magic 44; Irish myth: *Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3748; Danish: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.
E411.0.7. Demons cast evil man from grave leaving only his shroud. Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E411.0.8. Saint‘s body miraculously moves so that it is laid properly north and south, not northeast and southwest. India: Thompson-Balys.
E411.1. Murderer cannot rest in grave. *Type 760; Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323; Fb “gjenganger” I 443b, “lig” II 412b; Tobler 83, 90. – Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 32; England, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678; Greek: Aeschylus Eumenides 100.
E411.1.1. Suicide cannot rest in grave. (Cf. E334.7, E431.16.) Fb “lys” II 481b, “selvmord” III 183b; Hartland Science 238; Tobler 22. – Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 35, 7 No. 53; Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts; England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E411.1.1.1. Suicides must walk the earth until time for their natural death. England: *Baughman.
E411.2. Adulterous person cannot rest in grave. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 228; English: Wells 61 (Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne), Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.
E411.2.1. Priest’s concubine cannot rest in grave. Herbert III 380; Wesselski Mönchslatein 163 No. 125.
E411.2.2. The devil‘s concubine haunts after her death. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E411.3. Perjurer cannot rest in grave. *Fb “sværge” III 692b, 693a.
E411.4. Usurer cannot rest in grave. Herbert III 83; Alphabet Nos. 704, 784; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E411.5. Swindler cannot rest in grave. Fb “gjenganger” I 443b; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 47 No. 326A*; England: *Baughman.
E411.6. Person who never said “good morning” cannot rest in grave. Tobler 64.
E411.7. Monk who dies without his cowl cannot rest in grave. Alphabet No. 501.
E411.8. Pilate appears periodically at Mt. Pilatus and washes his hands. *Hauffen Zs. f. Vksk. X 435.
E411.9. Magician who has sold his soul to the devil hires his servant to bury him properly: the coffin bursts. (Cf. E261.2.1.) Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E411.10. Persons who die violent or accidental deaths cannot rest in grave. See all references to E334ff., especially E334.5, E411.1, E411.1.1, E413, E414. U.S.: Baughman.
E412. Person under religious ban cannot rest in grave.
E412.1. Excommunicated person cannot rest in grave. Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323.
E412.2. Unbaptized person cannot rest in grave. *Fb “udøbt” III 960a; Tobler 47; Irish: Beal XXI 315, O’Suilleabhain 41; England: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3557.
E412.2.1. Unchristened person cannot rest in grave nor enter heaven. Scotland: Baughman.
E412.2.2. Mother of unbaptized child cannot rest in grave. U.S.: Baughman.
E412.3. Dead without proper funeral rites cannot rest. Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 228ff.; Fb “spøgelse” III 521b; Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman; Greek: Fox 145; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 3 No. 25; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 123; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 342.
E412.3.1. Dead man comes back because he was buried without a cap. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E412.3.2. Naked ghost asks for shirt and promises luck on market for man. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E412.3.2.1. Ghost asks to wash his shirt. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E412.3.3. Dead man asks for shoes (was buried without them). Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E412.4. Child cursed by father cannot rest in grave. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 19; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3591.
E412.5. Ghost of church desecrator cannot rest. U.S.: Baughman.
E413. Murdered person cannot rest in grave. (See all references to E231, E334, E337.1.1, E337.3.) *Fb “spøgelse” III 521a, “gjenganger” I 443b; Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323; Tobler 47; England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 5 Nos. 37 – 38; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 102ff., 334ff., (1934) 78ff., 252ff.
E414. Drowned person cannot rest in peace. (Cf. E334.4.) Fb “spøgelse” III 521b; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 90ff., 359ff., (1934) 70ff., 265ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 5 No. 40.
E414.1. Person otherwise killed by accident cannot rest in grave. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.
E415. Dead cannot rest until certain work is finished. U.S.: Baughman (E354); North Carolina: Brown Collection I 679; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245; West Indies: Flowers 430.
E415.1. Ghost returns to hunt lost article. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 3 No. 24; U.S.: *Baughman (E328).
E415.1.1. Ghost unlaid until iron he hid in life is found. India: Thompson-Balys.
E415.1.2. Return from dead to uncover secretly buried treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.
E415.2. Dead rich man returns to rebuke his children who have kept the money he promised to the church. Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E415.3. Ghost of priest cannot rest because he failed to say certain masses for the dead. (Cf. E341.3, Q521.6.) Canada, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E415.4. Dead cannot rest until money debts are paid. (See E351.) U.S.: Baughman.
E416. Man who removes landmarks cannot rest in grave. (Cf. E345.1.) Kuhn Sagen aus Westfalen I 40f. No. 34, 118 No. 127, 177 No. 187; Sikes British Goblins (London, 1880) 149; Hoffman JAFL II 33; Frahm Am Urquell II 202; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 404ff., (1934) 308ff.
E417. Dead person speaks from grave. Madagascar: Sibree FLJ I 202ff., Larrouy RTP IV 305.
E419. Other restless dead. England: Baughman.
E419.1. Soul wanders and demands that a temple be built for him. Chinese: Werner 314.
E419.2. Dead find no rest since someone daily knocks at grave. Fb “sjæl” III 214b.
E419.3. Dead find no rest since grass is pulled on grave. Fb “sjæl” III 214b.
E419.4. Dead move when cemetery is moved. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 6 No. 42.
E419.5. Dead arise when one plays organ for first time in church. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 8 No. 64.
E419.6. Lovers buried apart found in one grave each morning. (Cf. E631.0.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E419.7. Person with missing bodily member cannot rest in grave. (Cf. E235.) U.S.: *Baughman.
E419.8. Ghost returns to enforce its burial wishes or to protest disregard of them. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E419.9. Ghost flits between two graves reputed to contain body. U.S.: Baughman.
E419.10. Concern of ghost about belongings of its lifetime. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E419.11. People who bury metal cannot rest in grave. England, Wales: *Baughman.
E419.12. Fate of ghosts of persons eaten by tigers. India: Thompson-Balys.
E420. Appearance of revenant.
E421. Spectral ghosts. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “fantôme”; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 684; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 239.
E421.1. Invisible ghosts. *Tobler 92ff.; N. A. Indian (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 226; England, Wales: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681; Jewish: Neuman.
E421.1.1. Ghost visible to one person alone. Spanish Exempla: Keller; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 64; N. A. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 148.
E421. First-born of a family cannot see ghosts. England: Baughman.
E421.1.1.1. Persons born at midnight can see ghosts. England: *Baughman.
E421.1.1.2. Only sorcerers can see ghosts. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 181.
E421.1.2. Ghost visible to horses alone. *Fb “hest” I 600a, IV 212a; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 26 No. 227; England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678.
E421.1.3. Ghost visible to dogs alone. England: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681; India: Thompson-Balys.
E421.1.4. Ghosts visible only to sheep. England: Baughman.
E421.1.5. Ghosts visible only to seals. Greenland: Baughman.
E421.1.6. Ghost visible only to wild fowls. Greenland: Baughman.
E421.2. Ghosts cast no shadow. *Fb “skygge” III 347a; *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 138ff; *Penzer IV 239 n. 2; U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682.
E421.2.1. Ghost leaves no footprints. Canada, England: *Baughman.
E421.3. Luminous ghosts. (Cf. E530.1, E742.) Tobler 83f.; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s.v. “Geister”; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 240.
E421.3.1. Ghost as glowing wheel. *Fb “hjul” I 626b, “spøgelse” III 521a, “gloende” IV 181b.
E421.3.2. Ghost as firebrand. Fb “spøgelse” III 520b.
E421.3.3. Ghost with glowing face. *Fb “gloende” I 465b; England: *Baughman.
E421.3.4. Ghost as fiery bull. Tobler 81; England, Ireland: *Baughman.
E421.3.5. Ghosts in glowing wagon. Fb “karet” II 91b.
E421.3.6. Ghosts as dogs with glowing tongues and eyes. (Cf. E423.1.1, E522.) *Fb “hund” I 676a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s.v. “Geister”; England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.
E421.3.7. Flames issue from corpse’s mouth. Penzer II 62; Icelandic: *Boberg.
E421.4. Ghosts as shadow. U.S.: *Baughman.
E421.5. Ghost seen by two or more persons; they corroborate the appearance. England: *Baughman.
E422. The living corpse. Revenant is not a specter but has the attributes of a living person. He wanders about till his “second death”, complete disintegration in the grave. (Cf. E261.1.3, E268, E461.) *Naumann Primitive Gemeinschaftskultur (Jena, 1921) 18ff.; *Wimberly 229, 239, 256ff.; *Klare Acta Philologica Scandinavica VIII 1 – 56; *Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 167; *Fb “spøgelse” III 519b; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 70 – 152; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3590, Ghosts; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 21 No. 199; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 3f.; Irish: *Cross, Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 239f., 243; West Indies: Flowers 430; Africa: Werner African 180f., (Ekoi): Talbot 7 (dies a second time and becomes more dead).
E422.0.1. Hanged man thirsty; demands water to drink. Irish myth: *Cross.
E422.1. Body of living corpse.
E422.1.1. Headless revenant. *Fb “hoved” I 655b, “hovedløs” IV 223a; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 300 No. 6, 301 No. 18, 311 No. 46; India: *Thompson-Balys; England, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 680, 683, 693.
E422.1.1.1. Two-headed ghost. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s.v. “Geister”; England, Scotland, U.S.: Baughman.
E422.1.1.2. Revenant with ball of fire in place of head. England: Baughman.
E422.1.1.3. Actions of headless revenant.
E422. Headless ghost rides horse. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E422.1.1.4. Headless ghost carries head under arm. (Cf. F511.0.4.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E422.1.2. Armless revenant. Wimberly 235.
E422.1.3. Revenant with ice-cold hands. *Fb “hand” I 765b; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 554ff., (1934) 400ff.; England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E422.1.4. Revenant with cold lips. Wimberly 235.
E422.1.5. Revenant with bad breath. *Wimberly 233.
E422.1.6. Revenant with chicken feet. Gaster Germania XXV (1880) 290ff.
E422.1.6.1. Ghost with feet twisted backward. India: *Thompson-Balys.
E422.1.6.2. Revenant with thin legs. Irish: O’Suilleabhain 96.
E422.1.7. Revenant with chip of resin between teeth. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 116 No. 18; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 40 No. 18.
E422.1.8. Revenant with peculiar nails. Icelandic: Boberg.
E422.1.9. Living corpse returns every night, shows gradual wasting away of body. U.S.: Baughman.
E422.1.10. Dismembered corpse.
E422.1.10.1. Dismembered corpse reassembles. (Cf. E31.) U.S.: *Baughman.
E422.1.11. Revenant as part of body.
E422.1.11.1. Revenant as an eye. U.S.: Baughman.
E422.1.11.2. Revenant as face or head. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E422.1.11.3. Ghost as hand or hands. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E422.1.11.4. Revenant as skeleton. U.S.: Baughman.
E422.1.11.5. Revenant as blood. U.S.: *Baughman.
E422. Ineradicable bloodstain after bloody tragedy. England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn IV 267ff.
E422.2. Color of revenant. (Cf. F527.)
E422.2.1. Revenant red. Fb. “rød” III 117a.
E422.2.2. Revenant green. Wimberly 240.
E422.2.3. Revenant gray. Tobler 64, 89.
E422.2.4. Revenant black. Irish: Cross, O‘Suilleabhain 63, Beal XXI 324.
E422.3. Size of revenant.
E422.3.1. Revenant as small man. Wimberly 244; Tobler 64, 89; England: *Baughman.
E422.3.2. Revenant as a very large man (giant). (Cf. F531.) Scotland, Canada, U.S.: *Baughman; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
E422.4. Dress of revenant.
E422.4.1. Revenant with hat of birch. Wimberly 243. Note: in the motifs immediately following, it is frequently impossible to tell whether the spectral ghost (E421) or the living corpse (E422) is thought of.
E422.4.2. Ghost with bonnet pulled down over her face. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681.
E422.4.3. Ghost in white. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681f.
E422.4.4. Revenant in female dress. England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
E422.4.5. Revenant in male dress. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E422.4.6. Revenant in red cap. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 670.
E423. Revenant in animal form. *Rosén Om Själavandringstro; *Fb “spøgelse” III 521a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mort”; Scotland, England, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.
E423.1. Revenant as domestic animal.
E423.1.1. Revenant as dog. (Cf. E421.3.6.) *Rosén Om Själavandringstro 14; *Fb “spøgelse” III 521a, “hund” I 675b, 676a, “præst” II 886a; Tobler 49, 54, 68; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 92; German: Grimm No. 4; England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 675, 684.
E423.1.1.1. Color of ghostly dog. Canada, England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
E423.1.1.2. Features of ghostly dog.
E423. Headless ghostly dog. (Cf. B15.1.1, E422.1.1.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E423. Human-headed ghostly dog. (Cf. B25.) England: *Baughman.
E423.1.2. Revenant as cat. Type 326; Rosén Om Själavandringstro 16; *Fb “kat” II 107b; Tobler 42, 47, 56; England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E423.1.3. Revenant as horse. (Cf. F401.3.1.) Rosén Om Själavandringstro 16; *Handwb. d. Abergl. VI 1614f., IX Nachträge 168; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243; India: Thompson-Balys.
E423.1.3.1. Revenant as three-legged horse. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 81, 326 No. 18.
E423.1.3.2. Revenant as mare. Herbert III 380.
E423.1.3.3. Revenant as headless horse. (See E422.1.1, E535.1.) England, Wales: *Baughman.
E423.1.3.4. Revenant as white horse. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E423.1.3.5. Actions of ghostly horse. England: *Baughman.
E423.1.4. Revenant as ass. Tobler 89; England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E423.1.5. Revenant as swine. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 316 No. 134f.; England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman; Irish: Beal XXI 310, O’Suilleabhain 31.
E423.1.6. Revenant as lamb. Tobler 56; England: Baughman.
E423.1.7. Revenant as ram. Tobler 51.
E423.1.8. Revenant as cow. Tobler 50. – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s.v. “Geister”; England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E423.1.8.1. Revenant as calf. (Cf. E521.4.) Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
E423.1.9. Revenant as goat. England. U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.
E423.2. Revenant as wild animal.
E423.2.1. Revenant as bear. (Cf. E522.2.) Tobler 56.
E423.2.2. Revenant as rabbit (hare). *Fb “hare” I 556a; Rosén Om Själavandringstro 15; Tobler 52; England: *Baughman; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 56.
E423.2.3. Revenant as fox. Fb “ræv” III 113a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 24.
E423.2.4. Revenant as hedgehog. Hartland Science 247.
E423.2.5. Revenant as seal. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E423.2.6. Revenant as deer. U.S.: *Baughman.
E423.2.7. Revenant as wolf. U.S.: *Baughman.
E423.2.8. Revenant as rat. England, Ireland: *Baughman.
E423.2.9. Revenant as “man-monkey”. England: *Baughman.
E423.2.10. Revenant in tiger form. Chinese: Graham.
E423.2.11. Revenant as mouse. Africa (Wachaga): Gutman 35.
E423.2.12. Revenant as squirrel. Africa (Wachaga): Gutman 35.
E423.3. Revenant as bird. Tobler 34; Krappe Balor 96 – 97; Irish: Cross, Beal XXI 332, O’Suilleabhain 99; England, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.
E423.3.1. Revenant as dove. Tobler 30; Krappe Balor 96 – 97; Irish myth: Cross; U.S.: Baughman.
E423.3.2. Revenant as swan. Tobler 34; England: Baughman.
E423.3.3. Revenant as partridge. Tobler 32.
E423.3.4. Revenant as raven. Swiss: Jegerlehner Obervallis 329 No. 56; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 127ff., 132, (1928) 91ff.; Krappe Balor 96 – 97.
E423.3.5. Revenant as owl. Tobler 31f.; Krappe Balor 96 – 97; U.S.: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.
E423.3.6. Revenant as hen. Sometimes with chickens. Tobler 33.
E423.3.7. Revenant as goose. Type 403; Tobler 34; England: *Baughman.
E423.3.8. Revenant as crow. Krappe Balor 97.
E423.3.9. Revenant as sea-gull. Krappe Balor 97.
E423.3.10. Revenant as duck. Type 403; England: Baughman.
E423.3.11. Revenant as bean-goose. Wales: *Baughman.
E423.4. Revenant as frog. Tobler 86.
E423.5. Revenant as snake (serpent). Tobler 22, 55f. – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s.v. “Geister”; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.
E423.6. Revenant as centaur. U.S.: Baughman.
E423.7. Revenant as fly. England: Baughman.
E423.8. Revenant as spider. England: Baughman.
E423.9. Revenant as eel. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 93.
E424. Revenant as dwarf. *Gould They who await the Second Death (Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 167); Tobler 65.
E425. Revenant in human form.
E425.1. Revenant as woman.
E425.1.1. Revenant as lady in white. *M. Waehler Die Weisse Frau (Erfurt, 1931); Fb “jomfru” II 43a; Tobler 68, 90; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 239; England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.
E425.1.2. Revenant as naked woman. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 228; Tobler 67.
E425.1.3. Revenant as seductive woman. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 No. 24.
E425.1.4. Revenant as woman carrying baby. Tobler 90; U.S.: Baughman.
E425.1.5. Revenant as woman riding hog. Walz MLN XVI 130ff.
E425.1.6. Revenant as horrible female figure. Covered with snakes and toads. English: Wells 61 (The Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne).
E425.1.7. Revenant as woman with seal’s head. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E425.2. Revenant as man. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 101, 103, Beal XXI 332f.
E425.2.1. Revenant as old man. German: Grimm No. 4; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s.v. “Geister”.
E425.2.2. Revenant as man with horse’s head. England: Baughman.
E425.2.3. Revenant as priest or parson. (Cf. E338.5, E417.) England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E425.2.4. Revenant as American Indian. U.S.: *Baughman.
E425.2.5. Revenant as piper. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 62.
E425.3. Revenant as child. Tobler 66f.; England: *Baughman; Irish: O’Suilleabhain 100, Beal XXI 332.
E426. Revenant as object.
E426.1. Ghost in shape of a bag. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E426.2. Revenant as a rolling cask. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
E430. Defense against ghosts and the dead. Frazer The Fear of the Dead (London, 1933 – 36); Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s.v. “Geister”; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 309; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 251.
E431. Precautions at funeral against revenant.
E431.0.1. Test for presence of demons in corpses. Irish myth: Cross.
E431.1. Burial service read into hat to prevent dead walking. *Fb “hat” I 563b, “gjenganger” I 444a.
E431.2. Water thrown on corpse to prevent return. *Fb “død” I 228a, “gjenganger” I 444a.
E431.3. Mould thrown on corpse to prevent return. Fb “muld” II 619a.
E431.4. Coffin carried through hole in wall to prevent return of dead. Fb “gjenganger” I 444a; Frazer JAI XV 70; England, Scotland: *Baughman; Indonesia: Kruyt Het Animisme 264ff., Elshout De Kenja-Dejaks uit het Apo-Kajanggebied (Den Haag, 1926) 62.
E431.5. Limbs of dead fettered to prevent return. Von Trauwitz-Hellweg Urmensch und Totenglaube. 134ff.; Meyer Germanen 102; Wimberly 254; England: *Baughman; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis I 15f.
E431.6. Turf laid on breast of dead to prevent return. Wimberly 256.
E431.7. Beheaded man’s head laid at feet to prevent return. *Fb “hoved” I 655b; England: Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 252.
E431.7.1. Beheaded man‘s head laid at back to prevent return. *Fb “hoved” I 655b; Icelandic: *Boberg.
E431.7.2. Decapitating in order to prevent return. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E431.7.2.1. Head of beheaded man separated from body (by walking between them) to prevent return. (Cf. E721.1.2.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E431.8. Dog buried alive to prevent ghosts from walking. *Fb “hund” I 677a.
E431.9. Ashes of dead thrown on water to prevent return. Levy-Bruhl L’âme primitive 332ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 386, Mansikka Religion der Ostslaven (Helsinki, 1922) 220, 231; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 266 No. 72.
E431.9.1. Head of corpse thrown on water to prevent return. Icelandic: Boberg.
E431.9.2. Corpses thrown in water to prevent return. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E431.10. Corpse buried under stone so that sun will not shine on him again. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 305 No. 1.
E431.10.1. Corpse buried under stones. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E431.11. Coin placed in mouth of dead to prevent return. *Fb “død” I 228a; Wesselski Archiv Orientální I 77; India: Thompson-Balys.
E431.12. Pins stuck in soles of dead man’s feet to prevent return. Fb “død” I 228a.
E431.13. Corpse burned to prevent return. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E431.14. Tall wall around grave to prevent return. Icelandic: Eyrbyggja saga ch. XXXIV 14 in ASB VI, Boberg.
E431.15. People touch corpse before burial to avoid seeing ghost of dead person after burial. England: *Baughman.
E431.16. Burial of suicide to prevent walking. (Cf. E334.7, E411.1.1, E441.)
E431.16.1. Suicide buried head (or face) downward. (If corpse moves it. only goes deeper into ground.) England: *Baughman.
E431.16.2. Suicide buried with stake through heart (body). (Cf. E442.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E431.16.3. Suicide buried at crossroads. (Cf. E434.4.) England: Baughman.
E431.17. Criminals buried at crossroads to prevent walking. (Cf. E434.4.) Wales: Baughman.
E431.18. Body cut up and buried in vessels, buried in bag. England: Baughman.
E431.19. Burial of corpse at midnight to prevent walking. England: Baughman.
E431.20. Coffin with iron band made to keep corpse from returning as tiger. Chinese: Graham.
E432. Ghost deceived.
E432.1. Haunting ghost deceived so that he cannot find road to return. Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323.
E432.2. Dead man visiting wife deceived by wife‘s absurd actions – “no more absurd than ghost visiting wife”. (Cf. E321.2, E474.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3547; Balys Ghosts.
E432.3. Woman drying hair scares soul returning from the dead. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 452.
E433. Ghosts placated by sacrifices. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 9.
E433.1. Mould put on table for the dead. Fb “muld” II 619a.
E433.2. Possessions buried with dead. India: Thompson-Balys.
E433.3. Animals sacrificed so that dead have food on way to other world. India: Thompson-Balys.
E433.4. Ghosts pleased by human sacrifices. India: Thompson-Balys.
E433.4.1. Ghosts killed by sacrifice of buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.
E434. Magic protection against revenants. Irish myth: Cross.
E434.1. Hiding from ghosts under church bell. *Fb “kirkeklokke” II 131a, “gjenganger” I 443b.
E434.2. Hiding from ghosts in pulpit. Fb “predikestol” II 882b.
E434.3. Ghosts cannot cross rapid stream. *Fb “gjenganger” I 443b; U.S.: Baughman.
E434.4. Ghosts cannot pass crossroads. (Cf. E431.16, E431.17.) Fb “korsvej” II 277a.
E434.5. Steel as protection against revenants. Fb “stål” III 647a.
E434.6. Keys as protection against revenants. (Cf. D1176.) Wimberly 255.
E434.7. Knives as protection against revenants. (Cf. D1173.) Wimberly 255.
E434.8. Ghost cannot pass cross or prayerbook. (Cf. D1266.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s.v. “Geister”; Icelandic: Boberg.
E434.8.1. Ghost cannot harm person wearing a cross. England: Baughman.
E434.9. Candle light protection against ghost. Icelandic: Bárdar saga Snaefellsáss, ed. Vigfússon 1860, 42 – 43, Boberg.
E434.10. Ghost cannot cross new door sill. U.S.: Baughman.
E436. Ghost detected.
E436.1. Ghost detected by strewing ashes. Their footprints remain in the ashes. Fb “spor” III 500a; Gaster Germania XXV (1880) 290ff.; Dh III 153; Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 297; Güntert Kalypso 75; Kruyt Het Animisme 398; Mansikka Religion der Ostslaven (Helsinki, 1922) 181, 184.
E436.2. Cats crossing one‘s path sign of ghosts. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677.
E436.3. Bats flying in house sign of ghosts. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677.
E437. Revenants banished. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E437.1. Revenants banished to glaciers and uninhabited places. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 296 No. 27.
E437.2. Ghost laid in body of water. England, Ireland, Wales: *Baughman.
E437.3. Ghost driven into body of dead crow, buried under path. England: Baughman.
E437.4. Ghost laid under stone. England: *Baughman.
E437.5. Ghost laid under tree. England: Baughman.
E437.6. Ghost laid and confined inside building. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E437.7. Ghost laid and confined in sheepfold. England: Baughman.
E439. Other protection against revenants.
E439.1. Revenant forced away by shooting. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s.v. “Geister”; Africa (Cameroons): Mansfield 227.
E439.2. Dwarfs magically keep ghosts from rising. Icelandic: Göngu Hrolfssaga 337.
E439.3. Dog saves man from malevolent living corpse. Dog killed, man safe. (Cf. B524.1.1.) Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 698f.
E439.4. Seeds of poppy poured into revenant’s mouth. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E439.5. Revenant forced away by fire. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E439.6. Ghosts cannot come near spayed bitch. England: Baughman.
E439.7. Ghost will not approach a light left burning. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E439.8. Ghost will vanish if seer walks around it nine times. (Cf. D1791, D1273.1.5.) England: Baughman.
E439.9. Ghost will not return if door is removed and hung backwards. (Cf. D1783.) England: Baughman.
E439.10. Ghost will not come near person who anoints self with new honey. U.S.: Baughman.
E440. Walking ghost “laid”. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 324; *v. Negelein ibid. XIV 20ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 332; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 53 No. 400A*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 6.
E441. Ghost laid by reburial. Icelandic: Boberg; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 12; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 12; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3590; U.S.: Baughman. Cf. Gaster Exempla 222 No. 175.
E441.1. Ghost laid when leg is buried. Fb “løse” II 517a.
E441.2. Ghost laid by placing stones in throat of the corpse. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
E441.3. Corpse exhumed and heart cremated to lay ghost. Africa (Bena Makuni): Torrend Specimens of Bantu Folklore 72.
E442. Ghost laid by piercing grave (corpse) with stake. (Cf. D712.10, E431.16.2.) *Fb “pæl” II 904ab, “jærn” II 61a; England, U.S.: *Baughman; Icelandic: *Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3546B, Legends No. 698, Ghosts; S. A. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 686.
E442.1. Hunting woman beaten with sticks of rowan-tree and ankles of corpse tied with branches of same tree. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E442.2. Ghost laid by burial outside village on far side of stream, with four iron nails driven into the corners of the grave. India: Thompson-Balys.
E443. Ghost exorcized and laid. *Fb “bande” IV 24a, “Jesus” II 41a; Tobler 65; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 11; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 11; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 7 No. 51, 27 No. 243; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 251; West Indies: Flowers 430.
E443.0.1. Laying ghost causes great storm. (Cf. D2141.) England: *Baughman.
E443.0.2. Protection during ghost-laying ceremony. England: Baughman.
E443.1. Ghost laid by blessing grave. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 10.
E443.2. Ghost laid by prayer. Fb “løse” II 517b; Icelandic: Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s.v. “Geister, Erlösung”.
E443.2.1. Ghost laid by saying masses. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 95, 99, Beal XXI 330, 332; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 319; English: Wells 61 (Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne); U.S.: Baughman (E341.3.2.).
E443.2.1.1. The dead man: “Sell my golden teeth and pay for a mass for my soul.” Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E443.2.2. Ghost laid by formulistic prayer. England: *Baughman.
E443.2.3. Ghost laid by confessor to priest. Irish: O’Suilleabhain 99.
E443.2.4. Ghost laid by priest (minister). England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.
E443.2.4.1. Ghost laid by group of ministers. By prayer and services, usually with “bell, book, and candle” or some modification of the procedure. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E443.3. Ghosts exorcized by name. Fb “navn” II 675b.
E443.4. Ghost laid by raising a cross. Icelandic: Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s.v. “Geister, Erlösung”.
E443.5. Ghost laid by adjuring it to leave “in the name of God.” Wales: Baughman.
E443.6. Ghost laid by baptizing children in its presence. England: *Baughman.
E443.7. Ghost laid by fasting. England: Baughman.
E443.8. Ghost laid by Bible. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E443.9. Ghost laid by consecrated water. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E444. Ghost laid by talisman. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “fantôme”; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 62.
E445. Ghost laid by barring off.
E445.1. Ghost comes through certain crevice: when this is barred she never returns. Tobler 92.
E446. Ghost killed and thus finally laid. N. A. Indian (Sioux): Dorsey RBAE XI 491f., (Fox): Jones PAES I 101 No. 7, (Osage): Dorsey FM VII 26 No. 21; Eskimo: Kroeber JAFL XII 181, (Greenland): Holm 55, Rasmussen III 182.
E446.1. Corpse magically killed and laid. N. A. Indian (Tlingit): Swanton BBAE XXXIX 248 No. 86.
E446.2. Ghost laid by burning body. *Fb “spøgelse” III 522a, “brænde” IV 69a. – Icelandic: *Boberg.
E446.2.1. Ghost laid by burning lock of hair. Spanish Exempla: Keller.
E446.3. Ghost laid by decapitating body. Icelandic: *Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3546A, Legends No. 621.
E446.3.1. Ghost laid by beating body to pieces. Irish: O’Suilleabhain 99.
E446.4. Slain ghost carried off by other ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.
E446.5. Ghost laid by pushing it into water. S. A. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux RBAE CXLIII (3) 685.
E451. Ghost finds rest when certain thing happens.
E451.1. Ghost laid when crime has been confessed. (Cf. E412.5.) Fb “løse” II 517a.
E451.1.1. Corpse cannot be laid until after he has confided the secret of magic charms. India: Thompson-Balys.
E451.2. Ghost laid when penance is done. (Cf. E411.0.2.1.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s.v. “Geister, Erlösung”.
E451.3. Ghost laid when vow is fulfilled. (Cf. E415.3.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s.v. “Geister, Erlösung”; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 266ff., (1934) 196ff.; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.
E451.4. Ghost laid when living man speaks to it. Fb “løse” II 517a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s.v. “Geister, Erlösung”.
E451.4.1. Ghost asked to identify self “in name of God.” U.S.: Baughman.
E451.5. Ghost laid when treasure is unearthed. Fb “løse” II 517b; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda (Cf. E371ff.).
E451.5.1. Money must be distributed to beggars so that ghost may be laid. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
E451.6. Beggar‘s ghost laid when pig bought with money taken from him is brought to his grave. Sinks in grave. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *842.
E451.7. Bearded woman ghost laid by shaving her. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3560; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 72 No. 216.
E451.8. Ghost laid when house it haunts is destroyed or changed. U.S.: *Baughman.
E451.9. Ghost laid when revenge is accomplished. Korean: Zong in-Sob 122f.
E451.10. Ghost laid when rest of poem is recited. Japanese: Ikeda.
E452. Ghost laid at cockcrow (dawn). Fb “spøgelse” III 519b, “kok” IV 272b; Köhler-Bolte III 581; Wimberly 248. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “coq”; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 94 – 112 passim; English: Child II 228, V 294; Finnish, Swedish: Wessman 1 No. 6; India: *Thompson-Balys; Melanesian, Polynesian: *Dixon 141 n. 24; Kai (German New Guinea): ibid. 144; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 96 No. 7, (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 151.
E452.1. Dead quiescent during day. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E452.2. Ghost invisible during day. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E453. Ghost transformed into animal. (Cf. D100, E423.) England: *Baughman.
E454. Ghost is laid by giving it a never-ending or impossible task. (Cf. H900, H1010.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
E456. Man raises corpses and gets their shrouds, then “lays” them again. India: Thompson-Balys.
E459. Other exorcism practices.
E459.1. Ghost demands a body and soul before it will agree to be laid. Monk provides cock and sole of shoe. England: Baughman.
E459.2. Ghost laid when bones are brought to home country from foreign soil. England: Baughman.
E459.3. Ghost laid when its wishes are acceded to. England: Baughman.
E459.4. Ghost bound and jailed. England: Baughman.
E459.5. Ghost laid at midnight. U.S.: Baughman.
E459.6. Ghost laid by burying bell from church in one pond, the clapper in another. If the two ever come together again, the ghost can walk. England: Baughman.
E459.7. Ghost laid when his skull is thrown into the Ganges. India: Thompson-Balys.
E460. Revenants in conflict.
E461. Fight of revenant with living person. (Cf. E261.1.3.) Fb “spøgelse” III 520b; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3542, Legends No. 882; N. A. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 150, (Passamaquoddy): Leland Algonquin Legends 349, (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 96 No. 7.
E461.1. Revenant challenged to combat. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 12; Wales: Baughman.
E461.2. Fight of living person with dead in the grave. Andrews MPh X 601ff.; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 367ff., MacCulloch Eddic 309 – 11, *Boberg.
E462. Revenant overawed by living person. *Fb “student”; Icelandic: Boberg; Welsh: Baughman.
E463. Living man in dead man’s shroud. Refuses to let corpse return to grave before he tells how to resuscitate woman living man has killed. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 7; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3543.
E464. Revenant tricked or jeered into a bottle, corked up and put in safe place. (Cf. D2177.1.) England: *Baughman.
E465. Revenant rewards its conqueror. Irish: Curtin Myths and Folklore of Ireland (Boston, 1889) 127; Egypt (ancient): Petrie II 87.
E467. Revenants fight each other. *Krappe Balor 145ff.; Fb “spøgelse” III 520b; Icelandic: *Boberg.
E467.1. Two dead men struggle over living man. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3548, Balys Ghosts.
E470. Intimate relations of dead and living.
E471. Ghost kisses living person. *Fb “gjenganger” I 444a.
E472. Revenant sleeps in same bed with living but without contact. U.S.: Baughman.
E474. Cohabitation of living person and ghost. This usually involves sexual relations. (Cf. E321.2, E322.6, E339, E378.) Liebrecht 49; Aly Volksmärchen bei Herodot (Göttingen, 1921) 153; H. Schreuer Zs. d. vgl. Rechtswissenschaft XXXIII (1916) 350 n.; Corsican: Ortoli 332; India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg; New Hebrides: Codrington 379; N. A. Indian (Tlingit): Swanton BBAE XXXIX 249 No. 86, (Teton): Dorsey JAFL I 68, (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 154 No. 10 (head of murdered woman continues to live with husband), Grinnell Blackfoot Lodge Tales (New York, 1923) 70, (Hopi): Voth FM VIII 33, (Zuñi): Cushing 48 No. 2, (Thompson River): Teit JE VIII 281 No. 46, (Quileute): Farrand-Mayer JAFL XXXII 268 No. 12, (Klickitat): Alexander N. Am. 147; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 454, Rasmussen III 84; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 280.
E474.1. Offspring of living and dead person. (Cf. E322.1, T540.) *Fb “barn” IV 27a; Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 98; Irish myth: Cross.
E477. Body in coffin moves so as to make room for his recently deceased friend. *Loomis White Magic 92.
E480. Abode of the dead. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.
E480.1. Abode of animal souls. (Cf. E730.1.) Jewish: *Neuman.
E480.2. Three worlds of dead. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 155, 160.
E480.3. Men must enter spirit world armed. S. A. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 110.
E481. Land of the dead. *Types 470, 471; *Köhler-Bolte II 224ff.; *Encyc. Rel. and Ethics II 680ff.; **Wiedeman Die Toten und ihre Reiche im Glauben der alten Ägypten (Leipzig, 1910); A. Jeremias Hölle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig, 1903); Dickson 94f. n. 78; Feilberg DF X 1; Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 585; Finnish: Kalevala rune 16; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 274 n. 10; Africa: Werner African 180ff., (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 59, 226, 240, (Benga): Nassau 208 No. 33.
E481.0.1. Spain as land of the dead. (Cf. F130.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E481.0.2. Quarrel of dead and living causes removal of dead to own land. India: Thompson-Balys.
E481.1. Land of dead in lower world. *Krappe Etude 45ff.; **M. Landau Hölle und Fegefeuer in Volksglauben, Dichtung, und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); Krappe Revue Celtique XLIX (1932) 96 – 102; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 146, Grote I 62; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 72; Jewish: *Neuman, Gaster Thespis 183, 187f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 485; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 199f.; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 200f.; Tonga: Gifford 183; Melanesia: Wheeler 33, 47; Papua: Ker 81; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 146, 155; N. A. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 274 n. 10; S. A. Indian (Metaco): Métraux MAFLS XL 24.
E481.1.1. Old woman ruler of dead in lower world. (Cf. A481.9.) Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 75.
E481.1.2. Houses in lower world of dead. (Cf. F163, F220.) Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 74.
E481.2. Land of dead across water. Icelandic: Boberg; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 486; N. A. Indian (Haida): Swanton JE V 34.
E481.2.0.1. Island of the dead. *Meyer Der irische Totengott und die Toteninsel (Stzb. d. preussischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften XXXII [1919] 537); *Krappe Balor 102; Irish myth: *Cross; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 72.
E481.2.1. Bridge to land of dead. Type 471; *Fb “bro” IV 62b; Wimberly 110ff.; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 399, 420, 607, Herbert ibid. III 279; Moe Samlede Skrifter III 212, 226ff.; Frazer Immortality III 150; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 74; India: *Thompson-Balys; Persian: Carnoy 344; Kachin: Scott Indo-Chinese 265; N. A. Indian: Brinton Myths of the New World (New York, 1868) 248, Skinner PaAM XIII 86.
E481.2.1.1. Frightening thing at bridge to land of dead. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E481.2.1.2. Unstable bridge to land of dead. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E481.2.2. Boat to land of dead. Icelandic: De la Saussaye 292, *Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 75.
E481.3. Abode of dead in mountain. Patch PMLA XXXIII 614 n. 48; Icelandic: *Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s.v. “Geister”; Gaster Oldest Stories 156.
E481.3.1. Abode of the dead in hills, barrows. Icelandic: *Boberg.
E481.3.2. Abode of the dead in stones. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 312.
E481.4. Beautiful land of dead. (Rosengarten). Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 79f.
E481.4.1. Avalon. (Cf. F323.) Happy otherworld where dead are healed. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 31 (Geoffrey of Monmouth), 33 (Layamon‘s Brut), 50 (Le Morte Arthure); Hartland Science 204 (Olger the Dane).
E481.5. Ghost lives midway between heaven and earth. Fb “spøgelse” III 519b.
E481.6. Land of dead in one of the cardinal directions.
E481.6.1. Land of dead in north. Icelandic: Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 77f.; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 101.
E481.6.2. Land of dead in west. (Cf. A692.1.) Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 77f.; Irish myth: *Cross; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E481.6.3. Land of dead in east. Icelandic: Boberg.
E481.7. Icy inferno. (Cf. E481.6.1.) Krappe Études 46 n. 2.
E481.8. Land of dead in sky. India: *Thompson-Balys; Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 76.
E481.8.1. Account book of men summoned to death kept in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.
E481.8.2. Moon as land of dead. Samoa: Clark 181.
E481.8.3. Venus as land of dead. Africa (Fang): Trilles 136.
E481.8.4. Dead in house of cloud. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 79.
E481.9. King of world of dead. (Cf. E481.1.1.) Irish myth: Cross (E481.1.1.1); Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Baholoholo): Einstein 216.
E482. Land of shades. Everything is done by unseen people. Type 425; Tegethoff 14; *Siuts 218ff.; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 425 (Voyage of St. Brandon); N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 339 n. 221.
E485. Land of skulls. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 275.
E485.1. Land of skeletons. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 230.
E487. Glowing beds of dead. Youth in land of dead puts staff into one of the beds. The iron glows and the wood burns. Irish: O’Suilleabhain 63, 102, Beal XXI 324, 333; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 7.
E489. Abode of the dead – miscellaneous.
E489.1. Dead awaken after three days to new life and great wisdom. Fb “død” I 228a.
E489.2. Life in land of dead contrary to ours. People grow younger and smaller till they become nothing and are reborn. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 73.
E489.3. Forgetting Charon‘s fee. Philosopher forgets to put coin in mouth before death (Charon’s fee). Charon: “Don‘t you know the custom?” Answer: “Yes, but I couldn’t put off dying for a quarter!” – Italian Novella: Rotunda.
E489.4. Man‘s spirit in land of dead prophesies his own future death. India: Thompson-Balys.
E489.5. Dancing in afterworld. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
E489.6. Culture hero gambles with ruler of the afterworld: result, death or increase in game. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 85.
E489.7. Judas Iscariot appears in midst of sea on rock washed alternately by fiery and icy waves. (Cf. Q560.2.3.) Irish myth: *Cross.
E489.8. Why living cannot go to land of the dead. Chinese: Graham.
E489.9. In land of dead the dead walk on grass without bending it and on mud without sinking. (Cf. F973.2.) Chinese: Graham.
E489.10. Land of dead “in Abraham’s bosom”. Jewish: *Neuman.
E489.11. Inhabitants of land of dead have great thirst. Jewish: *Neuman.
E490. Meetings of the dead.
E491. Procession of the dead. *BP III 472 n. 1; Fb “gjenganger” I 443b, “Nytårsaften” II 707b; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 204; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 Nos. 100, 105, 326 Nos. 15, 17; *Geiger Archives suisses des Traditions Populaires XLVII 71 – 76; West Indies: Flowers 431; Pochulata: Boas JAFL XXV 226; Spanish: Boas ibid. 251; India: *Thompson-Balys.
E492. Mass (church service) of the dead. Held at midnight. *BP III 472, 545; Krappe Balor 116ff., 121 n. 11, JAFL LX 159ff.; *Fb “død” I 228a, “kirke” II 125b; *Grunwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXX – XXXI 316; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1895) 280ff., (1928) 176ff.; Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3558; Jewish: *Neuman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 242.
E493. Dead men dance. *Fb “spøgelse” III 520a, “danse” IV 93a, “sjæl” III 214b, “kirkegaard” II 128b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335 s.v. “Geister”; England, U.S.: *Baughman; N. A. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell 192, (Hupa): Goddard UCal I 239 No. 25, (Luiseño): DuBois UCal VIII 154, (Zuñi): Cushing 48 No. 2, (Cherokee): Mooney RBAE XIX 252 No. 5, 331 No. 78, (Kwakiutl): Boas and Hunt JE III 106; Africa: Werner African 188f.
E494. Ball game in lower world. (Cf. E577.1.) N. A. Indian (Thompson River): Alexander N. A. Myth 137; *Icelandic: Boberg.
E495. Wedding of the dead. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 208.
E495.1. Ghostly marriage party. India: Thompson-Balys.
E495.2. Marriage (ceremony) to a ghost. India: *Thompson-Balys.
E496. Ghosts gathered on a bridge. *Fb “bro” IV 62b.
E497. Fighting warriors show the way of their past life and of their death. Icelandic: Boberg.
E499. Meetings of the dead – miscellaneous.
E499.1. Gay banquet of the dead. (Cf. E541.) England, U.S.: *Baughman; N. Y.: Jones JAFL LVII 241.
E499.2. Orchestra of ghosts. U.S.: Baughman.
E499.3. Pot so heavy with ghosts that girl cannot lift it. (Cf. D1317.10.) India: Thompson-Balys.
E499.4. Dead in lower world complain about odor of human visitor. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

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