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Prevuius group

Group No. 90


Letter

E. The Dead

Group No.

E300 – E399

Group name

Friendly return from the dead

Description

E300. Friendly return from the dead. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 331; Jewish: Neuman.
 
E310. Dead lover’s friendly return. (Cf. E210.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; German: Erk-Böhme Deutscher Liederhort No. 201a; N. A. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories (New York, 1889) 191, Dorsey CI LIX 126 No. 34, (Sioux): Dorsey RBAE XI 490, (Zuñi): Cushing 19.
 
E311. Return from dead to return and ask back love tokens. English: Child II 228.
 
E320. Dead relative‘s friendly return.
 
E321. Dead husband‘s friendly return.
 
E321.1. Dead husband sends his ring to his wife. Fb “ring”.
 
E321.2. Dead husband returns and lives with his wife. He is invisible to others. (Cf. F378.) N. A. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 148.
 
E321.2.1. Dead husband returns, helps wife knit socks, piece quilts. She shows his work as proof. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E321.2.2. Dead man visits his wife every night. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E321.3. Dead husband returns, asks wife to make him coffee. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E321.4. Ghost often visits his widow and her new husband. England: Baughman.
 
E321.5. Ghost appears often to wife and daughter. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E322. Dead wife‘s friendly return. (Cf. E221.2.) Irish: O’Suilleabhain 104, Beal XXI 333; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Iroquois): Smith RBAE II 103, (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories (New York, 1889) 129, (Osage): Dorsey FM VII 43 No. 36.
 
E322.1. Dead wife returns and bears children for husband. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323.
 
E322.2. Dead wife returns to wake husband. *Types 403, 450. – New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245.
 
E322.2.1. Dead wife returns and asks husband to go with her to spirit world. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E322.3. Wife in heaven by day, with husband by night. Hindu: Tawney II 577.
 
E322.4. Dead wife returns in form of bird. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 183; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E322.5. Man carries his dead wife with him. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323f.
 
E322.6. Dead wife returns to live with her husband until his death. U.S.: *Baughman; S. A. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.
 
E322.7. Dead wife returns to another person to have him write a letter to her husband. England: Baughman.
 
E322.8. Return from dead and remarriage to husband. Chinese: Graham.
 
E322.9. Man talks to dead wife in grave. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 453.
 
E323. Dead mother‘s friendly return. *Jellinek Zs f. Vksk. XIV 323f.; *Fb “moder” II 600b, “spøgelse” III 520a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mère”; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3527; Jewish: *Neuman.
 
E323.1. Dead mother returns to see baby. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E323.1.1. Dead mother returns to suckle child. *Types 403, 450; *BP I 96; *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 27; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 260; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 n. 263, (Luiseño): DuBois UCal VIII 153; Africa (Kweli): Sieber 89; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 266 No. 74, 275 No. 88.
 
E323.1.2. Dead mother returns to care for neglected baby. Tobler 92f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Papua: Ker 131; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 67.
 
E323.2. Dead mother returns to aid persecuted children. *Types 510A, 511, 923; Cox 475 n. 4; *BP I 165ff.; *MacCulloch Childhood 108; *Cosquin Contes indiens 504ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; Jewish: Neuman; Oceanic (Hawaii, Indonesia, Micronesia, Melanesia): Dixon 89 nn. 97 – 100; West Indies: Flowers 429; Africa (Cameroons): Mansfield 228.
 
E323.2.1. Dead mother (in animal form) returns to aid persecuted children. Chinese: Graham.
 
E323.3. Dead mother called up from grave to give her son charms. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 124.
 
E323.4. Advice from dead mother. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Hausa): Equilbecq III 291ff.
 
E323.5. Mother returns to search for dead child. England, Ireland: *Baughman.
 
E323.6. Mother returns to encourage daughter in great difficulties. England: Baughman.
 
E323.7. Dead mother makes son strong. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 158.
 
E324. Dead child’s friendly return to parents. Frequently to stop weeping. (Cf. P230.) *BP II 485; *Fb “hånd” I 765a; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 41, Beal XXI 315; English: Child II 238f., III 244f., 247, V 241, Baughman; U.S.: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3525; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Chinese: Werner 314; N. A. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories (New York, 1889) 145; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 161.
 
E324.1. Voice of son answers his mother from the grave only when called by his pet name. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E324.2. Ghost family visits grave of father. England: Baughman.
 
E325. Dead sister’s friendly return. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 98; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 178.
 
E326. Dead brother’s friendly return. Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 102, Beal XXI 332; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 446.
 
E327. Dead father’s friendly return. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; U.S.: Baughman; Greek: Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 195; Latin: Virgil Aeneid V 724; Chinese: Graham.
 
E327.1. Dead father returns to daughter to stop her weeping. (Cf. E324.) Scotland: Baughman.
 
E327.2. Dead father returns to encourage daughter in childbirth. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E327.3. Dead father returns to clear son‘s name of crime. England: *Baughman.
 
E327.4. Ghost of father returns to rebuke child. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E327.5. Dead father returns in form of bird. (Cf. E322.4.) India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E330. Locations haunted by non-malevolent dead. (Cf. E270 – E284 for locations haunted by malevolent ghosts.).
 
E332. Non-malevolent road ghosts. (Cf. E272, E581, E582.)
 
E332.1. Ghost appears at road and stream. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
 
E332.2. Person meets ghost on road. Canada, England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E332.3. Ghost on road asks traveler for ride. (Cf. E581, E582.)
 
E332.3.1. Ghost rides on horseback with rider. (Cf. E215.) U.S.: Baughman.
 
E332.3.2. Ghost rides in carriage, disappears suddenly at certain spot. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E332.3.3. Ghost asks for ride in automobile.
 
E332.3.3.1. The Vanishing Hitchhiker. Ghost of young woman asks for ride in automobile, disappears from closed car without the driver’s knowledge, after giving him address to which she wishes to be taken. Driver asks person at address about the rider, finds she has been dead for some time. (Often driver finds that ghost has made similar attempts to return, usually on anniversary of death in automobile accident. Often ghost leaves some item such as a scarf or a traveling bag in car.) **Beardsley and Hankey California Folklore Quarterly I 303ff.; Hawaii, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E332.3.3.2. Deity as ghostly rider. Hawaii: *Baughman.
 
E333. Non-malevolent churchyard ghost. (Cf. E273.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E334. Non-malevolent ghost haunts scene of former misfortune, crime, or tragedy. (See E336, E337, E338, E339.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E334.1. Ghost haunts scene of former crime or sin. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E334.2. Ghost haunts burial spot. (Cf. E411.1.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E334.2.1. Ghost of murdered person haunts burial spot. (Cf. E413.) Canada, England, Ireland, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
 
E334.2.2. Ghost of person killed in accident seen at death or burial spot. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
 
E334.2.3. Ghost of tragic lover haunts scene of tragedy. (Cf. E337.3.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E334.3. Ghost of person abandoned by faithless lover. (Cf. E211ff.) England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E334.4. Ghost of suicide seen at death spot or near by. (Cf. E411.1.1, E431.16.) England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
 
E334.5. Ghost of soldier haunts battlefield. England: *Baughman.
 
E336. Non-malevolent mine ghosts. (Cf. E275.1, E334.5.1, F456.)
 
E336.1. Helpful mine ghosts. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E336.2. Mine ghosts annoy miners. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E337. Ghost reenacts scene from own lifetime. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E337.1. Sounds of re-enacted actions. (Cf. E402.)
 
E337.1.1. Murder sounds heard just as they must have happened at time of death. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
 
E337.1.2. Sounds of accident re-enact tragedy. U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E337.1.3. Sounds of revelry heard. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E337.1.4. Sounds of driving cattle: horse‘s hoofs, whip-popping, calling to cattle, rattle of spurs: ghost of slain cowboy. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E337.2. Re-enactment of tragedy seen. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E337.3. Lovers’ tragedy re-enacted. (Cf. E334.5.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E338. Non-malevolent ghost haunts building. See E281, E402. England, Ireland, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
 
E338.1. Non-malevolent ghost haunts house or castle. England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.
 
E338.2. Non-malevolent ghost haunts church. (Cf. E283.) England: *Baughman.
 
E338.3. Non-malevolent ghost haunts cloister. England: Baughman.
 
E340. Return from dead to repay obligation.
 
E341. The grateful dead. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 313; Icelandic: Boberg.
 
E341.1. Dead grateful for having corpse ransomed. Corpse is being held unburied because of nonpayment of debts. Hero pays debt and secures burial of corpse. – *Types 505 – 508; **Liljeblad Die Tobiasgeschichte und andere Märchen mit toten Helfern; *BP III 490ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 5, 222ff., 424; **Gerould The Grateful Dead (London, 1908); *Goebel Jüdische Motive in märchenhaftem Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 38ff.; *Fb “lig” II 412b, “død” I 228a. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mort”; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 13; Jewish: bin Gorion I 176, 374, V 76, 299, VI 224, 316; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Thompson River): Teit JE VIII 385 No. 93.
 
E341.1.1. Dead grateful for having been spared indignity to corpse. Kind man has given it burial. U.S.: Baughman; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E341.2. Dead grateful for food. N. A. Indian (Canadian Dakota): Wallis JAFL XXXVI 48.
 
E341.3. Dead grateful for prayers. Tatlock MPh XXII 211f.; Alphabet Nos. 18, 519, 587; Nouvelles de Sens No. 15; Irish: O’Suilleabhain 102, Baughman.
 
E341.4. Dead grateful for clothes (shirt). Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
 
E341.5. Grateful priest returns to save gambler from devil. Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 36.
 
E342. Dead return to fulfill bargain. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E345. Dead returns to repair injury. Fb “spøgelse” III 521b.
 
E345.1. Dead returns to replace boundary marks he has removed. (Cf. E416.) *Fb “skjel” III 264a; Tobler 93; England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Miller NYFQ I 105f.; Irish: Beal XXI 310, O’Suilleabhain 33.
 
E351. Dead returns to repay money debt. Herbert III 96 No. 38; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 327 No. 23; cf. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 53, 97, Beal XXI 319, 331; Scotland: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E352. Dead returns to restore stolen goods. *BP III 235; Tobler 65; Fb “gjenganger” I 443b. – Irish: O’Suilleabhain 98, Beal XXI 331; England: *Baughman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 80, 327 No. 23.
 
E353. Dead man asks that certain girl be married to him because in life he seduced her. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
 
E360. Other reasons for friendly return from the dead.
 
E361. Return from the dead to stop weeping. *BP II 485; Wimberly 110, 230ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 433a s.v. “Eddamärchen”; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 831; Legenda Aurea (ed. Grässe) 132; *Fb “hånd” I 765a, “tåre” III 947a, “græde” IV 187b; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147. – Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Child II 234ff., 512., III 513, V 62, 294; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 18; Persian: Carnoy 345.
 
E361.1. Tear from upper world of mortals falls on departed in lower world. Dead brother sends message of comfort to living. N. A. Indian (Thompson River): Alexander N. Am. 137.
 
E361.2. Return from dead to give consoling message. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E361.3. Dead son tells mother that no mortal escapes death. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E363. Ghost returns to aid living.
 
E363.1. Ghost aids living in emergency. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E363.1.1. Ghost substitutes for bride on her wedding journey. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E363.2. Ghost returns to protect the living. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E363.3. Ghost warns the living. England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E363.4. Dead reassures living. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E363.5. Dead provide material aid to living. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
E363.5.1. Ghost of murdered girl appears and lends jewels needed for a ball in exchange for flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E363.6. Ghost aids living otherwise. England, Scotland: *Baughman.
 
E364. Dead returns to say farewell. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3502, Balys Ghosts.
 
E365. Return from dead to ask forgiveness. *Fb “tilgive”, Feilberg DF X 74f; Irish myth: *Cross; Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 13.
 
E365.1. Return of the dead to grant forgiveness. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
E366. Return from dead to give counsel. (Cf. V229.1.) *Type 510; Irish: *Cross, O‘Suilleabhain 101, Beal XXI 332; Icelandic: *Boberg; Sicilian: Gonzenbach I 10 No. 3; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 no. 29; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 191; Korean: Zong in-Sob 133ff. – N. A. Indian (Iroquois): Smith RBAE II 104, (Onondaga): Jewitt RBAE XXI 148, 262, (Skidi Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII 49 No. 10, (Arapaho): Dorsey and Kroeber FM V 49, 259 Nos. 15, 110; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 219; S. A. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 110; Africa (Jaunde): Heepe 260, (Fang): Tessman 99f., 173, 193.
 
E366.1. Laughing skull advises hero. (Cf. E545.) *Cosquin Études 351ff.
 
E366.2. Hanged man warns youth against visiting sweetheart. Takes youth’s place and receives shot meant for him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3566, Balys Ghosts.
 
E366.3. Talking bones of eaten man advise hero. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E367. Return from dead to preach repentance. Wesselski Arlotto I 201 No. 29; Irish: Beal XXI 332, O‘Suilleabhain 100; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 3 No. 23.
 
E367.1. Person who has spent two years in hell speaks of importance of religious experience. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E367.2. Saint returns from dead to give blessing. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E367.3. Return from dead to prophesy coming of Christ. (Cf. M363, M364.7.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E367.4. Return from dead to convert to Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E367.5. Ghost of woman chides unbeliever. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 291.
 
E368. Pupil returns from dead to warn master of futility of his studies. *Crane Vitry 145f. No. 31; Alphabet Nos. 151, 700; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
 
E371. Return from dead to reveal hidden treasure. (Cf. E276, E291, E419.11.2.) *Fb “spøgelse” III 521b; Tobler 34f.; Loomis White Magic 53; England, Wales, Ireland, Canada, U.S.: *Baughman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 827.
 
E371.1. Return from dead to reveal whereabouts of stolen goods. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E371.2. Return from dead to repeat forgotten epic. (Cf. A581, J1563.7.) Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E371.3. Poet sings day after his death. (Cf. E342, E546.) Irish myth: *Cross.
 
E372. Return from the dead to seek hidden treasure. U.S.: Baughman.
 
E373. Ghosts bestow gifts on living.
 
E373.1. Money received from ghosts as reward for bravery. A voice says: “I am letting it fall.” The man: “Let it.” Money falls to the ground. *Chauvin V 78 No. 22 n. 1; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 123 No. 46; cf. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 24 No. 216; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3626; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E373.2. Sword received from summoned dead father. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
E373.3. Woman‘s hand rises from grave and gives man performing vigil letter of salvation. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E373.4. Dead returns to supply tribe with money demanded by landlord. Jewish: Neuman.
 
E374. Dead returns to life and tells of journey to land of dead. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E374.1. Return of the dead to keep promise and tell of land of the dead. Two friends promise each other that the first to die will do so. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3570.
 
E375. Return from dead to prevent flight of thief. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E376. Ghost returns to confess misdeed. England: Baughman.
 
E376.1. Saint returns from dead to exonerate cleric. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E377. Return from dead to teach living. Jewish: Neuman.
 
E377.1. Dead poet leaves grave mound to teach poem to herdsman: latter becomes great poet. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
E379. Friendly return from the dead – other motifs.
 
E379.1. Return from dead to rescue from drowning. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E379.2. Anchorite’s body rises out of river in favor to disciple. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E379.3. Return from dead to protect friends. S. A. Indian (Guaporé River): Lévy-Strauss III 378.
 
E379.4. Ghost as confederate of man. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E379.5. Return from dead to make up enough men to perform ritual. Jewish: Neuman.
 
E380. Ghost summoned. *Fb “mane” II 547a; Irish: Beal XXI 310; Scotland: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3513; Jewish: *Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
E380.1. Summoning souls punished: in hour of man‘s death they overwhelm him. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E381. Ghost summoned by weeping. See all references to E361. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323f; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 281 n. 41.
 
E382. Ghost summoned by pouring blood of sacrifices into trench. Greek: Fox 145.
 
E383. Ghosts summoned by sacred book. Irish: O’Suilleabhain 32; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 138 No. 107; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 48 No. 107; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 597, 601; Korean: Zong in-Sob 205.
 
E384. Ghost summoned by music.
 
E384.1. Ghost summoned by beating drum. England: Baughman.
 
E384.2. Ghost raised inadvertently by whistling. England: Baughman.
 
E384.3. Ghost summoned by blast on horn (whistle). Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 29; S. A. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 110.
 
E385. Vigil of husband at wife‘s grave calls her forth. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
 
E385.1. Husband ignored or discouraged by ghost wife. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.
 
E386. Other means of summoning ghost.
 
E386.1. Ghost summoned by holy water. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 312.
 
E386.2. Ghost summoned by charm. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 98; MacCulloch Eddic 298 – 300, 312.
 
E386.3. Ghosts summoned by calling them by name. Icelandic: *Boberg; England: Baughman.
 
E386.4. Walking around a grave twelve times backward will raise the ghost. England: Baughman.
 
E386.5. Light remark about what person would do if ghost appeared causes ghost to appear. (Cf. C10, C13.) England: Baughman.
 
E387. Reasons for summoning of ghosts.
 
E387.1. Ghost summoned in order to talk to it. Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
E387.1.1. Dead called from their graves to make statement. *Loomis White Magic 53.
 
E387.2. Ghost summoned to get something from it.
 
E387.2.1. Father summoned to get his sword. Icelandic: Hervararsaga 17 – 33, 102 – 13.
 
E387.3. Ghost summoned for purposes of necromancy. Jewish: Neuman.
 
E389. Ghost summoned – miscellaneous.
 
E389.1. Ghost must be summoned by king else he appears head downward. Jewish: Neuman.
 
E389.2. Summoned ghost audible and visible only to person who has summoned him. Jewish: Neuman. Cf. Shakespeare Hamlet (“ghost scene”).
 
E390. Friendly return from the dead – miscellaneous.

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