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Prevuius group

Group No. 9


Letter

A. Mythological Motifs

Group No.

A650 – A699

Group name

Nature of the universe

Description

A650. The universe as a whole.
 
A651. Hierarchy of worlds. A series of worlds, one above the other. — Irish myth: Cross; Egyptian: Müller 366 n. 7; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 307, 309f., 410; Hindu: Keith 15, 134, 228; India: *Thompson-Balys. — N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 58, Alexander N. Am. 7, 60, 105, 136, 263, *275 n. 11 (Eskimo, Cherokee, Mandan, Kiowa, Thompson River, Bella Coola); Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 52f.; Maya: ibid. 140; Amazon: ibid. 307; Bororo: ibid. 296; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Métraux MAFLS XL 24, Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Witoto): Métraux MAFLS XL 25; Chuckchee: Bogoras AA n. s. IV 590; Maori: Dixon 59. — Cf. Icel.: De la Saussaye 346 n. 4.
 
A630. Series of creations. E755.1.1. Heavenly hierarchy.
 
A651.0.1. Nine worlds. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 974.
 
A651.0.2. Four world systems. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 117, 1033.
 
A651.1. Series of upper worlds. Japanese: Holmberg Siberian 344.
 
F10. Journeys to the upper world.
 
A651.1.0.1. Highest of celestial worlds consists of twenty heavens. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 336.
 
A651.1.1. Three heavens. Icel.: Snorra Edda Gylf XVII, Boberg. — Hawaii: Thrum 15, Beckwith Myth 42, 74; Maori: Clark 163ff.; S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 25.
 
A651.1.1.1. Third sky above prevents earth being burned by sun. S. Am. Indian (Witoto): Métraux MAFLS XL 25.
 
A651.1.1.2. Region above the three worlds. Hindu: Penzer II 242.
 
A651.1.2. Four heavens. Irish myth: Cross (A651.1.6.). — S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 25.
 
A651.1.3. Five heavens. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 25, BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.
 
A651.1.4. Seven heavens. A series of seven upper worlds. — Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Penzer VII 246; Mohammedan: Hartland Science 224; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 400f. — Sumatra: Dixon 160.
 
M1273.1.3. Seven as magic number.
 
A651.1.5. Eight heavens. Samoa: Beckwith Myth 210.
 
A651.1.6. Nine heavens. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 400f. — Fiji: Beckwith Myth 150; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 77.
 
A651.1.6.1. The nine ranks (orders) of heaven. Irish myth: Cross (A651.1.2.1.).
 
D1273.1.3.1. Nine as magic number.
 
A651.1.7. Ten heavens. Jewish: Neuman; Maori: Clark 186; Tonga: Gifford 18; Tahiti: Henry 164, 343.
 
A651.1.8. Series of upper worlds — miscellaneous. Jewish: *Neuman.
 
A651.1.8.1. Seventeen-storied heaven. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 405.
 
A651.2. Series of lower worlds. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E755.2.9. Series of hells. F80. Journey to the lower world.
 
A651.2.0.1. Creator lives in lowest sky beneath us. S. Am. Indian (Witoto): Métraux MAFLS XL 25.
 
A307. Deity ruler of lowest heaven.
 
A651.2.1. Two lower worlds. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 25, BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.
 
A651.2.2. Three lower worlds. Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 77. — S. Am. Indian (Witoto): Métraux MAFLS XL 25.
 
A651.2.3. Seven lower worlds. Hindu: Penzer IV 21 n. 1, VIII 162 n. 1.
 
A651.3. Worlds above and below.
 
A651.3.1. Seven worlds above and below. An angel upholds the seven worlds on his shoulders. Under him in turn are: rock, bull, fish, vast sea, air, fire, and serpent. — *Chauvin VII 58 No. 77 n. 1.
 
A651.3.2. Worlds above and below — miscellaneous. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42; S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 25.
 
A652. World-tree. Tree extending from lowest to highest world. (Cf. A878.) — **Holmberg Baum des Lebens. — Irish myth: Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 331ff., De la Saussaye 346ff.; Hagen MPh I (1903—4) 57; **Olrik Danske Studier, 1917, 49ff.; Babylonian: Spence 138; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 286 n. 56a.
 
A714.2. Sun and moon placed in top of tree. A878. Earth-tree. D950. Magic tree. E90. Tree of life. F162.3.1. Tree of Life in otherworld.
 
A652.1. Tree to heaven. Lithuanian and Lettish: Gray 325; Finnish: Kalevala rune 2; India: Thompson-Balys. — N. A. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 294f. n. 42; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 140; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Métraux MAFLS XL 24f.
 
A665.4. Tree supports sky. F54. Tree to upper world.
 
A652.1.1. Tree to heaven from goddess' necklace which she hangs on branch. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A652.2. Tree hanging from sky. A tree hangs upside down in the sky. By its branches men pass back and forth to the upper world. — Indonesian and Micronesian: Dixon 38 (n. 113, 114), 249.
 
A652.3. Tree in upper world. Iroquois: Alexander N. Am. 35.
 
A652.4. Sky as overshadowing tree. Shadowing the earth. — Egyptian: Müller 35.
 
A653. Earth under umbrella. Hindu: Penzer II 125 n. 3.
 
A654. Primary elements of universe. (Earth, air, fire, water, etc.). — Jewish: *Neuman; Chinese: Werner 84. Cf. the early Greek philosophers.
 
A655. World as egg. The two halves are heaven and earth. — Hindu: Penzer I 10 n. 3; Greek: Fox 5.
 
A641. Cosmic egg. A701.1. Origin of sky from egg brought from primeval water.
 
A657. River connecting earth and upper and lower worlds. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 304, 313; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian.
 
A657.1. Bridge connecting earth and heaven. Icel.: Boberg.
 
F152. Bridge to otherworld.
 
A657.2. Heaven and earth touch each other at east, west, and south. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A658. Size and distances of the universe.
 
A658.1. Nine days' fall from heaven to earth; the same from earth to hell. — Frazer Apollodorus I 4 n. 2.
 
A658.1.1. Nine nights' riding from heaven (or earth) to hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 304.
 
A658.2. Five hundred years travel across universe. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A659. The universe as a whole — miscellaneous. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A659.1. Music of the spheres. Jewish: Neuman. (The general philosophical theory of the music of the spheres is not treated here).
 
D1615.9. Singing heavens and earth.
 
A659.2. Big lake under the earth. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 25.
 
A659.3. River's source where sky and earth meet. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 24.
 
A659.4. Each world corresponds to different color. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.
 
A660. Nature of the upper world.
 
A1131.3. Rain from sea in upper world. F10. Journey to upper world. F56. Sky window. H1260. Quest to the upper world.
 
A661. Heaven. A blissful upper world. — Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York 1923); Jeremias Hölle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig 1903); Gaster Thespis 286; Irish myth: Cross, Beal XXI 330; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 312; German: Grimm Nos. 3, 35, 81, 82, 112, 167, 175, 178; Egyptian: Müller 176; Persian: Carnoy 345; Hindu: Keith 99, 131, 201. — Japanese: Anesaki 237, 241. — Haida: Alexander N. Am. 263; Eskimo: ibid. 7; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 81; Maya: ibid. 138, 140; Isthmian tribes (Panama): ibid. 193.
 
A211. God of heaven. E481.4. Beautiful land of dead. E754.2. Saved soul goes to heaven. E755.1. Souls in heaven. F11. Journey to heaven (upperworld paradise). Q172. Reward: admission to heaven. Q565. Man admitted to neither heaven nor hell. V511.1. Visions of heaven. V520. Salvation.
 
A661.0.1. Gate of heaven.
 
F59.1. Gate to upper world. F91. Door entrance to lower world. F156. Door to otherworld.
 
A661.0.1.1. Gate of heaven guarded by clap of thunder and mysterious sword. Chinese: Werner.
 
A661.0.1.1.1. Doors of heaven guarded by rivers of fire. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.4. The fires of hell. E755.1.2. River in heaven burns wicked and gives joy to righteous.
 
A661.0.1.1.2. Veils of fire and ice before chief door of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.3.3. Alternate heat and cold in hell.
 
A661.0.1.2. Saint Peter as porter of heaven. *Types 800, 801, 804; *Köhler Aufsätze 48; *Fb. "Sankt Peder". — Irish: Beal XXI 329; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "Antoine" (St. Anthony); French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 25; U.S.A.: *Baughman.
 
K2371.1. Heaven entered by a trick. V220. Saints.
 
A661.0.1.3. Archangels Michael and Ariel as porters of two of the doors of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A661.0.1.4. Abersetus as guardian of river of fire at one of the doors of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A661.0.1.5. Virgins with iron rods as guardians of two of the doors in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A661.0.2. Music in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.
 
A661.0.2.1. Heavenly music caused by four columns under Lord's chair. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. A661.0.3.).
 
B251.3. Birds in otherworld sing religious songs. F774.3. Musical pillar (stone).
 
A661.0.2.2. Music produced by precious stones in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A661.0.3. Chairs in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
V515.1.1. Allegorical vision of chairs in heaven. Z71.1.2. Three chairs in heaven for three saints.
 
A661.0.4. Cleansing fountain in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A661.0.5. Bridge of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F152. Bridge to otherworld.
 
A661.0.5.1. Soul-bridge: easy for righteous to cross, more difficult for others. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H1573.4.1. Ability to cross bridge as test of righteousness.
 
A661.0.6. Windows in heaven: sixty-six (seventy-two) windows in the firmament. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1171.1. Windows in firmament shed light. F165.3.5. Windows in otherworld.
 
A661.0.7. Self-illuminating precious stones in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F162.0.1.2. (Luminous) precious stones in otherworld (dwelling).
 
A661.0.8. Sweet odor in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A661.0.9. Heaven surrounded by seven walls. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F169.5. Fence of metal or crystal in otherworld.
 
A661.0.10. Land of the saints surrounded by fiery circle. Irish myth: Cross.
 
V511.4. Visions of land of the saints.
 
A661.1. Valhalla. The hall of warriors who go to Odin. They die and are resurrected daily. — **Neckel Walhall (Dortmund, 1913); M. Olsen Acta Philol. Scand. VI 151f.; MacCulloch Eddic 312; Irish myth: Cross.
 
A151. Home of the gods. E155.1. Slain warriors revive nightly.
 
A661.1.0.1. Valhalla has five hundred and forty doors. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A661.1.0.2. Goat (Heidrún) in Valhalla gives mead. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A661.1.0.3. Hog (Sœhrímnir) in Valhalla gives meat. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A661.1.0.4. Deer (Eikþyrnir) in Valhalla fills the fountain Hvergelmir. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A661.1.0.5. Cock in Valhalla awakens the gods. Icel: Boberg.
 
A661.1.1. Inhabitants of heaven divided into companies. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A661.1.2. Saint sees vision of three cities in heaven: a city of gold, a city of silver, a city of glass. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F761. City of precious metals and stones. V511.1. Visions of heaven.
 
A661.2. The eight paradises. Hindu: Penzer VII 246.
 
A661.3. Five trees of paradise. Hindu: Penzer VIII 248 n.
 
A661.4. Girls dancing in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A662. Upper world (heaven) as a mountain. The sky is the hollowed under side of the mountain. — Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 341ff.
 
A663. The plains of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F160.1. Otherworld as plain. F756.2. Plain that is earthly paradise.
 
A665. Support of the sky.
 
A702.3. Sky supported by north star.
 
A665.0.1. God stabilizes the sky. Tahiti: Henry 180.
 
A665.1. God of space upholds sky. Egyptian: Müller 44.
 
J2273.1. Bird thinks that the sky will fall if he does not support it.
 
A665.2. Pillar supporting sky. *Holmberg Baum des Lebens 12ff. — Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 333ff.; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 334ff.
 
A841. World columns: two (four). F58. Tower (column) to upper world.
 
A665.2.0.1. Pillars supporting sky. Tahiti: Henry 342; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XII (266), (Cape York): Rasmussen III 169, (Greenland): Rink 440.
 
A665.2.1. Four sky-columns. Four columns support the sky. — Cook Zeus II 140ff.; Frobenius Erdteile VI 165ff. — Egyptian: Müller 35.
 
A841. Four world-columns.
 
A665.2.1.1. Four gods at world-quarters support the sky. India: Thompson-Balys. — Aztec: Krickeberg Märchen der Azteken 208, 316.
 
A842. Atlas.
 
A665.2.1.2. Four dwarfs support the sky. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 264—65.
 
A665.2.1.3. Sky extended by means of pillars. Tahiti: Henry 342.
 
A665.3. Mountain supports sky. India: Thompson-Balys; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 341ff.
 
A151.1. Home of gods on high mountain. F132. Otherworld on lofty mountain.
 
A665.3.1. Four mountains support sky. Patch PMLA XXXIII 618 n. 61.
 
A665.4. Tree supports sky. (Cf. A652.1.).
 
A665.5. Sky held against earth by great octopus. Tahiti: Henry 338.
 
A665.6. Serpent supports sky. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.
 
A666. Ladder to heaven (applied to saint). Irish myth: Cross.
 
A666.1. Eight (symbolical) steps of the ladder of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A666.2. Rodent gnaws away ladder to other world and thus ghosts remain on earth. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg Mato Grosso 109.
 
A667. Language of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1482.1. Hebrew the language of the inhabitants of heaven.
 
A669. Nature of the upper world — miscellaneous.
 
A669.1. Judges in the upper world. Gaster Thespis 186; Icel.: Boberg.
 
A669.2. Sky of solid substance. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 164.
 
A670. Nature of the lower world.
 
F80. Journey to lower world. H1270. Quest to lower world.
 
A671. Hell. Lower world of torment. — Jeremias Hölle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig 1903); Köhler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York 1923); *Landau Hölle und Fegfeuer in Volksglaube, Dichtung, und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); *Jātaka Index s. v. "hell". — Norse: De la Saussaye 256, 291, MacCulloch Eddic 303, Herrmann Saxo Gr. II 588, *Boberg; Greek: Fox 143; Egyptian: Müller 179; Babylonian: Spence 128; Persian: Carnoy 345; Hindu: Penzer X 169 s. v. "Hades", Keith 100, 160; India: Thompson-Balys. — Japanese: Anesaki 237. — Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 80; Maya: ibid. 138; Chaco: ibid. 324; Chibcha: ibid. 198; Eskimo: Alexander N. Am. 7.
 
A310. God of the world of the dead. B11.3.6. Dragons in hell. D191.1. Lucifer as serpent. D1738. Magic arts learned in hell. E480. Abode of the dead. E481.1. Land of dead in lower world. E755. Destination of the soul. F81. Descent to lower world of dead. Q560. Punishments in hell. Q565. Man admitted to neither heaven nor hell. V511.2. Visions of hell. V520. Salvation.
 
A671.0.1. Hell located to the north. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319.
 
E481.6.1. Land of death in north. E755.2.5. Punishment by cold in hell. G633. North as abode of evil spirits.
 
A671.0.1.1. Other locations for hell. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A671.0.2. Creation of hell. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 2, 5, 7; Jewish: Neuman.
 
A671.0.2.1. Fire in hell. Christ created fire in hell from his blood; formerly hell was cold. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 26.
 
A671.0.3. Entrance to cave as gate to hell. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman. (Cf. A671.5.).
 
F156. Door to otherworld. F158. Pit entrance to otherworld. F211.1. Entrance to fairyland through door in knoll. V511.2.2. Vision of gate to hell.
 
A671.0.4. Hell confused with fairy land. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F160.0.2. Fairy otherworld confused with land of the dead. F165.6.1. Otherworld (fairy land) as place of sorrowful captivity. F251.7. Fairies as demons. F360. Malevolent or destructive fairies.
 
A671.0.5. Size and arrangements of hell. Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786.
 
A671.1. Doorkeeper of hell. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "Chabert".
 
E755.2.3. Lost soul to serve as porter in hell for seven years.
 
A671.2. Horrible sights in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Gaster Thespis 187f.
 
E755.2. Souls in hell. Q560. Punishments in hell.
 
A671.2.1. Serpents in hell. Wimberly Folklore in Ballads 424; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 321, 332, Boberg; Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.1.1. Adders in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
Q566.1. Fiery chains in the form of adders about waists of souls tormented in hell.
 
A671.2.2. Rivers of blood in hell. Wimberly Folklore in Ballads 128.
 
A671.2.2.1. Rivers of poison in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319f.; Jewish: Neuman.
 
A671.2.2.2. River in hell filled with weapons. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 320, 321.
 
A671.2.2.3. Rivers of fire in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F142. River of fire as barrier to otherworld.
 
A671.2.2.4. Rivers of black water in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D1293.4. Black as magic color. E481.2. Land of dead across water.
 
A671.2.2.5. Four (three) rivers in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F162.2.1. The four (three) rivers of paradise.
 
A671.2.2.6. Other rivers in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman (A671.2.29).
 
F162.2. Rivers in other world.
 
A671.2.3. Tree in hell made of living heads of the dead. Quiché: Alexander Lat. Am. 171.
 
A671.2.4. The fires of hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E750. Perils of the soul. Q566. Punishments by heat in hell. V511.2.1. Vision of fires of hell.
 
A671.2.4.1. Sea of fire in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.4.2. Islands in sea of fire in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D911. Magic sea.
 
A671.2.4.3. Fiery showers in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
Q566.9. Showers of fire fall on sinners in hell. Q566.10. Demons shoot fiery arrows at souls in hell.
 
A671.2.4.4. Burning plains in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.4.5. Fiery glens in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E750.2.2. Perious valley in (on way to) land of dead. F151.1.2. Perilous glen on way to otherworld. F756.4. Glen of witchcraft.
 
A671.2.4.6. Fiery wheels in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
Q566.2. Fiery wheels about necks of souls tormented in hell.
 
A671.2.4.7. Fiery chains in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
Q566.1. Fiery chains in the form of adders about waists of souls tormented in hell. Q566.6. Fiery red overgarments worn by sinners in hell.
 
A671.2.4.8. Fiery sticks in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.4.9. Fiery stones in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.4.10. Fiery nails in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
Q566.3. Fiery nails through tongues of souls tormented in hell.
 
A671.2.4.11. Fiery columns in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F169.1. Pillars of silver and glass in otherworld. Q566.4. Tormented souls bound to fiery columns in hell.
 
A671.2.4.12. Swift, flaming winds in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.4.13. Four fires in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D1273.1.2. Four as magic number. F162.2.1. The four rivers of paradise.
 
A671.2.5. Dragons in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 332 (Nidhogg).
 
A671.2.6. Wolf in hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319.
 
A671.2.7. Gnats in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.8. Toads in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
B776.5.1. Blood of toad venemous.
 
A671.2.9. Scorpions in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
 
A671.2.10. Griffins in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
B42. Griffin.
 
A671.2.11. Birds made of iron in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.12. Lions in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.13. Scratching cats in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.2.14. Tigers in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.3. Frigidity of hell. Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786.
 
D2144. Magic control of cold and heat. E481.7. Icy inferno. E755.2.5. Icy hell. Q567. Punishments by cold in hell.
 
A671.3.1. Coldness in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A671.3.2. Rugged, icy mountains in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F750. Extraordinary mountains and other land features.
 
A671.3.3. Alternate heat and cold in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
Q562. Pain of souls tormented in hell alternately ebbs and flows.
 
A671.4. Well in hell (Hvergelmir). Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 324, 332.
 
A671.5. Gate around hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 130, Boberg.
 
A671.6. Beings born in hell have long bodies and cling with long nails to walls. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786.
 
A672. Stygian river. River in lower world. In Greek myth five such rivers in Hades, Styx (hate), Acheron (mourning), Kokytus (lamentation), Lethe (forgetfulness) and Pyrephlegethon (flame). — Gaster Oldest Stories 50; Greek: Fox 143; Norse: De la Saussaye 350, MacCulloch Eddic 330, Boberg. — Chibcha: Alexander Lat. Am. 198; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E481.2. Land of dead across water. F162.2.1. The four rivers of paradise.
 
A672.1. Ferryman on river in lower world (Charon). Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 142; Egyptian: Müller 176; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 45; Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch-Epos X, XI, 46ff., cf. 136ff.
 
F90. Access to lower world.
 
A672.1.1. Charon exacts fee to ferry souls across Styx. Greek: Fox 142; Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
E431.11. Coin placed in mouth of dead to prevent return. E489.3. Forgetting Charon's fee.
 
A672.2. Maiden at the bridge to hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 130, 304.
 
A673. Hound of hell. Cerberus (monstrous dog) guards the bridge to the lower world. — *Encyc. Rel. Ethics I 493a; *Fb "hund" III 678b. — Gaster Thespis 214; Greek: Fox 88; Frazer Apollodorus I 232 n. 1; Norse: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 599ff., MacCulloch Eddic 303f.; Persian and Hindu: Keith 69. — Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 326, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 165.
 
B15.7.1. Cerberus. B187. Magic dog. B325.1. Animal bribed with food. B576.1. Animal as guard of person or house. E481.2.1. Bridge to land of dead. E572.5. Hell-hounds accompany soul to lower world. F150.2. Entrance to otherworld guarded by monsters. F152.0.1. Bridge to otherworld guarded by animals. H1271. Quest for Cerberus in hell.
 
A673.1. Dogs in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
B187. Magic dog.
 
A673.2. Cock of hell. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A675. Judges in the lower world. Greek: Fox 143. — Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 206 No. 155; Japanese: Anesaki 238.
 
A676. Ship of hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 340, 343.
 
A677. Workmen and tradesmen of hell.
 
A677.1. Smith of hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A677.2. Miller of hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
P443. Miller.
 
A678. In other world one room contains the dead, another contains souls of the unborn waiting to enter the wombs of women, and a third contains all the evil spirits. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A681. Sun in the underworld. S. Am. Indian (Viracocha): Steward-Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 550.
 
A682. Hole to lower world up which people come. S. Am. Indian (Terino): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.
 
A1232. Mankind ascends from under the earth.
 
A689. Nature of the lower world — miscellaneous.
 
A689.1. Dark puddles in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
Q568.1. Sinners in hell forced to sit in dark puddles up to their middles.
 
A689.2. Foul odor in hell. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A689.3. Hunger in hell. Irish myth: Cross. (A679.4.).
 
A689.3.1. Dogs incited to devour souls in hell. Irish myth: Cross (A679.4.1).
 
A690. Miscellaneous worlds. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F110. Journey to terrestrial otherworlds.
 
A692. Islands of the blest. Irish myth: Cross. — Greek: Fox 147, Grote I 62, Guntert Kalypso 81; Gaster Oldest Stories 50. — Oceanic: Kruyt Het Animisme 368ff.; Landman Kiwai Papuans 12; Lévy-Bruhl L'âme primitive 382ff.
 
A561. Divinity's departure for west. D936. Magic island. D981.1.1. Magic apple from Garden of the Hesperides. E480. Abode of the dead. E481.2. Land of dead across water. F111. Journey to earthly paradise. Land of happiness. F112. Journey to land of women. F116. Journey to land of the immortals. F129.7. Voyage to island of the dead. F134. Otherworld on island. F213. Fairyland on island. F730. Extraordinary islands.
 
A692.1. Overseas otherworld in the west. Irish myth: Cross; S. Am. Indian (Guarayú): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 147.
 
A693. Intermediate future world. Residence for those whose good and evil deeds exactly counterbalance. — Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 344.
 
D1856.1.1. The two sorrows of the kingdom of heaven. Q0. Rewards and punishments. V511.3. Visions of purgatory. V520. Salvation.
 
A694. Christian paradise. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F11. Journey to heaven (upper-world paradise). F111. Journey to earthly paradise.
 
A694.1. Christian paradise (Terra Repromissionis) corresponding to pagan Celtic otherworld (Ireland). Irish myth: Cross.
 
F110. Journey to terrestrial otherworlds. F160.0.3. Pagan otherworld identified with Christian paradise. F756.2. Plain that is earthly paradise.
 
A695. Moon as next world. (Cf. A750.) Hindu: Keith 101.
 
A696. World of serpents. Hindu: Keith 154.
 
A697. Various Buddhist otherworlds.
 
A697.1. Brahma world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 796.
 
A697.2. Tusita world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1034.
 
A697.2.1. Years are days in Tusita world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1033.
 
D2011. Years thought days.
 
A697.3. Deva world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 861, II 892, 909.

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