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Prevuius group

Group No. 8


A. Mythological Motifs

Group No.

A600 – A649

Group name

Creation of the universe


A600—A699. The universe.
A600. Creation of the universe. In addition to other references in this section A600—A649, see: *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s. v. "Creation"; *Lang Myth. 163ff.; Henne am-Rhyn Das Jenseits: Kulturgeschichtliche Darstellung über Schöpfung, etc. (1881); Schlieper Die kosmogonischen Mythen der Urvolker (Bonn 1932, diss.); *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 274—284; Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn (1915). — Norse: Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 327ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 275; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 406. — Cherokee: Mooney Am. Urquell II 85ff.; Quiche: Alexander Lat. Am. 160f.; Maya: ibid. 152ff.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43ff.; Tahiti: Henry 336ff.
A0. Creator.
A601. Universe created in specified time and order. Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.
A601.1. Universe created in five periods of time. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 44.
A601.2. Universe created in six days. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.
A605. Primeval chaos. *Sayce Encyc. Religion and Ethics III 363 s. v. "Chaos". — Greek: Roscher I 871 s. v. "Chaos"; Icel.: De la Saussaye 340f.; Jewish: Neuman; Egyptian: Müller 47; Babylonian: Spence 71; Japanese: Anesaki 222. — Pima: Alexander N. Am. 177; Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86; Marquesas Is.: Dixon 10 n. 13; Maori: ibid. 6ff.; Nias Is.: ibid. 167; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42; Tahiti: Henry 336, 340.
A115. First deity grows out of primeval chaos. A620. Spontaneous creation of universe. A810. Primeval water.
A605.1. Primeval darkness. S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 312; Africa (Luba): Donohugh Africa V 180.
A605.2. Primeval cold. Icel.: Boberg.
A610. Creation of universe by creator. The creator is existing before all things. — Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Oldenberg Religion des Veda 278; Chinese: Werner 76, 90. — Mexican: Alexander Lat. Am. 85; Guiana: ibid. 256ff.. — Society Is.: Dixon 11 n. 18, 12 n. 19; Marquesas Is.: ibid. 11 n. 14; Maori: ibid. 11 n. 16, 17, 13 n. 20; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42; Australian: Goldenweiser Early Civilization 105. — Uganda: ibid. 97.
A0. Creator. A101.1. Supreme god as creator. A830. Creation of earth by creator. A901. Topographical features caused by experiences of primitive hero (demigod, deity).
A610.1. All things created in pairs (heaven and earth, etc.). Jewish: Neuman.
A610.2. Creation of heaven, earth, and hell. Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42.
A661. Heaven. A671. Hell.
A611. Fiat creation. Universe is created at command of creator. — Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis ch. 1; Jewish: Neuman. — Pelew Group, Western Caroline Is., Central Caroline Is., Gilbert Group: Dixon 248; Mono-Alu (Fauru): Wheeler 66; Tahiti: Henry 338.
D1765. Magic results produced by command. M0. Judgments and decrees.
A611.0.1. Creator uses particular formula (letters) to create universe. Jewish: Neuman.
A611.1. Druids as creators. Irish myth: Cross.
P427. Druid (magus).
A612. Creation: materialization of creator's thinking. Creator "thinks outward in space" and thus produces the universe. — *Dh I 10f., 15, 17ff., 58, 113; Jewish: Neuman. — Zuñi: Cushing RBAE XIII 379ff.; Thompson Tales 280 n. 36.
A612.1. World-soul. The universe a manifestation of the creator. — Society Is.: Dixon 12 n. 19.
A613. Creation from creator's tears. Dh I 31f.
A614. Universe from parts of creator's body. Ymir makes the world from his members — mountains from bones, cliffs from teeth, heavens from skull, etc. — Norse: Dh I 111 n. 1; Lang Myth I 234 ff. — Mexican: Danzel Kultur und Religion des primitiven Menschen 60; Kalmuck, Chinese, Hindu: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 372; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 96 No. 55.
A1211. Man made from creator's body.
A614.1. Universe from parts of man's body. (Cf. A831.2) — Kabyle: Frobenius Atlantis I 101; Madagascar: Dandonau Contes pop. de Sakalava No. 58; Papuan: Landtmann The Kiwai Papuans 551; Sumatra: Pleyte Bataksche Vertellingen 68.
A615. Universe as offspring of creator. The Sky Father begets various parts of the universe by his various wives. — Maori: Dixon 8 n. 9.
A645. Creation of universe: genealogical type. A begets B, who begets C, etc.
A615.1. Universe from creator's masturbation with water, with stone, and with earth. (Cf. A1216.1). Easter Is.: Métraux Ethnology 314.
A615.2. Universe from copulation of various objects to produce others. Easter Is.: Métraux Ethnology 320f.
A617. Creation of universe from clam-shell on primeval water by creator. — Nauru (Pleasant Island): Dixon 249; Tahiti: Henry 337.
A617.1. Creation of universe from clay pot set afloat on primeval wafers. India: Thompson-Balys.
A810. Primeval water.
A617.2. Creation of universe from calabash. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 304f.
A618. Universe created by various activities of creator.
A618.1. Universe coughed into being. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 67.
A636. New creation shouted away.
A618.2. Universe created by spitting. Melanesia: Wheeler 66.
A620. Spontaneous creation of universe. Greek: *Grote I4. — Maori: Dixon 6ff.; Marquesas Is.: ibid. 10 n. 13; Tahiti: Henry 343.
A605. Primeval chaos.
A620.1. Spontaneous creation — evolutionary type. From primeval chaos gradually arise worlds and life. — Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 327ff.; Greek: Fox 3f.; Hawaiian: Dixon 15 n. 25, 26, Beckwith Myth 3; Maori: ibid. 6, 7, nn. 2, 3, 4, 5; Marquesas Is.: ibid. 11 n. 14.
A645. Creation of universe: genealogical type. A begets B, who begets C, etc. A1220. Creation of man through evolution.
A620.2. Spontaneous encroachment of heavens and earth checked by creator. Jewish: Neuman.
A621. Universe from congealed vapor. Kachin (North Burma): Scott Indo-Chinese 263; Chinese: Werner 136.
A621.1. Creation from vapor-produced primeval giant. Vapors from half-frozen primeval river origin of giant Ymir, from whom universe is created. — Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 327ff.
A642. Universe from body of slain giant.
A622. Universe created out of fire world. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 279, 324, 326.
F702. Land of fire.
A623. Universe created out of ice and mist. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324—26, 304, 329, Herrmann Saxo II 584.
A625. World parents: sky-father and earth-mother as parents of the universe. The sky-father descends upon the earth-mother and begets the world. — Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 2 n. 1, Fox 5, 272; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 194, 328; Hindu: Keith 16; India: Thompson-Balys. — Eastern Indonesia: Dixon 166; Chatham Is.: ibid. 10 n. 12; Cook and Hervey Is.: ibid. 14 n. 21; Maori: ibid. 7 n. 3, 8 n. 7, 9 n. 10, 31; Tahiti: Henry 337f.; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 280 n. 37; S. Am. Indian (Cora): Alexander Lat. Am. 121, (Antilles): ibid. 24; African: Werner African 124.
A401. Mother earth.
A625.1. Heaven-mother — earth-father. Kachin (North Burma): Scott Indo-Chinese 263.
A625.2. Raising of the sky. Originally the sky is near the earth (usually because of the conjunction of the sky-father and earth-mother). It is raised to its present place. — Gaster Oldest Stories 133; Egyptian: Müller 30; Babylonian: Spence 81, 114; Mongolian: Holmberg Siberian 330; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 97. — Indonesian: Dixon 36, 178 nn. 124—133, (Rotti) Jonker Rottineesche Texten No. 58; Pleasant Island (Micronesia): Dixon 250; Central and Western Polynesia, Hawaii, Samoa: ibid. 50f.; Maori: ibid. 31; Chatham Is., Cook Group, Society Is., Samoa, Union Group, Hawaii: ibid. 35; Maori: Clark 13, 15, 171; Philippine: Gifford 23; Tonga: Gifford 18, 23. — N. A. Indian (Mohave): Alexander N. Am. 179; S. Am. Indian (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 93, (Bakairi): ibid. 313, Lévi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 348, (Botocudo): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 540, (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684, (Yuracare): Métraux ibid. 504. — African: Frobenius Atlantis VII 304.
A727. Raising the sun.
A625.2.1. Heaven and earth originally connected by navel string. Navel string cut. — India: Thompson-Balys.
F51. Sky-rope.
A625.2.2. Why the sky receded upward: it was struck by a woman's pestle. India: Thompson-Balys.
A625.2.3. Raising the sky: striking with broom. Old woman's hump strikes clouds as she sweeps. She strikes at sky with broom and thus raises it. — India: Thompson-Balys.
A625.2.4. Deity clothes his father the sky after he has separated him from earth. Maori: Clark 16.
A625.2.5. After sky is lifted, plants and shrubs begin to grow. Maori: Clark 15.
A630. Series of creations. The present universe is the last of a succession of creations. — Etruscan: Fox 289. — Navaho: Alexander N. Am. 159ff.; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 91.
A651. Hierarchy of worlds. A1101. The four ages of the world. A1220.1. Man created after series of unsuccessful experiments.
A631. Pre-existing world of gods above. Such a world is assumed before the real creation of the universe. Though this belief is not explicitly set forth in many mythologies, it seems to be implied in most of the North American Indian systems. See, for example, motif A31, Creator's grandmother. — Jewish: *Neuman. — Samoa: Dixon 18f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.
A632. Succession of creations and cataclysms. From the ruins of each earlier creation a new one is raised. — Jewish: Neuman. — Inca: Alexander Lat. Am. 240; Hawaiian: Dixon 15 n. 24.
A633. Earlier universe opposite of present. Everything in the earlier world was the reverse of the present world. Cf. A855. — California tribes (Capistrano, Luiseño, Diegueño, Mohave): Waterman AA n. s. XI 52.
A636. New creation shouted away. It is unstable and therefore unsatisfactory. — American Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 224, (California): Gayton and Newman 56.
A640. Other means of creating the universe.
A641. Cosmic egg. The universe brought forth from an egg. — Lang Myth. I 252; Dh I 19. — Finnish: Kalevala rune 1; Esthonian: Eisen Estnische Mythologie 170, Loorits Grundzüge I 447f.; Hindu: Keith 74; Society Is., Hawaiian, Maori: Dixon 20; Hawaii: Henry 345. — African: Frobenius Atlantis X 119.
A655. World as egg. A701.1. Origin of sky from egg brought from primeval water. A1222. Mankind originates from eggs.
A641.1. Heaven and earth from egg. They are the two halves of an egg shell. Eros escapes as they are separated. — Greek: Fox 5. — Indonesian: L. d. Backer L'Archipel indien 232.
A641.2. Creation from duck's eggs. Upper vault from half shell, lower vault from half shell, moonbeams from whites, sunshine from yellows, starlight from motley parts, clouds from dark parts. — Finnish: Kalevala rune 1.
A642. Universe from body of slain giant. Ymir. See A621.1. — Icel.: *De la Saussaye 341.
A642.1. Primeval woman cut in pieces: houses, etc., made from her body. India: Thompson-Balys.
A644. Universe from pre-existing rocks. Originally rocks are assumed and everything is made from them. — Samoa: Dixon 17.
A645. Creation of universe: genealogical type. A begets B, who begets C, etc. Finally the universe is brought forth in its present form. — Nias Is. (Indonesia): Dixon 166.
A615. Universe as offspring of creator. A715. Sun born of first couple.
A647. Universe from cosmic fowl. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 217ff.

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