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Prevuius group

Group No. 66


Letter

D. Magic

Group No.

D600 – D699

Group name

Miscellaneous transformation incidents

Description

D600. D600. Miscellaneous transformation incidents.
 
D601. D601. Offer to make pups born of woman in shape of hound human. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D610. D610. Repeated transformation. Transformation into one form after another. – Köhler-Bolte I 265; *Type 325; *Norlind 73ff.; *Scott Thumb 124ff.; Cosquin Études 516ff; Chauvin II 183, V 199. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Child I 337, *V 499 s.v. “transformations, successive”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 16f.; Missouri French: Carrière; Greek: Fox 87 (Nereus), 92 (Periklymenos), 122 (Thetis), Frazer Apollodorus II 67 n. 6, Roscher s. v. “Acheloos”; Persian: Carnoy 270, 272; Turkish: Radloff IV 81ff.; India: Keith 152, Tawney II 168, 510ff., *Thompson-Balys. – Chinese: Werner 361, Eberhard FFC CXX 48; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesian: DeVries Volksverhalen Nos 63, 69, 132. – Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 213 No. 73; Central Caroline Islands: Dixon 258; American Indian (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 83. – Africa (Angola): Chatelain 72 No. 3, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 3, (general): Frobenius Atlantis II 38ff, III 116ff., Meinhof African. Märchen No. 35.
 
D610.1. D610.1. Goddess repeatedly transforms herself. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D611. D611. Protean beggar: Person assumes successive forms in order to beg. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 310 n. 117d.
 
D612. D612. Protean sale: man sells youth in successive transformations. – *Type 325; *BP II 60ff.; *Cosquin Études 567ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; *Kittredge Witchcraft 184 n. 98 – Missouri French: Carrière.
 
D612.1. D612.1. Illusory transformation of animals in order to sell and cheat. (Cf. D2031, K1870.) – Kittredge Witchcraft 184 n. 100.
 
D615. D615. Transformation combat. Fight between contestants who strive to outdo each other in successive transformations. – *Penzer III 195 n. 1, 203ff., VIII 80 n. 1; Mitra *The Magical Conflict in Santali, Ao Naga Folklore (Man in India IX 173 – 80); Chauvin V 2 No. 2, 5 No. 443, 199 No. 116, VI 86 No. 252, 110 No. 274; Cosquin Études folkloriques 570ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 138, 588. – Egypt: Müller 126 (Horus and Seth); Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 256 n. 3 (Hercules and Achelous); Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 110; Finnish: Kalevala rune 28; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 289; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 361; Hawaii: Dixon 90f; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/1001); N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 311 n. 117e; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 220, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 319, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 85, (Greenland): Rasmussen II 96; S. A. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII 1 434.
 
D615.1. D615.1. Transformation contest between magicians. Finnish: Kalevala rune 27; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 50 No. 89; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 169, 242; Africa: Milligan Jungle 100.
 
D615.2. D615.2. Transformation contest between master and pupil. *Type 325; *BP II 68; *Köhler-Bolte I 138, 556; English: Child V 499 s.v. “transformation”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Missouri-French: Carrière.
 
D615.3. D615.3. Transformation combat between lover and maid. BP II 68; Child V 499 s.v. “transformations”.
 
D615.4. D615.4. Men transformed to animals fight. BP III 261 (Grimm No. 163).
 
D615.4.1. D615.4.1. Fairies (gods?) transformed to animals fight. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D615.5. D615.5. Transformation combat between saints. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D616. D616. Repeated transformations to deceive wives. A husband thus makes each of his many wives believe that he is always with her. Hindu: Keith 166.
 
D620. D620. Periodic transformation. A person or thing is transformed at definite intervals. *Types 432, 652; *BP II 125; R. M. Meyer Zs. f. Vksk. XXI 4. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 8 – 9, Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Dixon 219f.; N. A. Indian (Menomini): Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 317; S. A. Indian (Surinam): Alexander Lat. Am. 274, (Guaporé): Lévi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379. – Africa (Angola): Chatelain 145 No. 15, (Mpongwe): Nassau 68 No. 15.
 
D621. D621. Daily transformation. German: Grimm No. 49, 123; India: Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Argentina): Jijena Sanchez 55, 59.
 
D621.0.1. D621.0.1. One shape by day; another by night. Child V 490 s.v. “one”.
 
D621.1. D621.1. Animal by day; man by night. *Types 425, 552A; *Köhler-Bolte I 315ff.; *Fb “hund” I 678a, “bjørn” IV 43a. – Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Hrólfs saga Kraka 50; Spanish: *Boggs FFC XC 62 No. 451; Bohemian: Hartland Science 246. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 135; Mangaia (Polynesia), Samoa, Union Group, Tahiti: Dixon 55f.; Melanesian, Indonesian: ibid. 56 nn. 75, 76; N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 347 nn. 247, 248; S. A. Indian (Arawak): Jijena Sanchez 23.
 
D621.1.1. D621.1.1. Man by day; animal by night. *Taylor MPh XVII 59 n. 8. – Icelandic: Boberg; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 45 No. 71; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 130 No. 71; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 135; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 52.
 
D621.2. D621.2. Tree by day; man by night. Fb “træ” III 867b; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D621.2.1. D621.2.1. Bush by day; woman by night. Italian: Basile I No. 2.
 
D621.2.2. D621.2.2. Flower by day; girl by night. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
D621.3. D621.3. Ugly by day; fair by night. *Köhler-Bolte II 435ff.; Irish myth: Cross.
 
D621.4. D621.4. Size of object transformed at night.
 
D621.4.1. D621.4.1. Magic dog shrinks at night. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D621.5. D621.5. Sheep by day; dog by night. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D621.6. D621.6. Young man issues from conch-shell every evening. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D622. D622. Weekly transformation. See all references to C31.1.2. (Mélusine). – Jijena Sanchez 42.
 
D622.1. D622.1. Transformation to werwolf every Friday night. S. A. Indian (Brazil): Jijena Sanchez 42.
 
D623. D623. Transformation every ten days. Icelandic: Volsungasaga 15.
 
D624. D624. Yearly transformation. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D624.1. D624.1. Storks become men in Egypt in the winter. (Cf. D155.1.) – Wesselski Bebel II 138 No. 117.
 
D624.2. D624.2. Fairies become birds every other year. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D624.3. D624.3. Yearly transformation to person of different sex. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D630. D630. Transformation and disenchantment at will. See, in general, references throughout D610 – D629, D640 – D659, D670 – D699, nearly all of which motifs involve the idea of voluntary transformation. – *Types 652, 665; Hdwb. d. Märchens s.v. “Baum”; *Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 215; *Chauvin VII 83 No. 373bis n. 1. – German: Grimm Nos. 51, 56, 68, 181; Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 84 n. 2, Grote I 105; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 298f., MacCulloch Eddic 46ff. (Odin), *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, Keith 156, 218; Arabian: Burton Nights I 134ff., 220f., III 126f., 236, VII 76, 300, IX 331, X 30, S II 86, 105, S V 88, S VII 239; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 420, II 676; Chinese: Werner 327, Coyajee JPASB XXIV 182, Jameson The Chinese Art of Shifting Shape (JAFL LXIV 275 – 80), Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 85; Indonesian: De Vries’s list No. 152, 153; New Guinea: Dixon 138; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 401ff. note; New Hebrides: Beckwith 131; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 363. – S. A. Indian (Argentina): Jijena Sanchez 53; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 271 No. 84. – Africa (Cold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 42 No. 4, (Ekoi): Talbot 247.
 
D630.1. D630.1. Power of self-transformation received from wood spirit. *Type 677.
 
D630.1.1. D630.1.1. Power of self-transformation received from demon. Jewish: Neuman.
 
D630.2. D630.2. Power of self-transformation received from a god. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 84 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D630.2.1. D630.2.1. Power of self-transformation received from an angel. Jewish: Neuman.
 
D630.3. D630.3. Power of self-transformation received from fairy parent. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D630.4. D630.4. Deity has power of self-transformation. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 93, 117ff, 172ff., 186, 276 – 83, 512.
 
D631. D631. Size changed at will. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D631.1. D631.1. Person changes size at will. Irish myth: Cross; Marquesas: Handy 106; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 77, 241, Rink 402, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 84; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 154 (see D55.2.1.).
 
D631.1.1. D631.1.1. Person changes appearance at will. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D631.2. D631.2. Animal’s size changed at will. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 516.
 
D631.2.1. D631.2.1. Dogs large or small at will. N. A. Indian (Micmac): Michelson JAFL XXXVIII 52.
 
D631.3. D631.3. Size of object changed at will. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen 235, III 173.
 
D631.3.1. D631.3.1. Compressible canoe. Can be made pocket size. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 275 n. 14c.
 
D631.3.1.1. D631.3.1.1. Compressible ship. Can be put into vest pocket. (Cf. D1123.) – Fb “skib” III 243a. – Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 109, Boberg.
 
D631.3.2. D631.3.2. Compressible tent. Large or small at will. Chauvin VI 135 No. 286 n. 1.
 
D631.3.3. D631.3.3. Sword large or small at will. (Cf. D1081.) Fb “sværd” III 690b; Irish myth: Cross.
 
D631.3.4. D631.3.4. Compressible load. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D631.3.5. D631.3.5. Compressible hammer. (Cf. D1209.4.) – Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 79, Boberg.
 
D631.3.6. D631.3.6. Cloth large or small at will. Indonesian: DeVries Volksverhalen II 103.
 
D631.3.7. D631.3.7. Bed large or small at will. Irish myth: Cross (D631.6); India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D631.3.8. D631.3.8. Spear large or small at will. Icelandic: Sturlaugs saga st. 625 – 26, Boberg.
 
D631.4. D631.4. Supernatural creatures change size at will.
 
D631.4.1. D631.4.1. Dwarfs change size at will. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 248.
 
D631.4.2. D631.4.2. Angels change size at will. Jewish: Neuman.
 
D631.4.3. D631.4.3. Demons change size at will. Jewish: Neuman.
 
D631.4.4. D631.4.4. Creature born from egg changes size at will. Marquesas: Handy 124.
 
D632. D632. Boat transforms self at will of master. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “bateau”.
 
D632.1. D632.1. Island canoe. An island that becomes a canoe at will. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 275 n. 14.
 
D640. D640. Reasons for voluntary transformation.
 
D641. D641. Transformation to reach difficult place. *Types 329, 665, 434. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 261; Finnish: Kalevala rune 43; Greek: Fox 178; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 270, 273, 365, Ferguson 159; Maori: Dixon 79; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 310 n. 117; S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 26.
 
D641.1. D641.1. Lover as bird visits mistress. *Type 432; Child V 39ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Grote I 86; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D641.1.1. D641.1.1. Girl as bird visits lover. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D641.1.2. D641.1.2. Transformation to be able to woo maiden. Greek: Grote I 139; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D641.2. D641.2. Transformation to gain access to enemy‘s camp (fortress). Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D641.2.1. D641.2.1. Transformation to spy out enemy’s camp. Korean: Zong in-Sob 64.
 
D641.3. D641.3. Transformation in order to enter rival‘s stomach. (Cf. D651.2.) Tonga: Gifford 76.
 
D641.4. D641.4. Transformation to travel to otherworld. S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 24.
 
D642. D642. Transformation to escape difficult situation. Type 461; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 258 No. 40; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 238 No. 35.
 
D642.1. D642.1. Transformation to escape from captivity. Finnish: Kalevala rune 16; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Chinese: Werner 366.
 
D642.2. D642.2. Transformation to escape death. *Type 316. – Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 49 n. 2, 251 n. 4; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 146, *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 324. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 310 nn. 117a, 117b.; S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 120; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 83; Eskimo (Greenland) Rasmussen II 211; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 247.
 
D642.3. D642.3. Transformation to escape lover. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 22 (Mitis), II 54 n. 1 (Psamathe), 67 n. 6 (Thetis); Chinese: Graham.
 
D642.3.1. D642.3.1. Pursued sweetheart becomes tree. (Cf. D215.) – Greek: Fox 181 (Daphne); India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Crow): Lowie PaAM XXV 45.
 
D642.4. D642.4. Transformation to escape ambush. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D642.5. D642.5. Transformation to escape notice. Greek: Grote I 43; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
D642.5.1. D642.5.1. Transformation to hide from ogress. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D642.6. D642.6. Transformation to escape ogress. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D642.7. D642.7. Transformation to elude pursuers. (Cf. D671, D672.) Jewish: Neuman.
 
D643. D643. Transformation so as to rescue.
 
D643.1. D643.1. Transformation to falcon in order to rescue condemned man at the gallows. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D643.2. D643.2. Man transformed to deer decoy for people at execution of saint‘s friend. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D644. D644. Transformation to travel fast. Icelandic: Boberg; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 317, 323, 331; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 516.
 
D645. D645. Transformation to test heroes. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D646. D646. Transformation to be picked up (caught). Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 262 No. 39.
 
D646.1. D646.1. Transformation to fish to be caught. Chinese: Werner 273, 363.
 
D646.2. D646.2. Transformation to child or pet to be adopted. N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 281 n. 42 (many of the references).
 
D647. D647. Transformation to seek lost (or unknown) person. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D647.1. D647.1. Faithful brother transforms self to deer to seek sister. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D647.2. D647.2. Transformation to eagle so as to scour country for lovely woman as bride for king. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D651. D651. Transformation to defeat enemies. (Cf. D615.) Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 189; Middle English Romance: Wells 103 (Alliterative Alexander Fragment A); Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 219 (Dionysus); India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
D651.1. D651.1. Transformation to kill enemy. India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Aleut): Golder JAFL XVIII 220; S. A. Indian (Yuricare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 504, (Mundurucú): Horton ibid. (3) 294, (Apapocuvá-Guaraní): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 238; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 278 n. 26, (Plains Ojibwa): Skinner JAFL XXXII 303 No. 7.
 
D651.1.1. D651.1.1. Transformation of magic object to animal which kills enemy. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D651.1.2. D651.1.2. Demons assume human form to revenge brother’s death. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D651.1.3. D651.1.3. Queen transforms herself to defeat god of death. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D651.2. D651.2. Transformation to frighten enemy. (Cf. D641.3.) Icelandic: Egils saga einhenda XII 9 – 10; India: Thompson-Balys; Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 359 No. 12.
 
D651.3. D651.3. Transformation to destroy enemy’s property. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 245 No. 47.
 
D651.4. D651.4. Transformation to ant in order to gnaw bow-strings of enemy. *Charpentier Kleine Beiträge 35 n. 3.
 
D651.5. D651.5. Transformation to spy enemy‘s camp. Icelandic: *Boberg; Korean Zong in-Sob.
 
D651.6. D651.6. Transformation so as to protect hero from enemy. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D655. D655. Transformation to receive food. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 300 n. 100, 310 n. 117c.; S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 124f; Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 57 No. 25, (Angola): Chatelain 145 No. 15.
 
D655.1. D655.1. Transformation to buffalo so as to eat grass. Cheyenne: Campbell JAFL XXIX 407 No. 1.
 
D655.2. D655.2. Witch transforms self to animal (hare, pig) so as to suck cows. Kittredge Witchcraft 166, 484 nn. 21, 22; England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.
 
D657. D657. Transformation to steal. (Cf. K300.) – Icelandic MacCulloch Eddic 54; Chinese: Werner 360f.; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 306 n. 109x, (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 63; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 220 No. 32.
 
D657.1. D657.1. Transformation to be put in food-bag. Cape Verde Islands: *Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 323.
 
D657.2. D657.2. Transformation to flying horse so as to abduct king. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D657.3. D657.3. Transformation in order to steal fire. S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 7, (Choco): ibid. 112.
 
D658. D658. Transformation to seduce. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 319 n. 2. 395; India: Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 305 n. 109v.
 
D658.1. D658.1. Transformation to animal to seduce woman. *Krappe Études 53ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 209 n. 2 (Europa), Fox 24, 33, 60, 166, 223; Hindu: Keith 76 (Prajapati); N. A. Indian (Iroquois): Alexander N. Am. 26; Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 81 No. 11, 91 No. 12; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 211, (Congo): Weeks 219 No. 14, (Fjort): Dennett 71 No. 15. Cf. Chinese: Werner 363.
 
D658.2. D658.2. Transformation to husband’s (lover‘s) form to seduce woman. *Penzer III 126f.; *Toldo Zs. f. Vksk. XV 367; *Frazer Apollodorus I 174 n. 1; *Hdwb. d. Märchens s.v. “Betrüger überführt”; Roscher Lexikon s.v. “Alkmene”; Euphorion I 589f.; Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XVI 138ff.; Wells 30 (Geoffrey of Monmouth), 32 (Layamon’s Brut), 43 (Arthour and Merlin), 103 (Alliterative Alexander, Fragment A). – Irish myth: *Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 52, 56, 63, 75; Welsh: ibid. 185; German: Boberg; Indonesian: DeVries‘s list No. 150.
 
D658.3. D658.3. Transformation of sex to seduce. Irish myth: *Cross; Danish: Boberg; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 49.
 
D658.3.1. D658.3.1. Transformation to seduce man. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Hindu: Keith 151.
 
D658.3.2. D658.3.2. Transformation of animal to woman to seduce man. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
D658.3.2.1. D658.3.2.1. God as mare seduces stallion. Icelandic: De la Saussaye 261 (Loki); India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D658.3.3. D658.3.3. Seven girls in guise of seven parrots come to boy who has spurned them. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D659. D659. Miscellaneous reasons for voluntary transformation.
 
D659.1. D659.1. Transformation to snakes at night in order to sleep. (Cf. D621.1.1.) Done by otherworld people. – New Britain: Dixon 117.
 
D659.2. D659.2. Transformation to animals to fight. (Cf. D615) – Icelandic: Boberg; Irish myth: *Cross; Persian: Carnoy 269; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 38.
 
D659.3. D659.3. Transformation to show displeasure. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 94 No. 14.
 
D659.4. D659.4. Transformation to act as helpful animal.
 
D659.4.1. D659.4.1. Transformation to lion in order to guard palace. (Cf. D112.1, D621.1.) – Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 62 No. 451.
 
D659.4.2. D659.4.2. Sea dragon in serpent’s form to accompany hero. (Cf. D419.1.1, B11.) – Chinese: Werner 311.
 
D659.4.3. D659.4.3. Transformation to eagle to carry hero to safety. Africa (Hausa): Equilbecq II 171ff.
 
D659.4.4. D659.4.4. Transformation to eagle in order to guard princess. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
D659.5. D659.5. Transformation to obtain blessing. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D659.6. D659.6. Transformation to friar to instruct mankind. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
D659.7. D659.7. Transformation: wife to mistress. Transformed wife substitutes for husband‘s mistress. – Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
D659.8. D659.8. Transformation to test fidelity. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D659.9. D659.9. Transformation to another form to persuade man to go to battle. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D659.10. D659.10. Transformation to lure hunters to certain place. Usually fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
D659.11. D659.11. Transformation to recover stolen goods. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.
 
D659.12. D659.12. Transformation to tramp to escape recognition. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule. (Cf. D23.1.)
 
D659.13. D659.13. Transformation in order to drive buffaloes to milking. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D659.14. D659.14. Transformation: woman to fly so as to help hero pick out weapons from among many. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D660. D660. Motive for transformation of others.
 
D661. D661. Transformation as punishment. *Dh II 99ff., 123ff., III 284ff., 404ff., 426ff., IV 262; *Type 751A, 368*, 402*; *Fb “fisk” I 296b, “sten” III 553b, 554a; *BP III 168, 462; Köhler-Bolte I 154; Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXIX 69; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 413. – Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala rune 33; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 97 No. 836A*; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “amoureux”; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 82; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 343 (Niobe), Fox 29 (Io); Jewish: Neuman; Tahiti: Dixon 65; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 89 No. 22, 105 No. 29.
 
D661.1. D661.1. Transformation as revenge for repulsing amorous advances. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D661.2. D661.2. Transformation as punishment for denouncing saint. Der Heiligen Leben und Leiden 100ff. (Santa Barbara).
 
D661.3. D661.3. Transformation for violation of vow. Greek: Grote I 162.
 
D662. D662. Transformation to cure inconstant husband. He falls in love with another woman: his wife changes him to negro. He then falls in love with negress: wife changes him to ass. He then falls in love with she-ass. Finally restored to his original form. – *Chauvin II 183 No. 23.
 
D663. D663. Transformation as reward. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
D664. D664. Transformation of woman by goddess to preserve chastity. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D665. D665. Transformation of enemy to be rid of him. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D665.1. D665.1. Transformation of rival in love (marriage) to be rid of him. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D665.2. D665.2. Transformation of stepchild to be rid of him. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D665.3. D665.3. Jealous co-wife transforms the other. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D666. D666. Transformation to save a person. Icelandic: Hjálmtèrs saga ok Ölvers 472, Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.
 
D666.1. D666.1. King of birds transforms his quails into sticks and pebbles so king and his hunters and hawks cannot kill them. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D670. D670. Magic flight. Irish myth: Cross; *Krappe The Legend of Walther and Hildegund (Journal of English and Germanic Philology XXII [1923] 75 – 88).
 
D671. D671. Transformation flight. Fugitives transforms themselves in order to escape detection by the pursuer. – *Types 313, 325, 327; **Aarne Die magische Flucht (FFC XCII); *Fb “and” IV 12b, “rose” III 80a. – Irish myth: *Cross; English: Child V 499 s.v. “transformations”; Greek: Grote I 182; Jewish: Neuman; Arabian: Burton Nights V 353; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 75, 17 n. 1; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 327, 367, III 124, Rink 195, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 182; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 334 n. 205b; S. A. Indian (Sharanti, Comacan, Mashacalí): Horton BBAE CXLIII 3 294, (Mundurucu): Horton ibid. 3 281; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 274 No. 86. – Africa (Kaffir): Theal 98, (Zulu): Callaway 21, (Basuto): Jacottet 206 No. 30, Casalis Les Bassoutos (Paris 1859) 349.
 
D671.0.1. D671.0.1. Fugitive transforms self to stone. Thrown to safety by pursuer. Africa (Zulu): Held 144ff., (Bechuana): Brown, J. T. Among the Bantu Nomads (London, 1926) 181ff., (Northern Rhodesia): Worthington The Little Wise One (London, 1930) 135ff. No. 19, (Gan): Westermann Die Sprache der Guang (Berlin, 1922) 86f.
 
D671.0.2. D671.0.2. Fugitive transformed by helper to escape detection. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Grote I 238.
 
D671.1. D671.1. Reversed transformation flight. Transformed pursuer. Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 363.
 
D672. D672. Obstacle flight. Fugitives throw objects behind them which magically become obstacles in pursuer’s path. – *Types 313, 314, 325, 327, 502; **Aarne Die Magische Flucht (FFC XCII); **BP II 140; Fb “hår” I 771b, “flaske” I 309a, “hvidtorn” I 703a; *Wesselski Theorie 31; *Hdwb. d. Märch. I 151a; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1655; Cosquin Études 166, 193ff. – England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “objets”; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 304 No. 30; Icelandic: Boberg; Hungarian: Solymossy Hongaarsche Sagen (Zutphen, 1929) 403; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 11; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer II 21, III 227 n. 1, 236ff., IX 151; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 234f.; Korean: Zong in-Sob 173f.; Japanese: Ikeda: Indonesian: Dixon 236 nn. 48, 49, DeVries Volksverhalen Nos. 16, 17, 63, 116; Philippine (Tinguian): *Cole 75, 17 n. 1; Marquesas: Handy 117; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 333 n. 205, (Yuchi): Speck UPa I 141 n. 5, Hatt Asiatic Influences 92ff.; S. A. Indian (Mundurucú, Carajá): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55, (Amuesha): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 149; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 79, (Greenland): Rasmussen I 106; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 274 No. 86; Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Märchen 145, (Basuto): Jacottet 4 No. 1, 220 No. 32, (Mpongwe): Nassau 74 No. 15, (Kaffir): Theal 87; Frobenius Atlantis IV 220, V 308. Cf. Ceiuci: Alexander Lat. Am. 304.
 
D672.1. D672.1. Magic objects as decoy for pursuer. Date palms are dropped which are transformed into animals which the pursuer stops to pick up. S. A. Indian (Ceiuci): Alexander Lat. Am. 304.
 
D673. D673. Reversed obstacle flight. Magic obstacles raised in front of fugitive. – Type 450; BP III 205. – Arabic: A. Jahn Die Mehri-Sprache in Südarabien (Wien, 1902) 124 No. 28, D. H. Müller Mehri und Hadrami-Texte (Wien, 1909) 99 No. 39, ibid. Mehri und Soquotri Sprache (Wien, 1905) II 99 No. 20.
 
D674. D674. Magic flight with the help of a he-goat. Speaking he-goat saves the girl promised to the devil. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *314B.
 
D675. D675. Sea turns to ice to permit flight. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 328, 367, III 124, 260, Rink 195, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 182.
 
D680. D680. Miscellaneous circumstances of transformation.
 
D681. D681. Gradual transformation. (Cf. D701.) – Köhler-Bolte I 573. – Greek: Hahn Gr. and alb. Märchen No. 29; Russian: v. Löwis of Menar Russische Märchen No. 29: Norwegian: Aasen Norske Minnestykke No. 62; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 170 No. 32, (White Mountain Apache): Goddard PaAM XXIV 128, (Joshua): Farrand-Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 241 No. 20; – Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 85.
 
D682. D682. Partial transformation. Tobler 54, 59ff., 80; Jewish: Neuman.
 
D682.1. D682.1. Partial transformation: person with animal head. Hartland Science 198; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 150, (Central Eskimo): Boas BAM XV 182, 253, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 49.
 
D682.2. D682.2. Partial transformation: person with animal hair. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 168.
 
D682.3. D682.3. Partial transformation: animal with human mind. Irish myth: *Cross; Penzer VI 5 n. 1.
 
D682.3.1. D682.3.1. Animals in human form retain animal food and habits. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 456, Rasmussen III 73, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 173, (Central Eskimo): Boas BAM XV 217.
 
D682.3.2. D682.3.2. Animal with human eyes. Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
D682.4. D682.4. Partial transformation – color changed. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D682.4.1. D682.4.1. Magic mantle changes color hourly. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D682.4.2. D682.4.2. “Spirit of poetry” as hideous youth becomes beautiful. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D683. D683. Transformation by magician. Kittredge Witchcraft 184 n. 97; Irish myth: *Cross; See also all notes to D615.1.
 
D683.1. D683.1. Transformers. Demigods who transform things at will so that they assume present form. See all references for motifs A900 – A999 for work of transformers. (Cf. D272.) – Marshall Islands: Davenport JAFL LXVI 222.
 
D683.2. D683.2. Transformation by witch (sorceress). *Types 403, 405, 410, 450, 451; *Kittredge Witchcraft 183f. nn. 91 – 96; *Fb “grime” I 484. – Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Fox 137 (Circe); Spanish: *Boggs FFC XC No. 449; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D683.3. D683.3. Transformation by troll. Fb “trold” III 852b.
 
D683.4. D683.4. Transformation by saint. *Toldo Studien zur vgl. Littgsch. V 343; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
 
D683.5. D683.5. Transformation by god (goddess). Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
D683.6. D683.6. Transformation by evil spirits. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D683.7. D683.7. Transformation by fairy. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
D683.7.1. D683.7.1. Transformation by offspring of fairy and mortal. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D683.8. D683.8. Transformation by angel (God). Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
 
D683.9. D683.9. Transformation by druid. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D684. D684. Transformation by helpful animals. *Type 329.
 
D684.0.1. D684.0.1. Transformation by magic animal. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D686. D686. Transformed animal refuses to touch meat of that animal. Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 102 No. 84.
 
D686.1. D686.1. Person transformed to animal refuses human food. Will eat only food suitable for his enchanted form. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 1 and note.
 
D688. D688. Transformed mother suckles child. *Types 403, 450; BP I 79ff., 99ff. – India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda. – Africa (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 87, (Kaffir): Theal 61.
 
D688.1. D688.1. Transformed cow advises daughter. Chinese: Graham.
 
D691. D691. Daily beating of men transformed to dogs. Necessary unless hero himself is to be transformed. – Chauvin V 3 No. 2, *5 No. 443.
 
D692. D692. City’s inhabitants transformed to fish. Different classes to different colored fish. – Chauvin VI 57 No. 222 n. 3.
 
D693. D693. Man transformed to ass plays the lyre. *Type 430; *BP III 166.
 
D694. D694. Food left for transformed person. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D695. D695. Man transformed to woman has children. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D696. D696. Transformation during sleep. Irish myth: Cross.
 
D697. D697. Magic object can transform self.
 
D697.1. D697.1. Magic loin cloth can transform itself into anything. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
D698. D698. Gods have power to transform themselves. Greek myth: passim; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 2, and chapt. 1 passim.
 
D699. D699. Additional transformation motifs.
 
D699.1. D699.1. Eyes of hero‘s buffalo friend turn into two powerful dogs that protect his wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

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