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Prevuius group

Group No. 52


Letter

C. Tabu

Group No.

C400 – C499

Group name

Speaking tabu

Description

C400 – C499. Speaking tabu
 
C400. Speaking tabu. *Fb "stum"; *Type 451, 705, 710; Frazer Golden Bough XII 461 s.v. "silence", Wuttke Volksaberglaube 161, 323; Wimberly Folklore in Ballads 281; Rantasalo FFC XXXII 69ff.; F. L. Grundtvig Dania VI 184ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Herrmann Saxo II 586ff., MacCulloch Eddic 321f., Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Parsons JAFL XXIX 393; (Navaho): Alexander N. Am. 174, (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 90 No. 4.
 
D1741.3. Silence under punishment breaks power of enchantment. E251.1.1. Vampire's power overcome by endurance and prayer. Hero continues to pray without looking or speaking while vampire punishes him. E545.0.2. The dead are silent. H1199.3. Task: shouting from forbidden place. Q451.3. Loss of speech as punishment.
 
C401. Tabu: speaking during certain time. *Frazer Golden Bough XII 461 s.v. "silence". – Spanish Exempla: Keller; German: Grimm Nos. 9, 49, 137.
 
C755. Tabu: doing thing during certain time. D758. Disenchantment by maintaining silence. D2020. Magic dumbness. Q451.3. Loss of speech as punishment. Q535.1. Penance: not to speak.
 
C401.1. Tabu: speaking during vigil. *Types 307, 400; *BP II 330, 335, III 534; Wesselski Mönchslatein 101 No. 86; Hartland Science 246.
 
H1451. Test: speechless vigil in church.
 
C401.2. Tabu: speaking during seven days of danger. As result of prophecy of seven days of danger, an injunction of silence is imposed during this period. – Chauvin VIII 34 No. 1 n. 1; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
 
C401.3. Tabu: speaking while searching for treasure. *Fb "stiltiende" III 569a, "skat" III 236b; *Norlind Skattsägner 57ff. – Swiss Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 3; German: Grimm Deutsche Mythologie II 810ff., v.d. Leyen Sagenbuch IV 238ff.; Norwegian: Skar Gamalt or Sætesdal III 135ff.; Swedish-Finnish: Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII (1) 857 (register); Lappish: Qvigstad Lappiske Eventyr II No. 134; Egyptian: Legrain Louqsor sans les Pharaons 97. – England, U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 693f. – Indonesian: Hambruch Malaiische Märchen 192.
 
N553.2. Unlucky encounter causes treasure-seekers to talk and thus lose treasure.
 
C401.3.1. Tabu: speaking about lost money which is to be regained by witchcraft. The loser cannot refrain from speaking of his loss; the money cannot be recovered. Eng.: Baughman.
 
C401.4. Tabu: speaking while raising sunken church bell. See all references to V115.1.3.1. – England, U.S.: Baughman*.
 
V115.1.3.1. Church bell cannot be raised because silence is broken.
 
C401.5. Tabu: speaking while gathering fernseed to make wishes come true, at midnight on Christmas Eve when fernseed ripens and falls immediately. Scotland: Baughman.
 
C401.6. Tabu: speaking while taking a bath. Jewish: Neuman.
 
C402. Tabu: speaking before certain time. Irish myth: Cross.
 
C756. Tabu: doing thing before certain time.
 
C402.1. Tabu: king speaking before his druids speak. Irish myth: Cross.
 
C560. Tabu: things not to be done by certain class. C563. Tabus of kings.
 
C402.2. Tabu: people speaking before king speaks. Irish myth: Cross.
 
C405. Silence preserved in fairyland. Irish myth: Cross.
 
E545.0.2. The dead are silent.
 
C410. Tabu: asking questions. *Chauvin V 251, 296, VIII 47 No. 15 n. 1. – India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C651. The one compulsory question.
 
C411. Tabu: asking about marvels which one sees. (Cf. C423.2, C491.) – *Chauvin V 251 No. 148. – African: Werner African 187.
 
C651. Hero must ask meaning of strange sights he sees (Percival). J21.6. "Do not ask questions about extraordinary things": counsel proved wise by experience. Those that ask question killed.
 
C411.1. Tabu: asking for reason of an unusual action. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Persian: Bricteux Contes Persans 97 No. 4; Indonesian: DeVries Volksverhalen I No. 35 n.
 
C413. Tabu: expressing surprise in lower world of dead. India: Thompson-Balys; African: Werner African 187.
 
C32.1.2. Tabu: showing surprise when supernatural husband resumes his true shape. C710. Tabus connected with otherworld Journeys. F81. Descent to lower world of dead (Hell, Hades).
 
C415. Tabu: asking prophet for signs. Jewish: Neuman.
 
C420. Tabu: uttering secrets. Fb "sten" III 553b. – Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 59.
 
C31.9. Tabu: revealing secrets of supernatural wife. C820. Tabu: finding certain secret. F511.2.2. Person with ass's (horse's) ears. H13. Recognition by overheard conversation with animals or objects. Person not daring to reveal self directly thus attracts attention. J21.22. "Do not tell a secret to a woman". K975. Secret of strength treacherously discovered. K976. Daughter pulls out father's magic llfecontaining hair. N440. Valuable secrets learned. Q62. Reward for ability to keep secrets. Q340. Meddling punished. T252.3. Wife threatens husband with death if he will not tell secrets.
 
C420.1. Man (woman) persuaded to reveal fatal secret. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
C420.2. Tabu: not to speak about a certain happening. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H1558. Tests of friendship.
 
C420.3. Tabu: uttering secret overheard. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C421. Tabu: revealing secret of supernatural husband. *Type 425A; *Tegethoff Amor und Psyche 33; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
C31.9. Tabu: revealing secrets of supernatural wife. C32. Tabu: offending supernatural husband. C32.1. Tabu: looking at supernatural husband. C757.1. Tabu: destroying animal skin of enchanted person too soon. C761.2. Tabu: staying at home too long.
 
C422. Tabu: revealing identity of certain person. Irish myth: Cross.
 
C51.3. Tabu: revealing name of god. C432. Tabu: uttering name of supernatural creature.
 
C422.1. Tabu: revealing dragon-fighter's identity. Dragon-fighter forbids princess whom he has rescued to tell who he is. – *Type 300.
 
B11.11. Fight with dragon. K1933. Impostor forces oath of secrecy.
 
C423. Tabu: revealing the marvelous.
 
C423.1. Tabu: disclosing source of magic power. Penzer V 3 n. 1; German: Grimm No. 85; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 714; Africa (Fang): Trilles 111, 269.
 
C423.2. Tabu: speaking of extraordinary sight. (Cf. C411, C491.) – *Fb "tale" III 765b; Jewish: Neuman.
 
C423.3. Tabu: revealing experiences in other world. Hartland Science 201. – India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 240.
 
C31. Tabu: offending supernatural wife. F0. Journey to the other world. F370. Visit to fairyland.
 
C423.4. Tabu: uttering secrets heard from spirits. Type 516; Rosen FFC LXXVII 119. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.
 
C423.5. Tabu: revealing sacred mysteries. Jewish: *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 144; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C423.6. Tabu: telling children about lake monster. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 21.
 
C424. Tabu: speaking of good luck. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "aventure".
 
N131. Acts performed for changing luck.
 
C425. Tabu: revealing knowledge of animal languages. *Type 670; **Aarne FFC XV; BP I 132; India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.
 
B217. Animal languages learned. M295.1. Tiger lets man go on condition he does not tell what he has overheard. N456. Laugh reveals secret knowledge. T252.3. Wife threatens husband with death if he will not tell secrets.
 
C426. Tabu: revealing secret song. African: Werner African 209.
 
C427. Tabu: revealing help of grateful animal. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C428. Tabu: revealing time of Messiah's advent. Jewish: Neuman.
 
C429. Tabu: uttering secrets. – miscellaneous. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C429.1. Tabu: mentioning secret water spring. Africa (Lamami): Bouveignes 27.
 
C430. Name tabu: prohibition against uttering the name of a person or thing. – *Types 400, 500; *BP I 495; *Clodd Tom-Tit-Tot, The Magic of Names; Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 809; *Nyrop Navnets Magt; *Chauvin VI 106 No. 270; *Fb "navn" II 675b, 676a; Frazer Golden Bough XII 383 s.v. "names". – Irish: Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 70; Welsh: ibid. 100; English-Scottish: Child V 489 s.v. "naming"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 29; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 17. – Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII *263 No. 66, *277 No. 89. – Africa (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 101, (Vai): Ellis 257 No. 52, (A'Kikuyu): Barrett 42.
 
C31. Tabu: offending supernatural wife. C32.2.1. Tabu: asking name of supernatural husband. H323. Suitor test: learning girl's name.
 
C431. Tabu: uttering name of god (or gods). *Frazer Golden Bough XII 383 s.v. "names"; *Chauvin VI 66 No. 233; Hebrew: Exodus 20:7, Gaster Exempla 233f. No. 288; Jewish: *Neuman.
 
A138. God's ineffable name. C31. Tabu: offending supernatural wife. C51.3. Tabu: revealing name of god. Q221. Personal offences against gods punished.
 
C432. Tabu: uttering name of supernatural creature. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.
 
C10. Tabu: profanely calling up spirit (devil, etc.) – C21. "Ah me!": ogre's name uttered. He appears.
 
C432.1. Guessing name of supernatural creature gives power over him. (Tom-Tit-Tot). – *Type 500; BP I 495; *Clodd Tom-Tit-Tot; Köhler-Bolte I 109; *Fb "gjætte" I 452; Henne-am Rhyn² No. 618. – Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (Powell tr.) I 49, *Boberg.
 
E443.3. Ghosts exorcised by name. F381.1. Fairy leaves when he is named. H521. Test: guessing unknown propounder's name. N475. Secret name overheard by eavesdropper.
 
C433. Tabu: uttering name of malevolent creature (Eumenides). To avoid the evil results of naming these creatures other names are substituted. The Furies are spoken of as Eumenides; rats and mice as "the large" and "the small". – *Fb "rotte" III 83a, "mus" II 630b; Güntert Von der Sprache der Götter und Geister (Halle, 1921) 16; ibid. Kalypso 91; Irish myth: Cross; Esthonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 239 – 248; Greek: Fox 276. – African: Werner African 83.
 
C433.1. Person obnoxious for his sins spoken of as "the other". Jewish: Neuman. – Krappe "L'autre" The French Review XVII (1944) 145ff.
 
C433.2. Dangerous animals not to be named. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 134, III 70.
 
C435. Tabu: uttering relative's name.
 
C435.1. Tabu: uttering spouse's name. *MacCulloch Childhood 337; Frazer Golden Bough III 333 – 339 passim. – Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C190. Sex tabu: miscellaneous. D511.1. Man calls wife "my swallow"; she becomes swallow.
 
C435.1.1. Tabu: uttering name of supernatural wife. Irish myth: Cross.
 
C31. Tabu: offending supernatural wife.
 
C435.1.1.1. Woman (fairy) causes twofold death of mortal husband who utters her name. Irish myth: Cross.
 
F901.2. Extraordinary twofold death.
 
C435.2. Tabu: uttering name of other close relations. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C435.2.1. Tabu: uttering name of sister-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C436. Tabu: disclosing own identity. A supernatural person must not tell who he is. Irish myth: Cross.
 
N731.2. Father-son combat.
 
C437. Tabu: giving child a name lest it die early. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 298.
 
C600. Care of children.
 
C440. Origin tabu. Prohibition against mention of origin of person or thing.
 
C31.2. Tabu: mentioning origin of supernatural wife. C33.1. Tabu: mentioning origin of supernatural child. C35.1. Tabu: mentioning origin of animal wife. C963. Person returns to original form when tabu is broken.
 
C441. Tabu: mentioning original form of transformed person. See references in C31.2, C33.1, and C35.1. – MacCulloch Childhood 261; Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 221; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 342 n. 234; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
B600. Marriage of person to animal.
 
C441.1. Family dares not discuss tigers, fearing that son in form of tiger will return. Chinese.: Graham.
 
C442. Tabu: mentioning land of person's birth. Tiersot RTP VI 730; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C450. Tabu: boasting. Irish: Beal XXI 328; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 161 No. 27, Curtin 19. – Germanic: Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Berufen". – African: Stanley 110, (Loango): Pechuël-Loesche 109.
 
H1215. Quest assigned because of hero's boast. L400. Pride brought low. Q330. Overweening punished. Q433.12. Punishment: abridgement of freedom till extravagant boast is confirmed. T295. Husband's indiscreet boast brings about his death.
 
C451. Tabu: boasting of wealth. *Fb "rose" (2) III 81a.
 
C452. Tabu: boasting of children (Niobe). – Greek: Fox 44, 175; Germanic: Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Berufen".
 
C961.2. Transformation to stone for breaking tabu.
 
C453. Tabu: boasting of love-conquest. Greek: Fox 199 (Anchises and Aphrodite).
 
C31.5. Tabu: boasting of supernatural wife.
 
C454. Tabu: boasting that one has no need of gods' help. Types 830, 836. – Greek: Fox 135 (Ajax the less).
 
C455. Tabu: boasting of fearlessness. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 319 No. 22.
 
C460. Laughing tabu. Type 451; BP I 71. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
 
H1194. Task: making person laugh. V462.7. Ascetic cleric never smiles.
 
C461. Tabu: bearded man laughing when shaken. Irish myth: Cross.
 
C462. Tabu: laughing at sight of ghosts. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.
 
C480. Tabu: other vocal expressions.
 
C480.1. Whistling tabu. *Fb I 326 "fløjte".
 
C480.1.1. Tabu: whistling in mine. U.S.: Baughman (C896.1).
 
C481. Tabu: singing.
 
C481.1. Tabu: birds not to sing around home of goddess. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 186.
 
C482. Tabu: weeping.
 
C482.1. Tabu: people weeping in land of gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 69.
 
C710. Tabus connected with other-world Journeys.
 
C483. Tabu: whistling.
 
C483.1. Tabu: whistling in other world. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 3/1301).
 
C484. Tabu: coughing.
 
C484.1. Tabu: coughing in other world. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 3/1301).
 
C490. Other speaking tabus.
 
C490.1. Substitutes for tabu expressions.
 
C490.1.1. "Save it for the beggar" (substitute for "save it for tomorrow". You may be dead by tomorrow.) – India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C491. Tabu: expressing astonishment at marvel. (Cf. C411, C423.2.) – *Köhler-Bolte I 220. – Irish: Beal XXI 314; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 254 No. 31.
 
D512.1. Transformation when one expresses astonishment at smith drawing water in an egg-shell.
 
C491.1. Tabu: screaming at terrible sight. Hartland Science 243.
 
C492. Tabu: speaking to strangers. Seneca: Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 166 No. 29.
 
C745. Tabu: entertaining strangers.
 
C493. Tabu: thanking (under certain circumstances). Fb "takke" III 763a; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 171; Icel.: *Boberg.
 
C493.1. Tabu: wishing good luck. One must not wish a hunter good luck or a sailor good voyage. – Fb "ønske" III 1178b.
 
N131. Acts performed for changing luck.
 
C494. Tabu: cursing. Jewish: Neuman.
 
M400. Curses.
 
C495. Tabu: using any except one certain phrase. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
J1156. Judge fails to ask proper question.
 
C495.1. All questions to be answered, "I don't know". A youth is so advised by his horse. *Type 532.
 
C495.2. "We three" – "For gold" – "That is right". These expressions are the sole conversation of three men.
 
C495.2.1. "We three" – "For gold" – "That is right" devil's bargain. Three brothers have agreed to say only these things. They incriminate themselves. – *Type 360; BP II 561; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
J2511.2. Numskulls make silence wager. Arrested as thieves.
 
C495.2.2. "We three" – "For gold" – "That is right": phrases of foreign language. Three travelers know each one phrase of a foreign language. They incriminate themselves. *Type 1697; BP II 561; Nouvelles Recreations No. 20; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
M175. Pledge to say but a single phrase. In carrying out this agreement the men innocently confess a crime.
 
C495.2.2.1. "Yes" – "No" – "Very well". – India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C495.3. All questions to be answered "Thanks". Youth is so advised by old woman helper. Type 593.
 
C496. Tabu: using obscene language. Jewish: Neuman.
 
C497. Tabu: speaking to the dead. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
E400. Ghosts and revenants. – miscellaneous.
 
C498. Speaking tabu: the one forbidden expression.
 
C600. Unique prohibition. A person is forbidden to do one particular thing; everything else he is free to do.
 
C498.1. Speaking tabu: the one forbidden expression – "Sorrow is not eternal". – India: Thompson-Balys.
 
C499. Additional speaking tabus.
 
C499.1. Tabu: announcing death directly. Jewish: Neuman.
 
C499.2. Tabu: complimenting. Africa (Pangwe): Tessman 367.

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