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Prevuius group

Group No. 36


B. Animals

Group No.

B0 – B49

Group name

Mythical animals I


B0. Mythical animals. Lum (Peter) Fabulous Beasts (New York, 1951). – Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
A113. Totemistic gods, having animal associations. A131. Gods with animal features. A132. God in animal form.A417.1. Beast guardians of the four quarters of the world. A522. Animal as culture hero. A1700 – 2199. Creation of animal life. A2200 – 2599. Animal characteristics. D1840.2. Magic invulnerability of animals. F167.1. Animals in other world. F234.1. Fairy in form of an animal. F980. Extraordinary occurrences concerning animals.
B1. Animal elders. Mythical ancestors of the present animals. – Irish myth: Cross. – N. A. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 292 No. 40, ibid. 69 (Cherokee), 81 (Pawnee), 156 (Navaho).
A1614.1.2. Origin of "goat-heads" from curse of Ham. A2210. Animal characteristics: change in ancient animal.
B1.1. Angels of animals. Each kind of animal has its angel in heaven. Jewish: Neuman.
B2. Animal totems. Irish myth: Cross.
A113. Totemistic gods. B630. Offspring of marriage to animal. C221.2. Tabu: eating totem animal. C841. Tabu: killing certain animals. V12.4. Animal as sacrifice.
B2.1. Dog as totem animal. Irish myth: Cross.
B5. Fantastic beasts, birds, etc., in art. Irish myth: Cross.
B7. Animals in the heavens.
B7.1. Animals rule celestial spheres. Jewish: Neuman.
B7.2. Mythical animals surround God's throne. Jewish: Neuman.
B7.3. Mythical bird running before the sun bears inscription of golden letters. Jewish: Neuman.
B10. Mythical beasts and hybrids.
B11. Dragon. **Smith Dragon; *Fb Drager, lindorme, slanger i folkets tro (Særtryk af Naturen og Mennesket, 1894, pp. 164 – 196); *Nyrop Dania II 341ff.; *Róheim Drachen und Drachenkämpfer; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 364 ff.; Meyer Germanische Mythologie (1891) 95ff.; **Du Bose The Dragon, Image and Demon (London, 1886); Norlind Skattsägner 44f., 77f., Solheim Register 17; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 133ff., 176ff., (1928) 119ff. – *Type 300; *BP I 547. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 216; Celtic: *Henderson Celtic Dragon Myth (Edinburgh, 1911), *Cross; Lettish: Auning Ueber den lettischen Drachenmythus; Armenian: Ananikian 76ff; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Ferguson 101; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 169, No. 73.
A139.3. Dragon god. A162.2. Combat between god of light and dragon of ocean. A1072.4. Fettered monster as dragon. A1142.2. Thunder from flying dragon. A1265. Men created from sown dragon's teeth. A2001. Insects from body of slain monster. B91.3. Horned snake. B163.1. Animal languages learned from eating dragon's heart. B498. Helpful dragon. C92.2. Tabu: killing sacred dragon. D199.2. Transformation: man to dragon. D419.1.1. Transformation: sea dragon to serpent. D429.1.1. Transformation: dragon king to gust of wind. D659.4.2. Sea dragon in serpent form to accompany hero. D812.7. Magic object received from dragon king. D1846.4. Invulnerability through bathing in dragon's blood. E263. Adulteress returns from dead as devastating dragon. E738.1. Soul in form of dragon. H1024.5. Task: sowing dragon's teeth. H1274. Quest in hell for three dragon feathers.
B11.1. Origin of dragon.
B11.1.1. Dragon from cock's egg. (Cf. B12.1.) – *Fb "drage"; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 600 – 603.
B11.1.2. Dragon from transformed horse. White horse plunges into water and is changed into a dragon. Chinese: Werner 368.
B318. Helpful animals transformed from other animals. D410. Transformation: one animal to another.
B11.1.3. Dragon from transformed man lying on his treasures (Fáfnir). (Cf. B11.6.2.) – Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 367; Eisen Esthnische Mythologie 74ff.; Icel.: *Boberg.
B11. Transformed princess as dragon. Irish myth: Cross; German: Grimm No. 88.
B11.1.3.1. Dragon from worm. Irish myth: Cross.
B11. Dragon develops from small worm placed on gold. It grows together with the gold. DeVries Studien over Faerosche Balladen 122ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 384f.; Icel.: *Boberg.
B11.1.4. Devil in form of dragon. German: Grimm No. 125.
B11.2. Form of dragon. *Smith Dragon, passim.; Chinese: Werner 208ff.
B11.2.0.1. She-dragon. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.2.1. Dragon as compound animal (Cf. B14.) – Smith Dragon 81 (serpent or crocodile, with scales of a fish for covering, and feet and wings and sometimes also the head, of an eagle, falcon, or hawk, and the forelimbs and sometimes the head of a lion). – Chinese: Werner 208 (ears of an ox, feet of a tiger, claws of an eagle, horns of a deer, head of a camel, eyes of a devil, neck of a snake, abdomen of a cock, scales of a carp); Egyptian: Smith op. cit. 79 (lioness, falcon, human being).
B11.2.1.1. Dragon as modified serpent. Smith Dragon 92, 101f., 107ff. (American Indian, Japanese, East Indian). – Icel.: *Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 65.
B11.2.1.2. Dragon as modified lizard. Smith Dragon 109.
B11.2.1.3. Dragon as modified fish. Smith Dragon 108f.; Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 65.
B16.9. Devastating man-eating sea-monster. B21.5. Sea-serpent. B175. Magic fish. B875. Giant sea-monster.
B11.2.1.4. Dragon as modified shell-fish. Smith Dragon 165ff.
B11.2.1.5. Dragon as modified toad. Smith Dragon 109.
B11.2.1.6. Dragon as modified elephant. Smith Dragon 109.
B11.2.1.7. Dragon as modified horse. Smith Dragon 97f. Japanese: Ikeda.
B11.2.1.9. Dragon as modified ram. Smith Dragon 134 (Egyptian, Soudanese, West African, Hindu, Chinese, Japanese, American Indian). The evidence of this identification is merely the spiral horn.
B11.2.1.10. Dragon as modified deer. Smith Dragon 131.
B11.2.1.11. Dragon as modified eagle. Smith Dragon 92f., 108.
B11.4.1. Flying dragon.
B11.2.1.12. Dragon as other modified animal. Smith Dragon 108 (falcon), 165ff. (octopus, whale).
B11.2.2. Color of dragon. Smith Dragon 108 (blue), 137 (red). – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "dragons" (regiment of green dragons). – Icel.: Bósa saga 62 (golden).
B11.2.2.1. Dragon with golden feathers. Icel.: *Boberg.
B11.2.3. Many-headed dragon. (Cf. B15.1.2.) – Danish: Fb "hoved" 65b; Jones PMLA XXIII 569. – Greek: Fox 87 (hundred); Persian: Carnoy 265 (three); Japanese: Anesaki 228 (eight), 333 (nine).
F531.1.2.2. Many-headed giant. G361.1.3. Many-headed ogre. G304.1.3. Many-headed troll.
B11.2.3.1. Seven-headed dragon. *Type 300; Smith Dragon 211f. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "bête". Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 42 No. 302*A; Gaster Thespis 80f, 186. – India: Thompson-Balys; Araucanian: Alexander Lat. Am. 327.
G11.17. Seven-mouthed cannibal ogre. G215.1. Seven-headed witch.
B11.2.3.2. Three-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Africa (Fulah): Frobenius Atlantis VI 182ff. No. 4.
B11.2.3.3. Six-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
B11.2.3.4. Nine-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
B11.2.3.5. Twelve-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
B11.2.3.6. Two-headed dragon. England: Baughman.
B11.2.4. Feet of dragon.
F551. Remarkable feet.
B11.2.4.1. Feet of dragon – number. Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Smith Dragon 101f.; Chinese: Werner 368.
B11.2.4.2. Feet of dragon – nature. Cloven hoofs: Smith Dragon 137. – Claws: Chinese: Werner 368.
B11.2.5. Horns of dragon. Smith Dragon 137. – Chinese: Werner 368, Eberhard FFC CXX 73, 85.
B11.2.6. Wings of dragon. Smith Dragon 137. – Chinese: Werner 368.
B11.2.7. Snakes issue from dragon's shoulders. Persian: Carnoy 320.
B11.2.8. Tail of dragon. Smith Dragon 137; Fb "drage" (if one throws fire over dragon's long tail, the tail falls and is full of treasure).
B11.2.8.1. Dragon encircles city with its tail. India: Thompson-Balys.
B11.2.9. Heart of dragon. Fb "hjærte" 631b.
D1015.1.2. Magic dragon heart. D1500.1.9.3. Dragon's heart-blood as remedy.
B11.2.10. Scales of dragon. Chinese: Werner 368.
B11.2.11. Fire-breathing dragon. *Type 300; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 391; Fb. "drage", "gloende" (glowing eyes and tongue), "ild" (fire from mouth). Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg.
B16. Devastating animals. B742. Animal breathes fire. D1337.11. Dragon's breath renders hideous. M357.1. Prophecy: fiery bolt from a dragon to kill world population.
B11.2.11.1. Dragon spews venom. Icel.: *Boberg.
F582.2. Man spews venom.
B11.2.11.2. Breath of dragon kills man. Scotland, England: *Baughman; Chinese: Werner 236. – N. A. Indian (Iroquois): BBAE XXX pt. 2, 720 s.v. "Teharonhiawagon".
B14.1. Chimera breathes fire. B16. Devastating animals. B742. Animal breathes fire. D1337.11. Dragon's breath renders hideous. M357.1. Prophecy: fiery bolt from a dragon to kill world population.
B11.2.12. Dragon of enormous size. Jewish: Bin Gorion Born Judas II 170, 349, Neuman; Irish myth: Cross; African (Fang): Einstein 47.
B870. Giant animals. F531. Giant.
B11.2.13. Blood of dragon. Irish myth: Cross.
D1016. Magic blood of animal.
B11.2.13.1. Blood of dragon venomous. Irish myth: Cross.
B776.5. Blood of animal considered venomous.
B11.2.14. Dragon with jewel in head. Irish myth: Cross.
B108.2. Serpent with jewel in head.
B11.3. Habitat of dragon.
B11.3.1. Dragon's home in bottom of sea. Smith Dragon 82. – Chinese: Werner 210 (only in autumn and winter); Icel.: Boberg.
F420. Water-spirits.
B11.3.1.1. Dragon lives in lake. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.3.1.2. Dragon's home beneath waterfall. (Cf. F426.) Icel.: Boberg.
B11.3.2. Dragon's home at top of mountain. His breath forms clouds to hide the mountain. – Smith Dragon 82. – Scotland: Baughman.
B11.3.3. Dragon's visit to sky. Chinese: Werner 210 (only in spring and summer). (Cf. B11.4.1.)
B11.3.4. Dragons live beneath castle. Mediaeval Romance: Wells Manual of Writings 39 (Nennius's Historia Britonum) 42f. (Arthour and Merlin).
B11.3.5. Dragon lives under the ground. By his movements a building or village will be dislodged. (Cf. A1070.) – Zingerle Zs. f. deutsche Mythologie und Sittengeschichte II 347; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 890. – Irish myth: Cross.
F450. Underground spirits.
B11.3.6. Dragons live in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 352.
A671. Hell. Lower world of torment. B11.6.4. Dragon guards bridge to otherworld. Q568.2. Sinners in hell swallowed by dragon.
B11.3.7. Dragon lives beneath tree. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 179ff., (1928) 122ff. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319.
B11.3.8. Dragon lives in isolated island. German: Grimm No. 129.
B11.4. Dragon's habits.
B11.4.1. Flying dragon (Cf. B11.2.1.11.) – BP III 423; *Fb "drage" (flies over the mountain). – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 345; *Boberg; Greek myth: *Frazer Apollodorus I 38 n. 2 (air-going chariot and dragons); Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
B40. Bird-beasts. F796. Dragon seen in sky.
B11.4.2. Dragon as giver of omens. Smith Dragon 97.
D1812.5. Future learned through omens.
B11.4.3. Sleepless dragon. Greek Myth (Jason): *Frazer Apollodorus I 95 n. 2.
B11.4.4. Dragon travels on sea or land. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.4.5. Talking dragon. Irish myth: Cross.
B123. Wise serpent. B211. Animal uses human speech.
B11.5. Powers of dragon.
B11.5.1. Dragon's power of self-transformation. Chinese: Werner 223.
B11.5.2. Dragon's power of magic invisibility. Chinese: Werner 209.
D1361. Magic object renders invisible. D1980. Magic invisibility.
B11.5.3. Dragon's miraculous vision. Can see a fly miles away. – Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 97 No 18.
B11.5.4. Dragon's miraculous speed. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18.
B11.5.5. Self-returning dragon's head (Cf. B11.2.3, B11.11.2.) – *Type 300; BP I 547; Eng.: Baughman; Greek: Fox 81 (hydra). – Onondaga: Beauchamp JAFL II 261.
D1602.12. Self-returning head. E783. Vital head. F531.1.2.6. Giant's self-returning head.
B11.6. Deeds of dragons.
B11.6.1. Dragon helps hero out of gratitude. Dickson Valentine and Orson 121 n. 64.
B11.6.1.2. Grateful dragon saves hero and rescues him from prison. Chinese: Eberhard 180.
B11.6.2. Dragon guards treasure. *Norlind Skattsägner 77f.; Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX (1917) 170 No. 4; Penzer III 133; Smith Dragon 157 – 165; Finnish-Swedish; Wessman 76, 78 Nos. 632, 657; Icel.: Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 133ff., (1928) 119ff., III (1895) 454ff., (1931) 311ff.; Greek: *Grote I 219; U.S.: Baughman; Wienert FFC LVI 37; Phaedrus IV 21; Chinese: Werner 209.
B11.1.3. Dragon from transformed man lying on his treasures. B576.2. Animal guards treasure. D950.0.1. Magic tree guarded by serpent (dragon). H335.7. Suitor task: to kill treasure-guarding snake lying around the princess' chamber. N511.4. Treasure found in snake hole. N557. Serpent guards treasure. N570. Guardian of treasure.
B11.6.2.1. Dragon must give up treasure when steel is thrown on him. Fb "stål". III 647a; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 76 No. 632.
B11.6.2.2. Serpents play with precious green stone. Icel.: *Boberg.
B11.6.2.3. Dragon's pearl stolen. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 233 No. 181.
B11.6.3. Dragon feeds on treasure. Oberwallis: Jegerlehner 321 No. 75; Chinese: Werner 210.
B11.6.4. Dragon guards holy land. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.6.5. Dragon guards hermit's food, frightens off robbers. Spanish Exempla: Keller.
B11.6.6. Dragon guards bridge to otherworld. Icel.: *Boberg.
B11.3.6. Dragons in hell. F152. Bridge to otherworld. F721.2.2. Monster guards door of habitable hill.
B11.6.7. Dragon eats an ox at every meal. Icel.: Boberg.
B11.6.8. Dragon flies to its nest with human being. Icel.: *Boberg.
B31.2.2. The bird Gam flies away with human being. R13. Abduction by animal.
B11.6.8.1. Dragon flies away with lion. Icel.: *Boberg.
B11.11.6. Dragon fight in order to free lion.
B11.6.9. Dragon gnaws the roots of tree. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332.
B11.6.10. Sandalwood tree is guarded by dragon with venomous breath. India: Thompson-Balys.
B776. Venomous animals.
B11.7. Dragon as rain-spirit. Smith Dragon 1, 78, 82, 90. – Chinese: Werner 208.
A287. Rain-god.
B11.7.1. Dragon controls water-supply. Hindu: Keith, Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
A1111. Impounded water. Water is kept by a monster so that mankind cannot use it. F420.4.9. Water-spirit controls water-supply.
B11.7.1.1. Dragon causes deluge. China: Eberhard FFC CXX 233 No. 181.
B11.7.2. Dragon guards lake. Penzer VII 235 N. 2; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
B11.8. Dragon as power of good. Smith Dragon 82, 97. – Chinese: Werner 208ff., Graham. Icel.: Boberg.
B11.9. Dragon as power of evil. So considered everywhere except in the East, where are also found beneficent dragons. – Smith Dragon 82. – Irish myth; Chinese: Werner 208 (introduced by the Buddhists).
B11.10. Sacrifice of human being to dragon. *Type 300; Penzer VII 236, 240; Dickson Valentine and Orson 226f.; Gaster Thespis 176; Hartland Legend of Perseus passim; Fb "drage", "pige". – Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 34; Persian: Carnoy 320; India: *Thompson-Balys; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "exposition"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXXIX 17; Missouri French: Carrière; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 41; Japanese: Anesaki 249.
B16.6. Giant devastating serpent. R111.1.3. Rescue of princess (maiden) from dragon. S262. Periodic sacrifices to a monster.
B11.10.0.1. Sacrifice of animals to dragon. Irish myth: Cross.
V12.4. Animal as sacrifice.
B11.10.1. Dragon keeps maiden tied with golden chain. Köhler-Bolte I 128.
B11.10.2. Dragon eats people for his rent. Chinese: Graham.
B11.10.3. Dragon devours children. India: Thompson-Balys; Eng., U.S.: Baughman.
B11.11. Fight with dragon. *Type 300; *BP I 547; *Smith Dragon 79ff., 104; *Róheim Drachen und Drachenkämpfer; *Norlind Skattsägner 67f., *Liebrecht Zur Volkskunde 70; **von Sydow Sigurds Strid med Fåvne; *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt I 204 nn. 1, 2; Clouston Pop. Tales and Fictions I 155ff.; *Spence 80; *E. Siecke Drachenkämpfe; Fb "Jörgen" II 67a (St. George and the Dragon). – Germanic: Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 371; Heusler Altnordische Dichtung und Prosa von Jung Sigurd (Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akad. v. Wissenschaften, 1919, 162 – 195); **H. Sandkühler Der Drachenkampf des heiligen Georg in englischer Legende u. Dichtung vom 14. bis 16. Jahrhundert (Diss. München 1914); *Loomis White Magic 65, 119; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus 27 no. 4 (Apollo and Python), I 153 n. 1 (Bellerophon and Chimera); Celtic: MacCulloch Celtic 130ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman, Gaster Thespis 140 ff., 326ff.; Egyptian: Müller 127; Persian: Carnoy 266, 270, 273, 322, *325, 329f.; Hindu: Keith 33 (Indra); India: *Thompson-Balys; Armenian: Ananikian 77; Japanese: Anesaki 228; Chinese: Werner 224, 361, Eberhard FFC CXX 105, 138; Arabian: Burton I 172. – English: Wells Manual of Writings 16 (Guy of Warwick), 115 (Sir Eglamour), 117 (Torrent of Portyngale); Missouri French: Carrière; Africa (Fang): Einstein 44, 47. – Cf. *Olrik Ragnarok 57ff. (fight with giant serpent).
A531. Culture hero overcomes monsters. B524.1.1. Dogs kill attacking dragon. B875.2. Giant sea-monster overpowered by saint (hero). C422.1. Tabu: revealing dragon-fighter's identity. D1385.14. Milk of two king's children protects hero in dragon fight. D1402.14. Magic circle of saliva kills dragon. D1795. Dragon-fighter's magic sleep. F962.10.1. Mist settles over lake after fight with serpent. G357.1. Hero overcomes devastating animal. H105.1. Dragon-tongue proof. H1333.3.0.1. Quest for branches of tree guarded by dragon. H1561.6. Test of valor; fight with giant. K835. Dragon deceived into listening to tale: hero cuts off his head. K1052. Dragon attacks own image in mirror. R111.1.4. Rescue of princess (maiden) from dragon. T68.1. Princess offered as prize to rescuer.
B11.11.1. Dragon fight: respite granted and dragon returns with renewed strength. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXXIX 21; Missouri French: Carrière.
B11.11.2. Hero's dogs (horse) prevent dragon's heads from rejoining body. (Cf. B11.2.3.) – *Type 300; *BP I 547.
B11.5.5. Self-returning dragon's head.
B11.11.3. Dragon combats attack with showers of fiery spines. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.2. Form of dragon. B11.12.3. Fiery dragon.
B11.11.4. Dragon fight in order to free princess. Icel.: *Boberg. (See also R111.1 and most of the references toB11.11.).
B11.11.5. Dragon fight in order to free man. Icel.: *Boberg.
B11.11.6. Dragon fight in order to free lion. Icel.: *Boberg.
B11.6.6.1. Dragon flies away with lion.
B11.11.7. Woman as dragon-slayer. India: Thompson-Balys.
B11.11.8. Dragon doubles his demand after men's rebellion. Africa (Fang): Einstein 42.
B11.12. Other traits of dragon.
B11.12.1. Dragon cannot be killed with weapons. Wesselski Mönchslatein 171 No. 136; Irish myth: Cross; Eng.: Baughman; Gaster Oldest Stories 69.
A2468.3. Why dragon dies by means of fire. K1840.2. Magic invulnerability of animals.
B11.12.1.1. Dragon which cannot be killed with weapons is kicked in vulnerable spot. England: Baughman.
B11.12.1.2. Dragon dips wounded part in holy well, is healed immediately. England: Baughman.
B11.12.2. Dragon's shriek makes land barren. Irish myth: Cross; MacCulloch Celtic 130.
B741. Lion's roar causes havoc at 300 miles. B741.1. Cry of giant ox impregnates all fish. D2081. Land magically made sterile.
B11.12.3. Fiery dragon. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.2.11. Fire-breathing dragon. B11.11.3. Dragon combats attack with showers of fiery spines. B15.7.13. Bird with fiery beak. B15.7.14. Bird with tail of fire. B19.4. Glowing animals. D1271. Magic fire. F574. Luminous person.
B11.12.4. Dragon is fond of milk.
B11.12.4.1. Dragon is fed great quantities of milk to keep him pacified. England: *Baughman.
B11.12.5. The dragon-king. Chinese: Eberhard 25 No. 13,65, 87 No. 7,158, 245 No. 190.
B11.12.6. Dragon can hear a child cry even at great distance. India: Thompson-Balys.
B11.12.7. Human-dragon marriage. Chinese: Eberhard 49, 64f., 103, 135, No. 92.
B12. Basilisk. A mythical lizard or serpent whose hissing drives away all other serpents. – *Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXVII 46ff.; *Fb "basilisk"; *A Guichot y Sierra El Basilisco (Folklore Español III 9 – 83); *Norlind Skattsägner 46 n. 1; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Basilisk"; Köhler-Bolte I 133. – English: Wells Manual of Writings 105 (Prose Alexander); Jewish: Neuman.
B12.1. Basilisk hatched from cock's egg. Usually, a seven-year-old cock. Egg must lie in manure. (Cf. B11.1.1.) – *Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXVIII 46ff.; *Fb. "basilisk" I 53a, IV 29a; De Vries Het Sprookje 19 – 97; Taylor PMLA XXXVI 35ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Basilisk".
B19.3. Horse born of egg. B710. Fanciful origin of animal.
B12.2. Basilisk's fatal glance. Renders powerless or kills. – *Fb "basilisk" I 53a, IV 29a, "øje" III 1167b; Penzer VIII 75 n.l.
D2061.2.1. Death-giving glance. D2071. Evil Eye.
B12.3. Basilisk killed by seeing own image. *Fb "basilisk" I 53a, "spejl" III 48a; Ward Catalogue of Romances III 194; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 139; Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 935.
B13. Unicorn. (Cf. B15.7.2.) – *Type 1640; *BP I 164; **Odell Shepard The Lore of the Unicorn (London, 1929); **Robert Brown Jr. The Unicorn, a Mythological Investigation (London, 1881); Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 232f.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Einhorn"; Bolte Reise der Sonne Giaffers 212; Icel.: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Ferguson 98.
K771. Unicorn tricked into running horn into tree. A2214.3. Unicorn thrown from ark and drowned: hence extinct.
B14. Other hybrid animals.
B16.1.1. Monster cat born of a pig.
B14.1. Chimera. Combination of lion, dragon, and goat. Breathes fire. – *Frazer Apollodorus I 151 n. 2, 153 n. 1; Fox 39. – Egyptian: Müller 169.
B11.2.11. Fire-breathing dragon. B742. Animal breathes fire.
B14.2. Animal with body of horse, legs of hound. Irish myth: Cross.
B14.3. Hybrid monster: calf-sheep. S. A. Indian (Araucanian): Cooper BBAE CXLIII II 753.
B15. Animals with unusual limbs or members.
B20. Beast-man. B50. Bird-man. B80. Fish-man. B700. Fanciful traits of animals. B720. Fanciful bodily members of animal. D1010. Magic bodily members – animal. F241.1.3.1. Fairy horse, one-legged.
B15.1. Animal unusual as to his head.
B15.1.1. Headless animals. *Fb "hovedløs" IV 223a.
B15.1.1.1. Headless dog. North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 636.
B15.1.2. Many-headed animal. (Cf. B15.7.2.) – Irish myth: Cross; N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 357 n. 287f. – Africa (Angola): Chatelain 93 No. 5.
B11.2.3. Many-headed dragon. D1846.2. Invulnerability bestowed by many-headed monster. F531.1.2.2. Many-headed giant. G304.1.3. Many-headed troll. G361.1. Many-headed ogre.
B15.1.2.1. Two-headed animal. U.S.: Baughman; Jewish: Neuman.
B15. Two-headed serpent. One head in front and one at rear. – Penzer V 135 n. 2.
B15. Two-headed tiger. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 142 – 158 passim.
B15. Jaguar with two heads. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 155.
B15. Two-headed dog. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 211 n. 3 (Orthus).
B15.1.2.2. Three-headed animal.
B15. Three-headed bird. Irish myth: Cross.
B15. Three-headed serpent. Persian: Carnoy 311; Hindu: Keith 36, 154.
B15.1.2.3. Four-headed animal.
B15. Four-headed monster. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.1.2.4. Fire-headed animal.
B642.1.1. Marriage to person in form of five-headed snake.
B15.1.2.5. Six-headed animal.
B15.1.2.6. Seven-headed animal.
B11.2.3.1. Seven-headed dragon. G11.17. Seven-mouthed cannibal ogre.
B15. Seven-headed serpent. Gaster Thespis 80f.; Hindu: Keith 154; Zanzibar: Bateman 134.
G215.1. Seven-headed witch.
B15.1.2.7. Eight-headed animal.
B15.1.2.8. Nine-headed animal.
B15. Hydra: nine-headed monster. Middle head immortal. – *Frazer Apollodorus I 187 n. 3.
F1041.5. Poison of hydra corrodes the skin.
B15. Nine-headed serpent. Fb. "hugormekonge".
B15.1.2.9. Ten-headed serpent. Hindu: Keith 154.
B15.1.2.10. Other many-headed animals.
B15. Twelve-headed serpent. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges. India: Thompson-Balys.
B15. Hundred-headed serpent (monster). Irish myth: Cross.
B15. Thousand-headed serpent. Hindu: Penzer VI 61 n. 1, VI 176.
A842.1. Serpent supports the earth. Thousand-headed serpent.
B15.1.3. Animal with head of bone. Irish myth: Cross.
F511. Person unusual as to his head. F558. Man covered with horn.
B15.2. Many-mouthed animal (Cf. B15.7.2.).
B15.2.1. Six-mouthed serpent. Persian: Keith Ind. Myth. 36.
B15.3. Animal unusual as to his horns.
F511.3. Person with horns. G361.1.2.1. Monster with two horns, each having human head on it.
B15.3.0.1. Hornless cow. Irish myth: Cross.
B15. Hornless bull. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.3.0.2. One-horned ox. Jewish: Neuman.
B15.3.1. Many-horned animal.
B15.3.1.1. Three-horned deer. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 129, Cross.
B15.3.1.2. Nine-horned sheep. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.3.1.3. Ox with three horns. Icel.: *Boberg.
B15. Ox with four horns. Icel.: *Boberg.
B15.3.2. Animal with a gold (silver) horn.
B15.3.2.1. Deer with a gold and a silver horn. *Fb "hjort" I 625 a.
B15.3.2.2. Goat with a gold and a silver horn. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
B15.3.2.3. Ox with golden horns. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.
B15. Cow with silver horns. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
B15.3.3. Deer with giant antler. Irish myth: Cross.
B106.1.1. Stag with golden antlers. B870. Giant animals. F234.1.4. Fairy in form of stag.
B15.3.4. Animal usually harmless has horns.
B15.3.4.1. Hare with horns. India: Thompson-Balys.
B15.3.4.2. Horned armadillo lives underground. S. A Indian (Chaco): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.
B15.3.5. Animal with horn on his head pointing to the sky. Chinese: Graham.
B15.4. Animals with unusual eyes. (Cf. B15.7.2.) Irish myth: Cross.
B721. Cat's luminous eye. F541. Remarkable eyes.
B15.4.1. Many-eyed animal.
B15.4.1.1. Many-eyed antelope. Southern Ute: Lowie JAFL XXXVII 49 No. 24.
B15.4.1.2. Four-eyed tiger. S. A. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 144.
B15.4.1.3. Four-eyed jaguar. S. A. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.
B15.4.1.4. Eight-eyed bat. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 233.
B15.4.2. Beasts with fiery eyes.
B15.4.2.1. Dog with fire in eyes. (Cf. B19.4.) – Fb "ild". – Gaster Thespis 214.
E42.3.6. Ghosts as dogs with glowing tongues and eyes. E501.4.1.3. Dogs with fiery eyes in wild hunt.
B15.4.3. Dogs with eyes like plates, tea-cups, etc. Fb. "øje" 1165b.
B15.4.4. Animal with human eyes (transformed man). Icel.: *Boberg.
B15.4.5. One-eyed pig. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.5. Animal unusual as to his nose (snout).
F514. Person unusual as to his nose. F543. Remarkable nose.
B15.5.1. Horse with fire-breathing nostrils. (Cf. B19.1.) – Fb "ild" II 12a; Icel.: *Boberg.
B742. Animal breathes fire. E501.4.2.4. Horse in wild hunt breathes fire.
B15.5.2. Animal with snout of iron. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. B15.7.13.1.)
B15.6. Animals with unusual legs or feet. (Cf. B19.1.)
B11.2.4. Feet of dragon. E501.4.2.6. Two-legged horse in wild hunt. F551. Remarkable feet. H609.5. Symbolical interpretation of fight between one-legged bird and twelve-legged bird. X1381. Lie: animal with long and short legs for mountain climbing.
B15.6.0.1. One-footed animal. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.6.1. Three-legged quadrupeds. Fb. "trebenet"; Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol 590; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 20; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 420. Mannhardt Germanische Mythen 409; Wehrhan Freimauerei 53 (hare). – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 152.
E501.4.1.6. Three-legged dogs in wild hunt. E521.2. Three-legged ghost of horse. F241.1.3. Fairies ride on three-legged horses.
B15.6.2. Empousa. Monster with one foot of brass and another of an ass. – Greek: Fox 278.
B15.6.3. Animals with many legs. Ipolyi Zs. f. deutsche Mythologie II 269. – Hindu: Penzer III 259 n. 1 (sarabhas); Irish myth: Cross.
B15.6.3.1. Six-legged quadruped.
B15. Six-legged horse. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A135. Sleipnir: eight-legged horse of Odin.
B15.6.3.2. Twelve-legged bird. Irish myth: Cross.
B172. Magic bird. H619.5. Symbolical interpretation of fight between one-legged bird and twelve-legged bird.
B15.6.3.3. Seven-legged beast. India: Thompson-Balys.
B15.6.4. Bull with human hands and feet. India: Thompson-Balys.
B15.7. Other animals with unusual limbs or members. (Cf. B20, B142, B92.) Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.1. Cerberus. The hell hound with three heads, a serpent's tail, and a writhing tangle of snakes from his body. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 88, 142.
A673. Hound of hell. Cerberus (monstrous dog) guards the bridge to the lower world.
B15.7.2. Monster three-legged ass. Stands in the ocean. Has three feet, six eyes, nine mouths, two ears, one horn, a white body. Two eyes are in eye position, two on top of his head, two on his hump. He renders powerless by the sharpness of his eyes. He has three mouths in his head, three in his hump, and three in the inner parts of his flanks. Each mouth is the size of a cottage. (Cf. B13, B15.1, B15.2, B15.4.) – Persian: Carnoy 270.
B871. Giant animals. G350. Animal ogres.
B15.7.3. Bird with head of gold and wings of silver. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.4. Fox with eight-forked tail. Japanese: Anesaki 325, Ikeda.
B15.7.5. Ghormuhas: men's bodies, horses' heads, one leg, cannibals. (Cf. B21.) India: Thompson-Balys.
B15.7.6. Three-tailed turtle. Korean: Zong-in-Sob 169 No. 73.
B15.7.7. Leopard with nine tails. Africa (Chaga): Gutman Globus XCI 239ff.
B15.7.7.1. Nine-tailed fox. Korean: Zong-in-Sob 230 No. 99, 20 No. 9, 38 No. 22; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 141.
B15.7.8. Boar with nine tusks in each jaw. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.4. Giant devastating boar. B183. Magic boar. B871.2. Giant boar.
B15.7.9. Cow with tallow liver. Irish myth: Cross.
B182. Magic cow. H1331.3.2. Quest for cow with liver of tallow. U35. Rich man seizes poor widow's cow.
B15.7.9.1. Cow with two bags: one containing a one-legged bird; the other, a twelve-legged bird. Irish myth: Cross.
B182. Magic cow (ox, bull).
B15.7.10. Animal unusual as to skin. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.10.1. Animal with horny skin. Irish myth: Cross.
F558. Man covered with horn.
B15.7.10.2. Animal with hair of iron pins. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.11. Animal with one head, two bodies, six legs. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. B15.6.3.5, B15.7.9.1.)
B15.7.12. Eel with fiery mane. Irish myth: Cross.
B17.2.1.2. Hostile eel attacks hero. D1271. Magic fire.
B15.7.13. Bird with fiery beak. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.12.3. Fiery dragon. B33.1. Other devastating birds. D1271. Magic fire.
B15.7.13.1. Bird with beak of iron. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg.
B15.7.14. Bird with tail of fire. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.15. Monster with 100 hands, 100 palms on each hand, and 100 nails on each palm. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.16. Eagle with twelve wings and three heads. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (B172.6.)
B16. Devastating animals. India: *Thompson-Balys.
B11.2.11. Fire-breathing dragon. B11.12.2. Dragon's shriek makes land barren. B17. Hostile animals. B33. Man-eating birds. B776. Venomous animals. E263. Adulteress returns from dead as devastating dragon. F366.3. Fairies in form of devastating animals kill flocks. F981.4. Fiery bolt from heaven kills devastating animal. G346. Devastating monster. H1161. Task: killing ferocious beast. H1362. Quest for devastating animals.
B16.0.1. Beasts that destroy vineyards and steal fruit. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.0.2. Tormenting beast in man's stomach. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.0.3. Man-eating monster (in cave). Irish myth: Cross.
B16.1. Devastating domestic animals.
B16.1.1. Monster cat devastates country. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 191; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chat"; India: Thompson-Balys.
B184. Magic cat. B871.10. Giant cat. H1411.2. Fear test: spending night in haunted house infested by cats. R13.2. Cat abducts person.
B16.1.1.1. Monster cat born of a pig. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 191.
B871. Giant animals.
B16.1.1.2. Cat leaps through man like arrow of fire and burns him to ashes. Irish myth: Cross.
B19.4. Glowing animals. B184. Magic cat. F831.2. Arrows of fire. F916. One animal jumps through body of another.
B16.1.1.3. Cat devours flesh of man's legs. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.1.2. Devastating dog (hound). Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
B16.1.2.1. Giant devastating hound. Irish myth: Cross.
B871.13. Giant dog (hound).
B16.1.3. Devastating horse.
B16.1.3.1. Man-eating mares. *Frazer Apollodorus I 200 n. 1.
B16.1.4. Devastating swine. Irish myth: Cross.
B183. Magic boar (pig).
B16.1.4.1. Giant devastating boar. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 82; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.
B183. Magic boar. B871. Giant animals.
B16.1.4.2. Giant devastating sow. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Celtic 187, *Fb "so" III 450a.
B16.1.5. Man-eating cattle. India: Thompson-Balys.
B16.1.5.1. Monster ox (bull) killed. Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch-Epos VI 94ff., cf. 120 – 21, 129ff.; Greek: Fox 29, 62, 84, 102; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 85, *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.
B23. Man-bull.
B16.1.5.2. Destructive cow possessed by demons. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. B17.1.3.)
B16.1.5.3. Devastating bull. Greek: Grote I 189.
B16.1.6. Destructive sheep. Irish myth: Cross.
B189.1. Magic sheep. B776.1. Venomous sheep destroy enemy. B871.3. Giant sheep.
B16.1.6.1. Devastating supernatural lamb. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.2. Devastating wild animals.
B16.2.1. Devastating fox. Monthly human sacrifice. – *Frazer Apollodoms I 171 n. 2.
S262. Periodic sacrifices to a monster.
B16.2.2. Devastating tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
B16.2.2.1. Hostile tiger killed. Icel.: *Boberg.
B16.2.3. Giant lion overcome by hero. Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch-Epos VIII; Greek: Fox 80; Icel.: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.
H1161. Task: killing ferocious beast.
B16.2.4. Giant devastating wolf overcome by hero. Icel.: Boberg.
B16.2.5. Devastating bear killed. Icel.: Boberg.
B16.2.6. Devastating elephant. Icel.: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese-Persian: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 188.
B16.2.7. Destructive deer. Irish myth: Cross.
B188. Magic deer. F234.1.4. Fairy in form of deer.
B16.2.8. Giant man-eating mice. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.2.9. Devastating bison (buffalo). German: Grimm No. 197; India: Thompson-Balys.
B16.3. Devastating birds. (Cf. B33.)
B16.4. Devastating fish carries off daily victim. India: Thompson-Balys; Greek: Grote I 189.
B16.4.1. Leviathan casts up gorge which spreads disease. Irish myth: Cross.
B61. Leviathan.
B16.4.1.1. Leviathan causes cataclysm by striking earth with tail. Irish myth: Cross.
A1145.2. Earthquakes from movements of sea-monster.
B16. Sea-beast: when it belches landward, it causes disease; upward it kills birds; downward, fishes and sea animals. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.5. Devastating reptiles.
B16.5.1. Giant devastating serpent. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 144f. – Africa (Chaga): Stamberg Zs. f. Eingeborenen-Spr. XXIII 296ff., Gutmann Volksbuch der Wadschagga 82f. No. 41, (Ganda): Baskerville King of the Snakes 1ff., (Senegambia): Béranger-Feraud Recueil de Contes Populaires de la Senegambia II 185ff. No. 2, (tribes of Western Sudan): Tauxier Le Noir du Yatengo 496 No. 1.
B16.5.1.1. Devastating serpent with fiery breath. India: Thompson-Balys.
B11.6.4.1. Sandal-wood tree is guarded by dragon with venomous breath.
B16.5.1.2. Devastating (man-eating) sea-monster (serpent). Irish myth: Cross.
B91.5. Sea-serpent. B875. Giant sea-monster (serpent). G308.1. Fight with sea- (lake-) monster.
B16. Serpent sucks man's breath (blood). India: *Thompson-Balys.
B16.5.2. Devastating crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX II No. 188.
B16.5.3. Devastating shell-fish. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 119f.
B16.5.4. Man-devouring turtle. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 145.
B16.6. Devastating insects.
B16.6.1. Giant man-eating ants. Irish myth: Cross.
B874. Giant insects.
B16.6.2. Blood-sucking chafer. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.6.2.1. Fierce black chafer. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.6.3. Destructive locusts (with wings of iron) eat wheat crop. Irish myth: Cross.
B16.6.4. Devastating spider. India: Thompson-Balys.
B16.6.5. Devastating centipede. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 232f.
B17. Hostile animals. Irish myth: Cross.
B16. Devastating animals. B778. Venomous animals. G346. Devastating monster.
B17.1. Hostile beasts. Irish myth: Cross.
B17.1.1. Ferocious animals loosed against attackers. Irish myth: Cross.
B776.1. Venomous sheep destroy enemy.
B17.1.2. Hostile dog (hound). Irish myth: Cross.
B16.18. Devastating dog. B187. Magic dog.
B17.1.2.1. Bloodhounds decapitate victim. Irish myth: Cross.
B17.1.2.2. Hostile hound killed by reaching through hollow log in its jaws – and tearing heart out. Irish myth: Cross.
F628.1. Strong man kills animals with own hands. F981. Extraordinary death of animal.
B17. Hero kills hostile hound (monster) by tearing (forcing) out its entrails (heart). Irish myth: Cross.
F628.1.0.1. Strong man tears out hound's heart. F981. Extraordinary death of animal.
B17.1.2.3. Transformed man as hostile dog. Irish myth: Cross.
D141. Transformation: man to dog.
B17.1.3. Hostile cattle. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. B15.1.5.2.)
B17.1.4. Hostile horse. Irish myth: Cross.
B181.7. Magic horse avenges hero's death.
B17.1.4.1. Infuriated horses kill driver. Irish myth: Cross.
B17.1.5. Hostile cat. Irish myth: Cross (B16.1.4).
B17.2. Other hostile animals. Irish myth: Cross.
B17.2.1. Hostile sea-beasts. Irish myth: Cross.
B61. Leviathan. B91.5. Sea-serpent. G308. Sea-monster.
B17.2.1.1. Hostile sea-rat. Irish myth: Cross.
B70. Fish-beast.
B17.2.1.2. Hostile eel attacks hero. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.12. Eel with fiery mane. R262. Magic eel pursues man over land.
B17.2.1.3. Hostile sea-cat. Irish myth: Cross.
B73. Sea-cat.
B17.2.2. Hostile griffin. Irish myth: Cross.
B42. Griffin.
B17.2.3. Hostile raven.
B17.2.3.1. Raven plucks out men's eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.
B17.2.4. Hostile scorpion.
B17.2.4.1. Scorpion scoops out men's eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.
B18. Behemoth: mythical gigantic animal. Jewish: Neuman.
B19. Other mythical beasts. Fb "solulv".
A673. Hound of hell. A878.3.1. Hart(s) eating of the earth-tree. A878.3.2. Chattering squirrel in the earth-tree.
B19.1. Brazen-footed, fire-breathing bulls. (Cf. B15.6, B15.5) – Frazer Apollodorus I 109 n. 4, 110 n. 1.
A141.1. God makes automata and vivifies them. Hephaistos thus makes brazen giant, brazen-footed bulls, and gold and silver dogs. B182.3. Magic bull. B742. Animal breathes fire.
B19.2. Nectar-yielding cow. Hindu: Keith 37.
B182. Magic cow. B530. Animals nourish man. D1472. Food and drink from magic object. D1665.2. Cow whose milk tastes like honey and intoxicating wine.
B19.2.1. The cow Audhumla. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324.
A14. Cow as creator.
B19.3. Horse born of egg. Mythical hero will come riding on such a horse. – Fb "Holger Danske" I 640b, "æg" III 1142b.
A580. Culture hero's expected return. B12.1. Basilisk hatched from cock's egg. B710. Fanciful origin of animal.B811.1. Helpful horses descended from heaven.
B19.3.1. Immortal horses. Greek: Grote I 11.
B19.3.2. Mythical horse belonging to water-spirit. S. A. Indian: Toba Métraux MAFLS XL 50.
B19.4. Glowing animals. Horses, swine, etc. which glow. (Cf. B15.4.2.) – *Wuttke Der deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart 59; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "glühend"; *Fb "gloende". – Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Icel.: Boberg.
B11.12.3. Fiery dragon. B16.1.2. Cat leaps through man like arrow of fire and burns him to ashes. B172.8. Magic osprey produces lightning. B721. Cat's luminous eye. D1645. Self-luminous eyes. E501.4.1.2. Dogs with fiery tongues in wild hunt. E501.4.2.5. Horse with fiery eyes in wild hunt. E501.4.1.3. Dogs with fiery eyes in wild hunt.
B19.4.1. Burrowing swine heat ground. Irish myth: Cross.
B183.2. Magic swine issue from elf-mound.
B19.4.2. Fiery serpent. Irish myth: Cross.
B11.2.3. Fiery dragon.
B19.4.3. Sheep with fiery collar. Irish myth: Cross.
B189.1. Magic sheep.
B19.4.4. Hound flame of fire by night. Irish myth: Cross.
B187. Magic dog.
B19.5. Horse with golden mane. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 66, 153.
B19.6. Herd which came from heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.
B19.6.1. Cows of the sun. (Cf. Odyssey.) India: Thompson-Balys.
B19.7. The goat Heidrun. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 313 – 14.
B535.1. Goat feeds other animals from its body.
B19.8. Mythical antelope. Jewish: Neuman.
B19.9. Eternal bats. S. A. Indian (Guarani): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.
B19.10. Mythical tiger. Jewish: Neuman.
B19.11. Mythical donkey. Jewish: Neuman.
B20. Beast-men. Combinations of bestial and human form.
B92. Beast with human head and shape of smith's bellows. F510. Monstrous persons. F526. Person with compound body. F540. Remarkable physical organs. T611.10.1. Girl suckled by wolf has nail "like wolf's nail".
B20.1. Army of half-animals, half-men. Jewish: Neuman.
B20.2. Beast-men in the lower world. Jewish: Neuman.
B21. Centaur: man-horse. Trunk and head of man, body of horse. – **P. V. C. Baur Centaurs in Ancient Art (Berlin, 1912); *Frazer Apollodorus I 191 n. 3, 261 n. 1; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 413; Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 225ff.; **Dumézil (G.) Le Probleme des Centaures (Paris, 1929); Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Penzer I 202.
A132. God in animal form. B25.1.1. Dog-headed man has mane of horse (cattle). B29.8. Man with horse's mouth.B181. Magic horse.
B21.1. Norse man-horse: "fingalkn" or "fingalp". Icel.: Boberg.
B21.2. Body and hands human, head and ears those of a horse. India: Thompson-Balys.
B21.3. Man with horse's mouth. Irish myth: Cross.
B22. Man-ass. Body of man, hoofs of ass. – *Chauvin VII 82 No. 373bis, n. I; Jewish: Neuman.
B22.1. Body of man, head of ass. Jewish: Neuman.
B22.2. Ass with human intelligence. German: Grimm No. 144.
B23. Man-bull.
B23.1. Minotaur. Body of man, head of bull. Result of union of woman with bull. – Icel.: Boberg; Greek: Fox 61; Roscher Lexikon s. v. "Acheloos"; Frazer Apollodorus I 307 n. I, II 120 n. I. – Chauvin VII 87 No. 373bis n. 3. – Chinese: Ferguson 30.
B16.11. Monster ox (bull) killed. F781.1. Labyrinth. T465. Bestiality.
B23.2. Bull with man's head. Persian: Carnoy 333.
B23.3. Man with (two) horns on his head. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.
A131.6. Horned god.
B24. Satyr. Combination of man and goat. – Greek: Fox 268; Jewish: Neuman.
B29.5. Man-goat. F442. Pan. F611.1.3. Wild man son of woman and satyr who overpowers her.
B24.1. Satyr reveals woman's infidelity. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
B130. Truth-telling animals. U119.1. Revelations of a satyr.
B24.2. Man with goat's head. (Cf. A1614.1.2.) Irish myth: Cross (B29.5).
B25. Man-dog. Icel.: *Boberg; American Indian and Siberian: *Jochelson JE VI, 1912, 336; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 205, III 226, 246, Holm 50, Rink 47, 111, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 633; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 205.
B187. Magic dog. B635.4. Son of dog. D141.0.1. Kynanthropy.
B25.1. Man with dog's head. *Chauvin VII 77 No. 121; H. Cordier RTP V 72ff.; Fb "hundetyrk". – Loomis White Magic 114; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 72.
B25.1.1. Dog-headed man has mane of horse (cattle). Irish myth: Cross.
B21. Centaur.
B25.1.2. Dog-headed people. Peasants persecuted by one-eyed and dog-headed savages. – Estonian: M. J. Eisen Estnische Mythologie (Leipzig 1925) pp. 202 – 206; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 73 No. 232; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3911.
B25.2. Dog with human head. India: Thompson-Balys.
B26. Man-tiger. Hindu: Keith 96, Thompson-Balys.
B26.1. Girl with tiger's legs and ears. Indo-Chinese (Wa tribe): Scott 291.
B27. Man-lion. Man with lion's head. – Greek: *Grote I 7; Jewish: Neuman; Chauvin VII 87 No. 373bis n. 3.
B51. Sphinx.
B28. Man-elephant. Man with elephant's head. – Hindu: Keith 181.
B29. Other combinations of beast and man.
B29.1. Lamia. Face of woman, body of serpent (or body of sow, and legs of horse). – *Bolte FFC XXXIX 5 n. 1 – Icel.: Herrmann Saxo II 603; Czech: Machal Slavic 265; India: Thompson-Balys.
F582.1. Serpent damsel.
B29.2. Echidna. Half woman, half serpent. – Frazer Apollodorus I 131.
B29.2.1. Serpent with human head. Jewish: Neuman.
B29.2.2. Man with serpent's head. Jewish: Neuman.
B29.2.3. Snake body-woman's head. Aurora (New Hebrides): Codrington No. III 12.
B29.3. Man-hog. Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Werner 335.
A132.7. Swine-god. B183.2. Magic swine. D136. Transformation: man to swine. F241.3.1. Fairy-swine.
B29.4. Man-cat. Irish myth: Cross.
B29.4.1. Man with cat's head. Irish myth: Cross.
A131.3. Cat-headed god.
B29.4.1.1. Man with head and tail of cat. Irish myth: Cross.
G369.4. Ogre has head and tail of a cat.
B29.5. Man-wolf. Icel.: Boberg.
D113.1.1. Wer-wolf.
B29.6. Man-elk. Hrolfs saga kr. ch. 20.
B29.7. Man-bear. Jewish: Neuman.
B29.8. Man-hedgehog. Upper half of body like hedgehog. – German: Grimm 108.
B29.9. Man-ape. Jewish: Neuman.
B30. Mythical birds. Penzer VII 56 n.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 29.
A132.6.1. Bird-god. F234.1.15. Fairy in form of bird.
B30.1. Mythical white albatross. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 92.
B30.2. Mythical cock. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 276, 303, 313, 331, Boberg.
B171. Magic cock.
B31.1. Roc. A giant bird which carries off men in its claws. – Irish myth: Cross; German: Grimm Nos. 51, 161; Penzer I 103ff., II 219; Chauvin VI 3 No. 181 n. 3; Burton I 154 n., V 122f., VI 16n, 48ff., S III 186, S VII 249. – Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45. – N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 318 n. 151.
B552. Man carried by bird. G351. Eagle as ogre. K186.1.1. Hero sewed up in animal hide so as to be carried to height by bird. K521.1.1. Man sewed in animal's hide carried off by birds.
B31.1.0.1. The bird Ziz, Hebrew counterpart of roc. Jewish: Neuman.
B31.1.1. Roc's egg. *Chauvin VI 93 No. 256, VII 10 No. 373B.
X1036. The great egg.
B31.1.2. Roc drops rock on ship. Rock is so large that it destroys ship. – *Chauvin VII 21 No. 373E n. 1; *Basset 1001 Contes I 158.
B31.2. The Bird Gam. Throws sand in a stream and makes a lake. Appears at turn of century. Also carries men. Leaps into the sea and sleeps. – Fb "Fugl Gam", "Gam" IV 173b. – Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 131ff., (1928) 94. – Icel.: *Boberg.
F531.1.8.8. Giant in a gam's shape. G531. Eagle as ogre. N812.1. Giant ogre as helper. P272. Foster-mother.
B31.3. Giant ravens. They sit on mountain; when they fly, avalanche comes. – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 139.
B31.3.1. Giant swimming raven. Irish myth: Cross.
B31.4. Giant bat. *Chauvin VII n. 9.
B31.5. Simorg: giant bird. – Chauvin VII 12; Malone PMLA XLIII 404.
B31.6. Other giant birds. Penzer I 104, VI 123 n. – Chinese: Giles Strange Stories of a Chinese Studio (New York, 1927) 547. – Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 222 No. 33.
A284.2. Thunderbird.
B31.6.1. Giant blackbird. Irish myth: Cross.
B172.10. Black birds.
B31.6.2. Giant bird pulls up oak tree by roots. Irish myth: Cross.
F531.3.10. Giants carry trees. F621.2. Trees pulled up by giant.
B31.6.2.1. Giant bird alighting on oak tree causes it to tremble. Irish myth: Cross.
B32. Phoenix. *Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens I 180; *Gunkel Das Märchen im alten Testament 36f.; Roscher Lexikon III 3450 s. v. "Phoinix". – Fb "Phoenix". – Medieval Romance: Wells Manual of Writings 105 (Prose Alexander). – Chinese: Ferguson 98, Eberhard FFC CXX 117 No. 73; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
B32.1. Phoenix renews youth. Fb "ørn" III 1183b; Egyptian: Müller 165f.
B32.1.1. Phoenix renews youth when 1,000 years old. Jewish: Neuman.
B33. Man-eating birds. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 84; S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 72.
B16. Devastating animals.
B33.1. Other devastating birds. Irish myth: Cross.
B15.7.13. Bird with fiery beak. B16. Devastating animals.
B33.1.1. Devastating birds wither everything with their breath. Irish myth: Cross.
D1500.4.2. Magic breath causes disease.
B33.1.2. Devastating birds destroy grass. Irish myth: Cross.
F234.1.15. Fairy in form of bird.
B33.1.3. Black birds destroy crops. Irish myth: Cross.
B33.1.4. Devastating birds with poisonous spells on their wings. Irish myth: Cross.
D1273. Magic formula (charm). D2061.1.3. Poisoning by magic.
B34. Bird of dawn. Golden plumage; three feet. – Chinese: Werner 186.
B35. Camrōsh. Giant bird which collects seeds and sees that they are properly placed. Carries off the people's enemies. – Persian: Carnoy 289; Penzer I 103.
B36. Milk-producing bird. Africa (Zulu): Callaway 101; India: Thompson-Balys.
B37. Immortal bird. (cf. B32.) Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
B39. Other mythical birds.
A878.3.3. Wise eagle in the earth-tree. A878.3.4. Hawk in the earth-tree.
B39.1. Bird from paradise. India: Thompson-Balys.
B40. Bird-beasts. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "ailes".
B11.4.1. Flying dragon. E501.4.1.7. Winged dogs in wild hunt.
B41. Bird-horse.
B41.1. Pegasus. Winged horse. – Greek: Fox 34, 39, 213.
B41.2. Flying horse. Sometimes represented as having wings, sometimes as going through the air by magic. – *Chauvin V 228 No. 130; Fb "hest" IV 211a; BP II 134; *Hdwb. d. deutschen Märchens s.v. "Arabische Motive"; Penzer II 224; Rosch FFC LXXVII 110. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 43 (Sleipnir), 185 (Hofvarpnir). – Arabian: Burton I 160, V 246 n., VI 8, VII 46, 53, S II 85; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 838, 1358; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 314.
A171.1. God rides through air on wind-swift horse. A724.1. Charioteer of the sun. Sun drives his horse and chariot across sky. B542.2. Escape on flying horse. B552. Man carried by bird. D1532. Magic object bears person aloft. D1626.1. Artificial flying horse. D2135. Magic air journey. F460.2.2. Mountain folk ride through air on horses.
B41.2.1. Angel horse. Horse draws angels' chariot. – *Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 17ff.
B42. Griffin. Half lion, half eagle. – *Chauvin VII 13 No. 313B; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IIl 1129f.; Penzer I 104, 141 n. 2; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.
A2232.4. Griffin disdains to go on ark; drowned: hence extinct. B17.2.2. Hostile griffin. B542.2.1. Transportation to fairyland on griffin's back.
B42.1. Hippogriff. Horse with fore-quarters of griffin. – Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 232.
B43. Winged bull. Spence Myths of Bab. & Assyr. 289f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.
B182.4.3. Magic bull.
B43.1. Flying buffalo. India: *Thompson-Balys.
B44. Bird-bear. Icel.: Herrman Saxo II 174ff., *Boberg.
B45. Air-going elephant. Hindu: Tawney I 328, II 540; India: *Thompson-Balys.
B447.11.2. Hero rides on winged elephant. D411.2.1. Transformation: white rat to white-winged elephant. J2133.5.2. Numskull going to heaven holding on tall of divine elephant, loses his hold to make gesture. He and all holding on to him fall.
B46. Vasa Mortis. Bird with four heads, middle like a whale, feathers and feet of a griffin. – Old English: Solomon and Saturnus (Grein-Wülcker) III (2) 58 – 82, lines 262ff.
B47. Winged carnel. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
B48. Flying crustacean. (Cf. B62, B94.) India: Thompson-Balys.
B49. Bird-beasts – miscellaneous.
B49.1. Bird with crocodile head. Jewish: Neuman;
B49.2. Flying ape. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 235.
B49.3. Flying fox. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 235.

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