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Prevuius group

Group No. 31


A. Mythological Motifs

Group No.

A2400 – A2499

Group name

Causes of animal characteristics: appearance and habits


A2400. Animal characteristics: general appearance.
A2401. Cause of animal's beauty.
A2402. Cause of animal's ugliness.
D1337. Magic objects makes beautiful or hideous.
A2402.1. Cause of serpent's ugliness. (See A2286.0.1.)
A2402.2. How ostrich lost beautiful feathers. (See A2252.3.)
A2410. Animal characteristics: color and smell.
A2411. Origin of color of animal.
A2286.2.4. God changes color of devil's animals. A2330.8. Color of animal's head. A2332.5. Color of animal's eyes.
A2411.1. Origin of color of mammals.
A2411.1.1. Origin of color of felidae.
A2411.1.1.1. Color of leopard. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 69.
A2411.1.1.2. Color of jaguar. Dh III 62.
A2411.1.2. Origin of color of mustelidae.
A2411.1.2.1. Why weasel is white with dark tip to tail. Plains Cree: Skinner JAFL XXIX 350.
A2411. Why weasel is part black. Chinese: Graham.
A2411.1.2.2. Color of ermine. Loucheux: Barbeau JAFL XXVIII 257.
A2411.1.2.3. Color of otter. Dh III 64.
A2411.1.2.4. Color of skunk. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 71.
A2411.1.2.5. Color of mink. Singed by sun. (See A2218). – Dh III 84.
A2411.1.3. Color of canidae and other carnivora.
A2411.1.3.1. Color of fox. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 64, 66.
A2411.1.3.2. Color of coyote. (See A2218.) – Dh III 79.
A2411.1.4. Origin of color of rodentia.
A2411.1.4.1. Color of squirrel. (See A2218.) – Dh III 76f.; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.1.4.2. Color of beaver. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 71.
A2411.1.4.3. Color of rat. Dh III 91. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.1.4.4. Color of hare.
A2411. Why hare is grey in summer. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges (A2411.1.22).
A2411.1.5. Origin of color of primata.
A2411.1.5.1. Color of monkey. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2411. Why ape has red back. China: Eberhard FFC CXX 177 No. 119, 411 s.v. “Affenmutter”.
A2411. Why baboon‘s face and hands are black. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.1.6. Origin of color of ungulata.
A2411.1.6.1. Color of horse. Dh III 86.
A2411.1.6.2. Color of hippopotamus. (See A2247.3.)
A2411.1.6.3. Red color of bush-buck. From blood. (Cf. A2219.1.) – Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 366 No. 17.
A2411.1.6.4. Color of cow. Dh I 188 – 191, III 86. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.1.6.5. Color of deer. (See A2218.) – Dh III 79, 88.
A2411.1.6.6. Color of elk. Dh III 88.
A2411.1.6.7. Color of rhinoceros. (See A2247.3.)
A2411.1.7. Origin of color of other mammals.
A2411.1.7.1. Origin of color of hyena. (365 colors): Jewish: Neuman.
A2411.2. Origin of color of bird. Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 3158, 3165, Legends No. 261f.; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 127; Japanese: Ikeda; N. A. Indian (Canadian Dakota): Wallis JAFL XXXVI 66; (Southern Ute): Lowie JAFL XXXVII 32 No. 18, 69 No. 38, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 208f.; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 39f.
A2411.2.1. Origin of color of passeriformes.
A2411.2.1.1. Color of thrush. (See A2222.1, A2218). – Dh III 76.
A2411.2.1.2. Color of water-ousel. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.
A2411.2.1.3. Color of wag-tail. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 262.
A2411.2.1.4. Color of swallow. (See A2218, A2219.1, A2221.2.4.1.) – Dh III 64, 75, (Cf. III 58). – Japanese: Ikeda.
A2411.2.1.5. Color of raven. (See A2237.1, A2234.1, A2231.1, A2218.1). – Dh III 59, 63, 65, 143. – Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 15 n. i; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 90, XXXIII 54 No. 90; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 160, (Alaska): Jenness 71, (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 146, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 220, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 174, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 641; N. A. Indian (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 203, (Upper Thompson): Teit JAFL XXIX 329.
A2411.2.1.6. Color of crow. (See A2219.1) – Dh III 59, 65f. – Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 262; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 90a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “corbeaux”. – Japanese: Ikeda; Thompson River: Teit JAFL XXIX 329; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 58.
A2411.2.1.7. Color of rook. (See A2218) – Dh III 75.
A2411.2.1.8. Color of jay. Dh III 86.
A2411.2.1.9. Color of blackbird. (See A2218) – Dh III 71.
A2411.2.1.10. Color of magpie. Dh III 63.
A2411.2.1.11. Color of sparrow. (See A2218) – Dh III 75. – Japanese: Ikeda.
A2411.2.1.12. Color of goldfinch. Dh. III 185. – Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 94c.
A2411.2.1.13. Color of red-bird. Dh III 63.
A2411.2.1.14. Color of canary. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 94b.
A2411.2.1.15. Color of trumpet-bird (psophia crepitans). (See A2218) – Dh III 82.
A2411.2.1.16. Color of starling. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.2.1.17. Color of martin. Eskimo (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 146.
A2411.2.2. Origin of color of falconiformes.
A2411.2.3. Origin of color of charidriiformes.
A2411.2.3.1. Color of woodcock. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.
A2411.2.4. Origin of color of caraciiformes.
A2411.2.4.1. Color of woodpecker. See A2219.1; Dh III 70, 89.
A2411.2.4.2. Color of owl. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 220.
A2411.2.5. Origin of color of ciconiiformes.
A2411.2.5.1. Color of cormorant. (See A2218.) – Dh III 77.
A2411.2.5.2. Color of heron. (See A2218.) – Dh III 82.
A2411.2.5.3. Color of stork. Dh III 59.
Why stork has black back. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 233, 236, 238f., 243ff.
A2411.2.5.4. Color of gull. Eskimo (Alaska): Jenness 71.
A2411.2.6. Origin of color of other birds.
A2411.2.6.1. Color of loon. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 69 – 71.
A2411.2.6.2. Color of swan. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.
A2411.2.6.3. Color of goose. Dh III 89.
A2411.2.6.4. Color of duck. Eskimo (Alaska): Jenness 71.
A2411.2.6.5. Color of turkey. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 70.
A2411.2.6.6. Color of guinea-fowl. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 67. – Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 193 No. 33; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 226.
A2411.2.6.7. Color of peacock. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2411.2.6.8. Color of partridge. (See A2218, A2219.1.) – Dh III 62, 75. – Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 261; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.2.6.9. Color of pheasant. Dh III 62.
A2411.2.6.10. Color of cuckoo. Type 235; Dh III 140. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 94; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.
A2411.2.6.11. Color of parrot. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 70. – India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 234.
A2411.3. Origin of color of insect. Japanese: Ikeda.
A2411.3.1. Origin of color of bee. Dh I 129. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.3.2. Color of spider. (See A2221.2.3.)
A2411.4. Origin of color of fish.
A2411.4.1. Color of halibut. (See A2219.1.) – Dh III 67. – Tsimshian: Boas RBAE XXVII 58ff.
A2411.4.2. Color of perch. (See A2218.) – Dh III 75.
A2411.4.3. Color of burbot. (See A2218.) – Dh III 75.
A2411.5. Color of reptiles and other animal forms.
A2411.5.1. Color of turtle. Dh III 63.
A2411.5.2. Color of frog. Dh III 63, 89.
A2411.5.3. Color of snail. (See A2218.) – Dh III 85.
A2411.5.4. Color of mussel. Dh III 90.
A2411.5.5. Why earthworm is red at one end. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2411.5.6. Color of chameleon.
A2411.5.6.1. Why chameleon can change his color. (Cf. A2223.8.) – Africa (Fang): Einstein 96, (Togo): Einstein 10f.
A2411.5.7. Color of shrimp. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 234.
A2412. Origin of animal markings. (See A2211.12, A2221.3, A2221.7.) – Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 61, 75.
A2412.0.1. Creator sends two deities to tatoo all creatures: origin of animal markings. Marshall Is.: Davenport 222.
A2412.1. Markings of mammals.
A2412.1.1. White markings on deer. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 417.
A2412.1.2. Spots on leopard. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 411f.
A2412.1.3. Why coyote has yellow patch behind his ears. (See A2218.4.)
A2412.1.4. Why kangaroo-rat has white band around his body. (See A2218.4.)
A2412.1.5. Why elephant has white marks on its body. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2412.1.6. Why peccary has spots. S. Am. Indian (Yagua): Steward-Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 736.
A2412.2. Markings on birds. (See A2211.7.)
A2412.2.1. Markings on tail-feathers of ruffed grouse. Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 370.
A2412.2.2. Markings of francolin. (See A2232.6.)
A2412.3. Markings on insects. Japanese: Ikeda.
Why louse has mark on his back. Korean: Zong in-Sob 36 No. 20.
A2412.3.2. Origin of butterflies‘ marks. Korean: Zong in-Sob 39 No. 23.
A2412.4. Markings on fish. (See A2217.3, A2213.2.) – Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 155.
A2412.4.1. Markings on sun-fish. (See A2217.3.)
A2412.4.2. Markings on king-salmon. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 242 (red marks below ears).
A2412.4.2.1. Why salmon has purple belly. Irish myth: Cross.
A2412.4.3. Markings on cod-fish. From devil‘s fingers. – Fb “torsk” III 830a.
A2412.4.4. Cross on crab’s back. Saintyves Saints Successeurs 245f.
A2412.4.5. Markings on flying fish. New Guinea: Kerr 25.
A2412.5. Markings on other animals.
A2412.5.1. Markings on tortoise‘s back. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2412.5.2. Why toads have warts on their backs. (Cf. A2356.2.) – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2412.5.2.1. Why frog is spotty all over. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2413. Origin of animal’s stripes.
A2413.1. Stripes of zebra. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 369 No. 19.
A2413.2. Stripes of chipmunk. (See A2217.2.) – Dh III 57.
A2413.3. Stripes of squirrel. Dh III 56. – India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
A2413.4. Stripes of tiger. Dh III 58. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
A2413.5. Stripes of alligator. Dh III 58. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2413.6. Stripes of cony. Dh III 58.
A2413.7. Stripes on trout. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 155.
A2416. Origin and nature of animal‘s smell. *Dh III 233f.
A2416.1. Bad smell of goat. (See A2232.5.) – Dh III 233; Fb “gjedebuk” IV 178b. – Ibo (Nigeria): Thomas 125; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 226, (Cameroon): Mansfield 227.
A2416.2. Burnt smell of mink. Dh III 234.
A2416.3. Bad smell of skunk. Dh III 233. – Central America: Krickeberg Märchen der Azteken und Inkaperuaner 254.
A2416.4. Burnt smell of wolverine. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 248.
A2416.5. Why ram smells bad. Sébillot RTP II 492.
A2416.6. Why bugs smell bad. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 62.
A2416.7. Why herrings have bad odor. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
A2420. Animal characteristics: voice and hearing.
A2421. How animal got voice. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3168, Legends Nos. 263 – 270; Japanese: Ikeda.
A2421.1. How night-swallow got voice. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 147 No. 51.
A2421.2. How woodcock got voice. Traded with turkey. (See A2247). – Dh III 123.
A2421.3. Where crow got voice. Traded with thunder-bird. (See A2247). – Dh III 126.
A2421.4. How partridge got voice. Borrowed from tortoise. (See A2241). – Dh III 132.
A2421.4.1. How quail got voice. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 267.
A2421.5. How nkundak got voice. (See A2223.2.)
A2421.6. Why cocks crow. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 35 No. *205; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2421.7. Voice of peewit. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 264f.
A2421.8. Why cat purrs. (Cf. A2236.8.)
A2422. How animal lost voice (or power of speech). Dh III 231ff. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2422.1. Why dog lost his power of speech. Bulu: Krug.
A2422.1.1. Why dogs do not speak. Dh III 232. (See A2237.1.) – Benga: Nassau 163 No. 22; Zuñi: Handy JAFL XXXI 467; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2422.2. Why sheep do not speak. Curse of Virgin Mary. (See A2231). – Sébillot RTP II 492.
A2422.3. Why white crow is dumb. Hottentot: Bleek 45 No. 22.
A2422.4. Why tortoise has no voice. (See A2421.4.) – Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 378.
A2422.5. Why fly has no voice. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 384.
A2422.6. Why raven cannot talk. Dh III 232.
A2422.7. Why frogs cannot speak. Dh III 232.
A2422.8. Why cormorant cannot speak. (See A2344.2.5.) – Dh III 232f.
A2422.9. Why swallows lost voice. (See A2231.2.2.)
A2422.10. Why cock does not speak. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2423. General quality of animal’s voice.
A2423.1. Animal‘s ugly voice.
A2423.1.1. Woodcock’s ugly voice. Exchanged with thrush. (See A2245.1.)
A2423.1.2. Peacock‘s ugly voice. (See A2236.2.2.)
A2423.1.3. Loon’s ugly voice. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 53.
A2423.1.4. Why ass brays. (Cf. A2239.3.)
A2423.1.5. Why hornbill speaks through his nose. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 234.
A2423.1.6. Origin of snail‘s monotonous voice. Africa: Milligan Jungle 95.
A2423.2. Animal’s pleasing voice.
A2423.2.1. Thrush‘s beautiful voice. Exchanged with woodcock. (See A2423.1.1, A2245.1.)
A2423.2.2. Cuckoo’s sweet voice. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2425. Origin of animal cries. (See A2261.1, A2272.1, A2275.1, A2275.2.) – *Millier (A.) Petits Contes du Nivernais (Nevers, 1894); Dh III 355ff.; BP II 535; Wienert FFC LVI 40; Chauvin VIII 49 No. 17; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2425.1. How dog began to bark. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2425.2. Origin of birds’ morning-songs (from singing angels). Jewish: Neuman.
A2426. Nature and meaning of animal cries. *Dh III 355 ff. – Finnish: *Aarne FFC IX.
A2426.1. Cries of mammals.
A2426.1.1. Cry of bush-cat. (See A2275.4.) – U.S.: Baughman.
A2426.1.2. Cry of squirrel. Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 3 No. 3. – Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 220.
A2426.1.2.1. Squirrel‘s call: asks whether viper (who ate up his children) is his friend. Bulu: Krug 106.
A2426.1.3. Why hog grunts. Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 4 No. 13. – Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 51; Angola: Chatelain 215.
A2426.1.4. The hedgehog’s cry. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *278.
A2426.1.5. Why dog barks after thief. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2426.1.6. Why bats cry as they fly. New Guinea: Kerr 7.
A2426.2. Cries of birds.
A2426.2.1. Nightingale‘s song. (See A2272.1.1.) – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3151, Balys Legends No. 260; Japanese: Ikeda.
A2426.2.2. Garden warbler’s song. (See A2272.1.3.)
A2426.2.3. Bittern‘s song. (See A2261.1, A2275.3.)
A2426.2.4. Hoopoe’s song. (See A2261.1, A2275.3.)
A2426.2.5. Cuckoo‘s song. (See A2275.2.) – Japanese: Ikeda.
A2426.2.6. Cawing of crow. Dh III 126, 257, 357, 369, 371, 372. – Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 7 No. 39; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 223; Australian: Dixon 292.
A2426.2.7. Croaking of raven. Dh III 364, 373, 392. – Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 9 No. 46. – Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 223; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 261.
A2426.2.8. Why dove coos. *Dh III 554 s.v. “Taube”. – Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 12 No. 57; Angola: Chatelain 153 No. 16; Jamaica negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 50; India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2426.2.9. Why goose quacks. Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 6 No. 31.
A2426.2.10. Why duck quacks. Fb “and”.
A2426.2.11. What parrot says. Benga: Nassau 199 No. 29; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2426.2.12. Meaning of swallow’s song. Fb “svale”.
A2426.2.13. Cackling of guinea hen. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 634.
A2426.2.15. Why certain species of eagle cries like a baby: spirit of tortured baby became an eagle. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2426.2.16. Origin of cry of brain-fever bird. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2426.2.17. Origin of owl‘s cries. (Cf. A2427.3.) – S. Am. Indian (Matoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 48.
A2426.2.18. Origin and meaning of cock‘s cry “cock-a-doodle-do”. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 13.
A2426.2.18.1. Why cock crows on roof with neck stretched out. Korean: Zong in-Sob 25 No. 11.
A2426.3. Sounds of insects.
A2426.3.1. Beetle’s hum. (See A2231.11.)
A2426.3.2. Gnat‘s buzz. (See A2236.1.)
A2426.3.3. Fly’s buzz. (See A2239.2.)
A2426.3.4. Cricket‘s chirp. (See A2272.1.2.)
A2426.3.5. Mosquito’s buzz. Mpongwe: Nassau 62 No. 12.
A2426.3.6. Speech of fireflies. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2426.4. Other animal cries.
A2426.4.1. Frog‘s croak. (See A2275.4.) – Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda; Angola: Chatelain 217 No. 38; Liberia: Bundy JAFL XXXII 420.
A2426.4.1.1. Frogs formerly were ducks stolen from Eden by Cain. God changed them to frogs; and so frogs sound like ducks in the spring. (Cf. A2162.) – U. S.: Baughman.
A2426.4.1.2. Why frog croaks in wet weather. Korean: Zong in-Sob 35 No. 18.
A2426.4.2. Toad’s croak. Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259.
A2427. Why animal howls (cries out) at night.
A2427.1. Why jackal cries in the night. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2427.2. Why dog howls at night.
A2427.2.1. Why dogs howl when man is dying. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2427.3. Why owl hoots at night. (Cf. A2426.2.17.) – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2428. Animal‘s hearing.
A2428.1. How animal lost hearing. Dh III 231.
A2430. Animal characteristics: dwelling and food.
A2431. Birds’ nests. (Cf. A2486.)
A2431.1. How bird learned to build nest. *Dh III 202.
A2431.2. Why bird has no nest. (See A2233.4.1.)
A2431.2.1. Why cuckoo has no nest. (See A2231.3.1.) – Dh III 177, 195, 200; India: Thompson-Balys; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 198f., 250, 270.
A2431.2.1.1. Crow hatches cuckoo‘s egg. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2431.2.2. Why heron has no nest. Congo: Weeks 220 No. 15.
A2431.3. Nature of birds’ nests.
A2431.3.1. Dove‘s nest. (See A2271.1.) – Dh III 124, 191 – 201.
A2431.3.2. Diver’s nest. (See A2238.4.) – Dh III 202.
A2431.3.3. Ring-dove‘s nest. Exchanged with gull. (See A2247.) – Dh III 124.
A2431.3.4. Gull’s nest. Exchanged with ringdove. (See A2247.) – Dh III 124.
A2431.3.5. Swallow‘s nest. (See A2221.2.4.) – Dh III 5, 200, 415ff.; Sébillot RTP III 156; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 87.
A2431.3.5.1. Why swallow does not like green trees for her nest. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3145, Legends No. 272.
A2431.3.6. Crow’s nest.
A2431.3.6.1. Why crow cannot enter sparrow‘s nest. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2431.3.6.2. Why crow’s nest is not tightly built. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2431.3.6.3. Why crow must build nests far from people‘s houses. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2431.3.7. Sparrow’s nest.
A2431.3.7.1. Why sparrow may build nest near people‘s houses; reward for hospitality. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2431.3.8. Turkey’s nest.
A2431.3.8.1. Why brush turkey nests on the ground. New Guinea: Kerr 107.
A2432. Dwelling of other animal than bird.
A2432.1. Why ant lives in ant-hill. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 92 No. 97.
A2432.2. Why wasp has nest. Dh III 189.
A2432.3. Beaver‘s dwelling. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.
A2432.4. Porcupine’s dwelling. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.
A2432.5. Muskrat‘s dwelling. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243.
A2432.6. Bear’s den. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 444.
A2432.7. Wart-hog‘s burrow. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 364 No. 16.
A2432.8. Bee’s hive. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2432.9. Why fly lives on dung heap. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 229.
A2432.10. Why the elephant lives without a hut. Wakweli: Bender 82f.
A2433. Animal‘s characteristic haunt. *Dh III 204ff.
A2433.1. Establishment of animal haunt. (See A2212.2.)
A2433.1.1. Animal haunt established by contest (race). (See A2250.1, A2252.1.)
A2433.1.2. Animals change their type of dwelling-place. Dh III 215ff.
A2433.1.3. Place to live given as patent right to dog. Dh IV 117.
A2433.2. Various haunts of animals.
A2433.2.1. Animals that live in woods. Dh III 204ff.
A2433.2.1.1. Why small ants live in houses while driver ants must live in bush. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 260f.
A2433.2.1.2. Why gorilla and chimpanzee live in forests: punishment for neglecting their possessions. Bulu: Krug 111f.
A2433.2.2. Animals that inhabit water. Dh III 208ff.
A2433.2.3. Animals that live alone. Dh III 210ff.
A2433.2.3.1. Why leopard walks alone. He killed treacherously his saviors and all animals deserted him. Milligan Jungle 99.
A2433.2.4. Animals that live with men. Dh III 213ff.
A2433.2.4.1. Why the chimpanzee lives with men. Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Märchen 146ff.
A2433.3. Haunts of various animals – mammals.
A2433.3.1. Cat’s characteristic haunt. Jewish: Neuman.
A2433.3.1.1. Why cat keeps chimney-corner. (See A2223.1.)
A2433.3.2. Dog‘s characteristic haunt. (See A2233.2.) – Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 214; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 213 No. 35 (by the fire), (Wute): Sieber 205.
A2433.3.3. Why hare lives in bush. (See A2282.)
A2433.3.4. Why hyena stays in burrow. (See A2282.)
A2433.3.5. Why coney lives among rocks. (See A2241.7.)
A2433.3.6. Why hog lives in sty. Angola: Chatelain 215 No. 36; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.3.7. Why rams live at home. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 143 No. 27; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.3.8. Why goat lives with men. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 153 No. 29; Benga: Nassau 100 No. 7.
A2433.3.9. Why squirrel lives in tree. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 358 No. 11.
A2433.3.9.1. Why squirrel stays hidden in jungle. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.3.10. Why muskrats live in water. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243.
A2433.3.11. Why porcupine lives in high places in mountains. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.
A2433.3.12. Why beaver lives along rivers. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.
A2433.3.13. Why elk lives in woods. Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 259.
A2433.3.14. Why wolf lives in woods. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 153 No. 29.
A2433.3.15. Why elephant does not live in town. Yoruba: Ellis 267 No. 3.
A2433.3.16. Why lion stays away from settlement. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 382.
A2433.3.17. Why bear lives where he does. Australian: Dixon 298 (trees); Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 444 (mountains).
A2433.3.18. Why leopard lives where he does. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 143 (woods), ibid. 153 (desert). India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.3.19. Why monkey lives in tree. Mpongwe: Nassau 68 No. 14.
A2433.3.19.1. Why monkey has first fruits of harvest in every field. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.3.20. Why mole lives underground. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 38 No. 287.
A2433.3.21. Why tiger lives in jungle. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.4. Haunts of birds.
A2433.4.1. Why owl lives where he does. (See A2229.3. steeple.) – Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 196 (away from other birds).
A2433.4.2. Why cock lives in town. (See A2250.1.) – Benga: Nassau 199 No. 29.
A2433.4.3. Why ptarmigan lives in country. (See A2250.1.)
A2433.4.4. Why parrot lives in tree. Congo: Weeks 220 No. 15.
A2433.4.5. Why kingfisher lives in the air. Africa (Togo): Einstein 7.
A2433.4.6. Why fowls never shut their doors at night. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 379ff.
A2433.5. Haunts of insects.
A2433.5.1. Why nit lives at edge of hair. (See A2236.6.)
A2433.5.2. Why fly lives amid filth. (See A2239.2.)
A2433.5.3. Haunts of spider. (See A2211.6, large stones, A2261.2, dusty corners.) India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.5.3.1. Why spider lives under stones. Africa: Meinhof 209.
A2433.5.4. Why beetles live in manure. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 245.
A2433.5.5. Why ants are lords of the bush. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 400.
A2433.5.6. Why butterflies haunt urine-impregnated places. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.5.7. Why cockroaches live in houses. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.6. Haunts of reptiles, etc.
A2433.6.1. Haunts of tortoise (turtle).
A2433.6.1.1. Why tortoise lives in logs in stream. (See A2282.) – Benga Nassau 139, 207 Nos. 15, 32.
A2433.6.1.2. Why turtle lays eggs on beach. (Cf. A2486.) – Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22.
A2433.6.2. Why oyster lives in salt water. Mpongwe: Nassau 62 No. 11.
A2433.6.3. Haunts of crab.
A2433.6.3.1. Why crabs live in water. Kaffir Kidd 249 No. 11; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.6.3.2. Why crabs burrow in sand. New Guinea: Kerr 86.
A2433.6.3.3. Why common crab lives underground. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 224.
A2433.6.4. Why iguana lives in stream. Benga: Nassau 106 No. 8.
A2433.6.5. Why leeches live in water. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.6.6. Habitation of frog. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Togo): Einstein 7.
A2433.6.7. Why toad lives in cold place. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.6.8. Habitat of snake. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2433.6.9. Why thousand-legged worm avoids sun. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 61.
A2434. Habitat of animal. The country or locality in which animal is found.
A2434.1. Why certain animals are found everywhere. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2434.1.1. Why birds are everywhere. India: Thompson-Balys; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 209.
A2434.1.2. Why bluebirds are everywhere. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 219.
A2434.1.3. Why snowbirds are everywhere. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 218.
A2434.1.4. Why black ants are everywhere. Zuñi: Handy JAFL XXXI 468.
A2434.1.5. Why jackal may go everywhere. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2434.2. Why certain animals are absent from countries. *Dh III 217ff.
A2434.2.1. Why porcupines and skunks do not live on Cape Breton Island. Micmac: Speck JAFL XXVIII 69.
A2434.2.2. Why foxes do not live on a certain island: driven out by a god. Japanese: Anesaki Japanese Myth. 252.
A2434.2.3. Why there are no snakes in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.
A2434.3. Why animals live in certain countries. *Dh III 217ff.
A2434.3.1. Why locusts live in certain Pueblo towns. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 225.
A2434.3.2. Why there are wild turkeys in a certain Pueblo town. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 235.
A2434.3.3. Why elephant lives in Nigeria. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 153 No. 29.
A2435. Food of animal. *Dh III 295ff., 308ff.
A2435.1. Assignment of food to animal. Circassian: Nicolaides and Carnoy RTP I 80.
A2435.1.1. Why certain birds may not drink out of river. (See A2233.1.1.)
A2435.1.2. How tiger formerly cooked its food and why it changed. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.2. Nature of animal’s food.
A2435.2.1. Why animals eat everything without salt. Zuñi: Handy JAFL XXXI 461.
A2435.2.2. Why certain animals are carnivorous. Jewish: Neuman.
A2435.3. Food of various animals – mammals. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.1. Food of dog. (See A2247, exchanged with cat.) – Dh III 124, IV 112ff., 121ff.
A2435.3.2. Food of cat. (See A2247, exchanged with dog.) – Dh III 124, IV 121ff., 128 (to eat before dog).
A2435.3.3. Food of bear. (See A2251.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.4. Food of wolf. Man. – Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 53. No. 75*; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 144 No. 37.
A2435.3.5. Food of wolverine. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 247 (corpses).
A2435.3.6. Why moose eat willows. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 231.
A2435.3.7. Food of mouse.
A2435.3.7.1. Why mice eat grease and salmon. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 231.
A2435.3.8. Why ant-bear eats insects. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 366 No. 16.
A2435.3.9. Food of tiger.
A2435.3.9.1. Why tigers eat dogs. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.9.2. Why tigers eat uncooked food. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.9.3. Why tigers eat human flesh. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.9.4. Why tiger eats buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.10. Food of rat.
A2435.3.10.1. Why rat may eat rice. Brings original rice-plant from pond. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.11. Food of reindeer. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A2435.3.12. Food of hare. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A2435.3.12.1. Why hare never drinks from rivers or streams. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.13. Food of squirrel. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A2435.3.14. Food of pig. Jewish: Neuman.
A2435.3.14.1. Why pigs feed on excreta. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.3.15. Why wildcats come and eat chickens. Chinese: Graham.
A2435.3.16. Food of jaguar.
A2435.3.16.1. Why jaguars eat men. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 83.
A2435.3.17. Food of leopard.
A2435.3.17.1. Why leopards eat men. Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 79.
A2435.4. Food of birds. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 232 (corpses). – India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
A2435.4.1. Food of cuckoo. (See A2241.4.) – Dh III 133.
A2435.4.2. Why crane suffers thirst. (See A2231.2.1.)
A2435.4.3. Why raven suffers thirst. (See A2234.1.)
A2435.4.4. Food of eagle. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 242 (fish). – Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 372 No. 21.
A2435.4.5. Food of buzzard. Ojibwa: Skinner JAFL XXXII 282.
A2435.4.5.1. Carrion as food of vultures. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2435.4.6. Food of hawks. Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 140; Angola: Chatelain 111 No. 7.
A2435.4.7. Food of crow. Why crows peck at flesh of men. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.4.7.1. Why crow eats excrement. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.4.8. Food of cock.
A2435.4.8.1. Why cock scratches for food. Am. Negro: (Georgia) Harris Nights 56 No. 11.
A2435.4.9. Food of owl. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A2435.4.9.1. Why owl eats no grain. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.4.9.2. Why owl drinks no water. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.4.10. Food of jackdaw. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A2435.4.11. Food of wren.
A2435.4.11.1. Why wren eats no berries. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 69f.
A2435.5. Food of insects. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.5.1. Why bees may not get honey from red clover. (See A2231.3.2.)
A2435.5.1.1. Why bees eat their own children. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.5.2. Insect fries human blood and eats it. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.6. Food of fish, reptiles, etc.
A2435.6.1. Food of tortoise. Jewish: Neuman; Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 370 No. 21.
A2435.6.2. Food of snake. Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 386; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.6.2.1. Snake sucks milk from woman‘s breast. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.6.3. Why leech feeds on human blood. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2435.6.6. Food of hawks. Chinese: Graham.
A2436. Why animals lack fire. Sent to steal fire but are lazy and fail. African (Fang): Tessman 18.
A2440. Animal characteristics: carriage. Dh III 219ff.
A2441. Animal’s gait or walk.
A2441.1. Animal‘s gait or walk – mammals.
A2441.1.0.1. Animals (and men) hop because ground is often so dry that it cracks: they have to jump over the cracks. Canada: Baughman.
A2441.1.1. Cause of monkey’s walk. Dh III 223, 229. – Africa (Fang): Trilles 179.
A2441.1.2. Why baboon walks on all fours. Hottentot: Bleek 36 No. 17.
A2441.1.3. Cause of dog‘s walk. Dh III 221.
A2441.1.4. Cause of hyena’s walk. Dh III 223.
A2441.1.5. Cause of wolverine‘s walk. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 248.
A2441.1.6. Cause of skunk’s walk. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 360 No. 12.
A2441.1.7. Cause of elephant‘s walk. Dh III 226. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2441.1.8. Cause of ox’s walk. Dh III 227.
A2441.1.9. Cause of leopard‘s walk. Dh III 228.
A2441.1.10. Cause of cat’s walk. Dh III 229.
A2441.1.11. Cause of hare‘s hopping gait. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2441.1.12. Cause of sheep’s walk. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2441.2. Cause of bird‘s walk.
A2441.2.1. Why raven hops. Jewish. Neuman.
A2441.2.2. Graceful step of dove. Jewish: Neuman.
A2441.3. Cause of insect’s walk.
A2441.3.1. Why beetle creeps on ground. (See A2232.3.) – Dh III 227.
A2441.3.2. Cause of flea‘s movement. Dh III 222f.
A2441.3.3. Cause of fly’s movement. Dh III 227.
A2441.4. Cause of movement of reptile, etc.
A2441.4.1. Why snake does not go on the road. (See A2233.1.2.)
A2441.4.2. Cause of crab‘s walk. Dh III 219ff.
A2441.4.3. Cause of toad’s hop. Dh III 222.
A2441.4.4. Cause of chameleon‘s movement. Dh III 222. – Jewish: Neuman.
A2442. Method and position of bird’s flight. Jewish: Neuman.
A2442.1. High and low flight of birds.
A2442.1.1. Why some birds cannot fly high. Dh III 230.
A2442.1.2. Why parrots fly high. Africa (Congo): Weeks 221.
A2442.2. Flight of various birds.
A2442.2.1. Why raven claps wings in flying. (See A2218.6.)
A2442.2.2. Why cuckoo flies with difficulty, and sings with wings spread. Sébillot RTP III 265.
A2442.2.3. Why lapwing flies in curves. Sébillot RTP III 160.
A2442.2.4. Bluejay‘s flight. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 348 No. 2.
A2442.2.5. Hawk’s flight. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 189.
A2442.2.6. Water-birds‘ flight and diving. Dh III 224ff.
A2442.2.7. Wild-goose’s flight. Dh III 223.
A2442.2.8. Eagle‘s flight. Jewish: Neuman.
A2442.3. How birds began to fly. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2444. Animal’s method of swimming.
A2444.1. Why some fish swim deep; others shallow. (See A2238.3.)
A2444.2. Why dolphins swim up and down. (See A2275.5.4.)
A2444.3. How salmon swims. Dh III 222. – Irish: Beal XXI 327.
A2450. Animal‘s daily work.
A2451. Animal’s occupation: carrying.
A2451.1. Why ants carry large bundles. (See A2221.4.)
A2452. Animal‘s occupation: hunting. *Dh III 272ff. (For animal’s favorite prey, see A2494, Why certain animals are enemies.)
A2452.1. Why dogs hunt. Sébillot RTP II 437.
A2452.2. Why stork must hunt for living. Dh III 284ff.
A2452.3. Why hawks put heads of mice, etc. on pile of stones. Zuñi: Handy JAFL XXXI 455.
A2453. Animal‘s occupation: collecting.
A2453.1. Why ant collects resin. (See A2221.4.)
A2455. Animal’s occupation: stealing. Dh III 255.
A2455.1. Why wolf is thief. Dh III 295.
A2455.2. Why swallow is thief. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 84b.
A2455.3. Why raven is thief. Because he has none of ten commandments and carries a black stamp on his breast. – Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 84.
A2455.4. Why hen does not know how to steal. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 98a.
A2455.5. Why wolverine is a thief. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 470f.
A2456. Animal‘s occupation: boring.
A2456.1. Why woodpecker bores in wood. Am. Negro (North Carolina): Brown Collection I 633; Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 53.
A2456.2. Why wood-worm bores wood. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243.
A2457. Animal’s occupation: rolling.
A2457.1. Why tumble-bug rolls in dung. Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 258 No. 46.
A2460. Animal characteristics: attack and defense.
A2461. Animal‘s means of defense. Dh III 234ff.
A2461.1. Hare sleeps with open eyes as defense. Dh III 234.
A2461.2. Toad remains still when he hears footsteps (defense). Dh III 235.
A2461.3. Killer-whale uses dorsal fin as weapon. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 236.
A2461.4. Why deer run, stop, and run on again (defense). Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 251.
A2462. Animal’s habits when attacked.
A2462.1. Why squirrel barks when attacked. Dh III 237.
A2462.2. Why beaver splashes his tail in water and dives when attacked. Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 251.
A2462.3. Why mouse does not defend self against cat. Jewish: Neuman.
A2463. Animal‘s means of attack.
A2463.1. Why leopard cannot capture animal who passes him on right side. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 146 No. 28.
A2464. Why animal does not attack.
A2464.1. Why lion does not attack dog. Jewish: Neuman.
A2465. Means of capturing animal.
A2465.1. Why fish are caught in nets. (Cf. Type 253.) – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 21 No. 118, XXXIII 55 No. 118.
A2466. Animal’s habits when caught.
A2466.1. Why opossum plays dead when caught. Dh III 236f. – Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 11 No. 3.
A2466.2. Why turtle beats with forelegs when caught. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 87 No. 15.
A2468. Animal‘s behavior at death.
A2468.1. Why shrew dies on road. (See A2233.1.3.)
A2468.2. Why toad dries up when dead. (See A2231.8.) – Jewish: Neuman.
A2468.3. Why dragon dies by means of fire. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 379 No. 4.
A2470. Animal’s habitual bodily movements.
A2471. Why animals continually seek something. (See A2275.5.)
A2471.1. Why dogs look at one another under tail. (See A2275.5.5, A2232.8; also *Dh IV 129ff.) – Sébillot RTP ii 433; England, U.S.: Baughman.
A2471.1.1. Why dogs sniff at one another. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *202; Prussian: Plenzat 10.
A2471.2. Why hogs inspect one another: seek pancake. (See A2275.5.1.)
A2471.3. Why hawk (vulture) hovers over camp-fire: seeks grandmother. (See A2275.5.2.)
A2471.4. Why diver always looks at sea. (See A2275.5.3.).
A2471.5. Why lynx squints: is looking afar at view. Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 378.
A2471.6. Why dog is always looking. Jamaica negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 48.
A2471.6.1. Why dog looks back at person who has beaten him. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 421.
A2471.6.2. Why dogs howl, looking at sky. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 225.
A2471.7. What hawks are looking for. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 128 No. 22.
A2471.8. Why mason-wasp looks for fireplace. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 346 No. 1.
A2471.9. Why animals always look down. Jewish: Neuman.
A2472. Why animals ruminate.
Why cows ruminate. (See A2231.1.1.) – Chinese: Graham.
A2473. Why animals lift their legs.
A2473.1. Why dogs lift their legs. Dh III 261. – Sébillot RTP II 436; Japanese: Ikeda.
A2473.1.1. Why dogs leave droppings at crossroads. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2473.2. Why pigs in mud lift their legs. Jewish: Neuman.
A2474. Why some animals continually shake head.
A2474.1. Why lizard bobs head up and down. (See A2255.2, A2211.9.)
A2474.2. Why hare shakes head. Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 65.
A2474.3. Why owl shakes head. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2475. Why animals scent from distance.
A2475.1. Why deer scent people from distance. Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 346.
A2476. Why animals move mouth, nose, etc.
A2476.1. Why rabbit continually moves mouth. Zanzibar: Bateman 22 No. 1.
A2477. Why animals root in ground.
A2477.1. Why hog roots in ground. (See A2236.3, A2275.5.1.) – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2477.2. Why hen scratches in ground. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 233.
A2478. Why certain animals are continually eating. (See A2231.1.1.)
A2478.1. Why zebra is continually eating. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 369 No. 19.
A2479. Other habitual bodily movements of animals.
A2479.1. Why wagtail moves tail up and down. Dh III 226.
A2479.2. Why hare skips about like a leaf. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2479.3. Why jackals make noise at night when seeking food. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2479.4. Why the hedgehog draws himself up: shame at sight of a good man. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A2479.6. Why caterpillars climb trees. Marquesas: Handy 115.
A2479.7. Why ants fall upon every man. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 231.
A2479.8. Why dog snaps every fly. Fly laughed at dog’s (feigned) death. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 227.
A2479.9. Why flies fly around ox‘s eyes. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 230.
A2480. Periodic habits of animals.
A2481. Why animals hibernate.
A2481.1. Why bears hibernate. Dh III 257. – Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 53 No. 78**.
A2482. Why animals migrate. Dh III 257ff.
A2482.1. Why swallows migrate. Dh III 258. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 86; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 86.
A2482.2. Why caribou migrate. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 232.
A2482.3. Why wren does not migrate. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 86a.
A2483. Why animals shed periodically.
A2483.1. Why snake sheds skin. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 110a; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2484. Why animals crowd together seasonally.
A2484.1. Why fish come in seasonally. New Guinea: Ker 25; Tonga: Gifford.
A2486. Why animals lay eggs as they do. (Cf. A2431, A2433.6.1.2.)
A2486.1. Why raven lays eggs in March. (See A2251.1.)
A2486.2. Why bustard hatches but two eggs. (See A2284.2.)
A2486.3. Why dove lays but two eggs. (See A2247.4.)
A2486.4. How birds began to lay eggs. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2489. Animal’s periodic habits – miscellaneous.
A2489.1. Why cock wakes man in morning. India: Thompson-Balys; Mpongwe: Nassau 58 No. 9.
A2489.1.1. Why cock crows to greet sunrise. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2490. Other habits of animals.
A2491. Why certain animals avoid light. Dh III 266ff.
A2491.1. Why bat flies by night. (See A2275.5.3.) – Dh III 267. – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3170; Legends No. 271; Japanese: Ikeda.
A2491.1.1. Why bat sleeps by day. (See A2236.3.) – India: Thompson-Balys.
A2491.2. Why owl avoids daylight. Dh III 270. – Ibo (Nigeria): Thomas 162; (Wakweli): Bender 39, 46.
A2491.3. Why mole burrows underground. Dh III 267. – Cherokee: Alexander N. Am. 64.
A2491.4. Tiger cursed with short sight in day time: good sight only at night. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2491.5. Why grasshoppers and locusts hide in day. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2492. Why certain animals go in herds.
A2492.1. Why jackals do not go in herds. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 368 No. 18.
A2492.2. Why birds do not live in societies. New Guinea: Ker 77.
A2493. Friendships between the animals. Dh III 324ff. – Bödker Exempler 290 No. 45 – 46. – Indonesian: De Vries‘s list No. 86.
A2493.0.1. Former friendship between domestic and wild animals. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.1. Friendship of prairie-dog and owl. Dh III 352.
A2493.2. Friendship of bat and owl. Dh III 355.
A2493.3. Friendship of tiger and buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.4. Friendship between man and dog. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Kweli): Sieber 92f.
A2493.5. Friendship between deer and fish. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.6. Friendship between squirrel and quail. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.7. Friendship between leopard-cat and squirrel. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.7.1. Friendship between leopard-cat and night-jar. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.8. Friendship between leopard and goat. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 433ff.
A2493.9. Friendship of cat and mouse. Grimm No. 2.
A2493.9.1. Oath of friendship between cat and rat. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.10. Friendship of fox and titmouse. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
A2493.11. Friendship between jackal and crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.11.1. Friendship between jackal and alligator. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.11.2. Friendship between jackal and elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.11.3. Friendship between jackal and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.11.3.1. Jackal and tiger as business partners. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.11.4. Friendship between jackal and partridge. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.12. Friendship between turtle and heron. New Hebrides: Codrington I 1.
A2493.12.1. Friendship between turtle and wallaby. Papua: Ker I.
A2493.13. Friendship between hare and parrot. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.14. Friendship between monkey and elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.14.1. Friendship between monkey and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.14.2. Friendship between monkey and lion. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.14.3. Friendship between monkey and stork. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.14.4. Friendship between monkey and rabbit. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.14.5. Friendship between partridge, monkey and elephant. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1008.
A2493.15. Friendship between wolf and ass. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.16. Friendship between cock and dog. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.17. Friendship between tiger and deer (fawn). India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.18. Friendship between cat and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.19. Friendship between crab and cobra. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.20. Friendship between frog and cricket. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.21. Friendship between grasshopper and dungbeetle. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.22. Friendship between goat and hog. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.23. Friendship between louse and crow. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.24. Friendship between cow and tiger, calf and cub. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.25. Friendship between snake and crow. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2493.26. Friendship between parrot and maina. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2493.27. Friendship between bird and crab. India: *Thompson-Balys.
A2493.28. Friendship between mouse and butterfly. Papua: Ker 100.
A2493.29. Friendship between ant and pheasant. Papua: Ker 118.
A2493.30. Friendship between tiger and lion. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 623, 823.
A2493.30.1. Friendship between lion and jackal. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 775, II 895.
A2493.30.2. Friendship between cow and lioness. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1028.
A2493.31. Friendship between dog and elephant. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 137.
A2493.32. Friendship between antelope, woodpecker and tortoise. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 642.
A2493.33. Friendship between pike and crawfish. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 41.
A2493.34. Friendship of hen and duck. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 81f.
A2493.34.1. Friendship between hen and sparrow. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 51.
A2493.35. Why we know that the parrot comforts and helps man. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 70.
A2494. Why certain animals are enemies. *Dh III 324ff. – (See A2286.0.1.) – India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Stanley 78, (Wakweli): Bender 88f.
A2494.1. The cat‘s enemies.
A2494.1.1. Enmity between cat and mouse. (See A2281.) – Dh IV 112ff., 144ff.
A2494.1.2. Enmity between cat and dog. (See A2281.1.) – Dh IV 117ff., 142ff.
A2494.1.3. Enmity between cat and hare. (See A2281.) – Dh III 332.
A2494.1.4. Enmity between cat and rat. Dh III 328 (wildcat). – India: Thompson-Balys; Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 419f.
A2494.1.5. Enmity between cat and hen. Dh III 329ff.
A2494.1.6. Enmity between cat and tiger. Dh III 333f. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries’s list No. 93.
A2494.1.7. Enmity between cat and spider. Dh III 331.
A2494.1.8. Enmity between civet cat and chicken. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 65ff., 71f.
A2494.2. The leopard‘s enemies. Benga: Nassau 163, 226 Nos. 20, 33; Congo: Weeks 211 No. 7.
A2494.2.1. Enmity between leopard and antelope. Dh III 335. – India: Thompson-Balys; Fjort: Dennett 73 No. 15.
A2494.2.2. Enmity between leopard and lion. Dh III 338. – Spanish Exempla: Keller.
A2494.2.3. Enmity between leopard and goat. (See A2281.) – Africa (Benga): Nassau 99 No. 6, (Angola): Chatelain 195 No. 24, (Vai): Ellis 240 No. 47, (Wakweli): Bender 54.
A2494.2.4. Enmity between leopard and deer. Liberia: Bundy JAFL XXXII 417.
A2494.2.5. Enmity between dog and leopard. Africa: Stanley 196, (Benga): Nassau 189 No. 25.
A2494.2.6. Enmity between leopard and sheep. Ibo (Nigeria): Thomas 72.
A2494.2.7. Enmity between leopard and monkey. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.3. The hyena’s enemies.
A2494.3.1. Enmity between hyena and ass. Dh III 337.
A2494.3.2. Enmity between hyena and jackal. Dh III 338.
A2494.3.3. Enmity between hyena and weasel. Dh III 338.
A2494.3.4. Enmity between hyena and cow. Dh III 338.
A2494.3.5. Enmity between hyena and wildcat. Dh III 329.
A2494.4. The dog‘s enemies.
A2494.4.0.1. Dog driven away from other animals because of his barking. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.4.1. Enmity between dog and squirrel. (See A2281.2.)
A2494.4.2. Enmity between dog and crocodile. Dh III 327.
A2494.4.3. Enmity between dog and mouse. Dh IV 112ff.
A2494.4.4. Enmity between dog and rabbit. Dh III 328; Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 349 No. 61.
A2494.4.5. Enmity between dog and fox. Dh III 328.
A2494.4.6. Enmity between dog and cat. (See A2494.1.2, A2281.1.)
A2494.4.7. Enmity between dog and lion. Dh III 338.
A2494.4.8. Enmity between dog and bull. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.4.9. Enmity between dog and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.4.10. Enmity between dog and cow. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.4.11. Enmity between dog and rooster. Duala: Lederbogen Märchen V 128.
A2494.4.12. Enmity between fowl and dog. Africa: Weeks Cannibals 209.
A2494.4.13. Enmity between palm rat and dog. Africa: Weeks Jungle 382f.
A2494.5. The jackal’s enemies.
A2494.5.1. Enmity between jackal and wild hen. Dh III 341.
A2494.5.2. Enmity between jackal and kite. Dh III 341.
A2494.5.3. Enmity between jackal and crab. Dh III 349; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.5.4. Enmity between jackal and alligator. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.6. The rabbit‘s enemies.
A2494.6.1. Enmity between lynx and rabbit. Penobscot: Speck JAFL XXVIII 54.
A2494.6.2. Enmity between rabbit and coyote. Chuh: Kunst JAFL XXVIII 356.
A2494.6.3. Enmity between fisher and rabbit. Penobscot: Speck JAFL XXVIII 53.
A2494.7. The lion’s enemies.
A2494.7.1. Enmity between monkey and lion. Vai: Ellis 231 No. 40.
A2494.7.2. Enmity between lion and wolf. Dh III 339. – Africa (Angola): Chatelain 201 No. 27.
A2494.7.3. Enmity between lion and man. Wute: Sieber 182f.
A2494.8. The bear‘s enemies. (Cf. A2494.10.3.)
A2494.8.1. Enmity between bears and goats. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.8.2. Enmity between bear and ant. Dh III 143.
A2494.9. Enemies of fox. (Cf. A2494.4.5.)
A2494.9.1. Enmity between baboon and fox. Dh III 332.
A2494.9.2. Enmity between fox and chicken. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 424.
A2494.10. The tiger’s enemies.
A2494.10.1. Enmity between tiger and man. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.10.2. Enmity between tiger and boar. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.10.3. Enmity between tiger and bear. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.11. The elephant‘s enemies.
A2494.11.1. Enmity between elephant and thousand-leg. Dh III 339.
A2494.11.2. Enmity between crocodile and elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.11.3. Enmity between elephant and ant. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.12. Miscellaneous enmities of mammals. (Cf.A2494.13.3, A2494.13.5.)
A2494.12.1. Enmity between panther, antelope, and tortoise. Dh III 335.
A2494.12.2. Enmity between mongoose and snake. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 2, 854.
A2494.12.3. Enmity between ox and antelope. Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 58 No. 10.
A2494.12.3.1. Enmity between cattle and snails. China: Eberhard FFC CXX No. 79.
A2494.12.4. Enmity between coyote and meadowlark. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 227.
A2494.12.5. Enmity between raven and mink. Dh. III 351.
A2494.12.6. Enmity between marten and squirrel. Dh III 339.
A2494.12.7. Enmity between deer and terrapin. North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 103.
A2494.12.8. Enmity between rat and spider. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.12.9. Enmity between chimpanzee and man. Nyang: Ittman 65ff.
A2494.12.10. Enmity between porcupine and snail. Wakweli: Bender 78.
A2494.13. Enmities of birds. (Cf. A2494.12.4, A2494.16.4.)
A2494.13.1. Enmity between crow and owl. Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys; Panchatantra III introduction (transl. Ryder); Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 437; Japanese: Ikeda.
A2494.13.2. Enmity between kite and crow. Japanese: Ikeda; Zanzibar: Bateman 57 No. 4.
A2494.13.3. Enmity between fowl and cockroach. Antigua: Johnson JAFL XXXIV 66.
A2494.13.4. Enmity between owl and mouse. Dh III 343.
A2494.13.4.1. Enmity between owl and fowl. Africa: Weeks Jungle 436ff.
A2494.13.5. Enmity between crow and prairie-dog. Dh III 341.
A2494.13.6. Enmity between raven and marshsnipe. Dh III 348.
A2494.13.7. Enmity between raven and mink. Dh III 351.
A2494.13.8. Enmity between woodpecker and weaver-bird. Wakweli: Bender 50.
A2494.13.9. Enmity between bird and rat. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.13.10. The hen’s enemies.
A2494.13.10.1. Enmity between hen and all other animals. Dh III 344.
A2494.13.10.2. Enmity between hen, beetle, and duck. Dh III 347.
A2494.13.10.3. Enmity between hawk and hen. Dh III 343. – Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 69f.
A2494.13.10.4. Enmity between falcon and hen. Dh III 348.
A2494.13.10.5. Enmity between hen and tiger. Fang: Trilles 246.
A2494.13.10.6. Enmity between birds of prey and chickens. Africa (Cameroon): Meinhof 42.
A2494.13.11. The starling‘s enemies.
A2494.13.11.1. Enmity between grasshopper and starling. Dh III 349.
A2494.13.11.2. Enmity between starling and locust. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.13.11.3. Enmity between parrot and starling. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.13.12. Enmity between fowl and falcon. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 613.
A2494.14. The insects’ enemies. (Cf. A2494.13.3, A2494.13.10.2, A2494.13.11.1.)
A2494.14.1. Enmity between spider and fly. Dh III 349. – Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 150 No. 67.
A2494.14.2. Enmity between spider and wasp. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.14.3. Why stinging flies sit on eyes of cattle. Wakweli: Bender 64.
A2494.15. The fish‘s enemies.
A2494.16. Enemies of reptiles and other animal forms. (Cf. A2494.11.2, A2494.12.7.)
A2494.16.1. Enmity between frog and snake. Dh III 349f.
A2494.16.2. Enmity between chameleon and lizard. Dh III 349.
A2494.16.3. Enmity between cobra and viper. Dh III 350.
A2494.16.4. Enmity between bird and lizard. Latter muddies water. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.16.5. Enmity between crab and spider. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2494.16.6. Enmity between earthworm and rattlesnake. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 67.
A2494.16.7. Enmity between octopus and rat. Tonga: Gifford 206.
A2495. Animal’s treatment of its excrements (urine).
A2495.1. Why cat buries its excrements. Cyprus: Hadjioannou No. 9; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2495.2. Why ass smells his own excrements. Jewish: Neuman.
A2495.3. Why donkeys always urinate when others begin. Jewish: Neuman.
A2496. Sexual intercourse of animals. India: Thompson-Balys.
A2496.1. Why dogs get stuck in copulation. (Cf. A2236.3, A2236.5.) – Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
A2496.2. Copulation of serpents. Jewish: Neuman.
A2496.3. Why men, fish and serpents face each other in copulation. Jewish: Neuman.
A2497. Monogamy among animals.
A2497.1. Monogamous life of dove. Jewish: Neuman.
A2499. Other habits of animals: miscellaneous.
A2499.1. Why tigers do not kill women who run away after quarreling with their husbands. India: Thompson-Balys.

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