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Prevuius group

Group No. 258


Z. Miscellaneous groups of motifs

Group No.

Z60 –Z99

Group name

Other formulistic motifs


Z61. Never. Various ways of expressing this idea. When black sheep turn white, when a dry branch sprouts, etc. *Fb “aldrig” IV 9a; *Wehrhan 36; Hdwb. d. Märchens II 163a; *Gittee Zs. f. Vksk. III 442ff.; Weise Zs. f. hochdeutsche Mundarten III 47ff.; Stoett Nederlandsche Spreekwoorden, Spreekwijzen, Vitdrukkingen en Gezegden@4 (Zutphen, 1923) I 401ff. No. 1036; Berthold Nassauische Blätter V 199ff.; Treichel Der Urquell II 214; Heller Die Bedeutung des arabischen Antar-romans für die vergleichende Literaturkunde (Form und Geist XXI, Leipzig, 1931) 174ff.; Taylor English Riddles 54 No. 143; Müller-Fraureuth Die deutschen Lügendichtungen bis auf Münchhausen (Halle a. S., 1881) 19. – Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 588.
Z61.1. Never. “Till Ogham and pillar be blent together, till heaven and earth, till sun and moon be blent together.” Irish myth: Cross.
Z61.2. Forever. “A day and a night.” Irish myth: Cross.
Z61.3. Butterby Church – no church at all. If person says he has gone to Butterby Church, he has not gone to church. England: Baughman.
Z61.4. “He struck him such a blow that he remembered the milk he drank on the sixth day after he was born.” India: Thompson-Balys.
Z62. Proverbial simile.
Z62.1. The old and the new keys. Hero marries his first sweetheart according to the proverb that the old key is better than the new. (Cf. L214.) *Type 313; *BP II 59, 246, 335, 516ff., III 40; *Fb “nøgle” II 511b; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 906*.
Z62.2. “Bridegroom like the sun and bride like the moon.” India: Thompson-Balys.
Z63. Formulas signifying fruitlessness, e.g. like putting a withe about sand, like mocking a beggar. Irish myth: Cross.
Z64. Three explanations. When explanation of phenomenon is asked, three explanations are offered of which the last is always the true one. (Cf. Z71.1.) Irish myth: Cross.
Z64. Proverbs.1 India: Thompson-Balys.
Z64.1. Proverb: one man for worship, two men for cultivation of a field, three men for a journey. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z65. Color formulas. Hdwb. d. Märchens II 51a.
Z65.1. Red as blood, white as snow. Often from blood on snow as a suggestion, a wish is made for a child (wife) with skin like snow and cheeks like blood, etc. (Sometimes black as a raven.) Types 516, 709, 720; BP I 166, 450, *461, IV 245 n. 1; Rösch FFC LXXVII 100; *Böklen 62ff.; **Cosquin Contes indiens 218ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 9.
Z65.1.1. Red as blood, white as snow, (and black as a raven). Usually applied to the cheeks, skin, and hair of a girl’s lover. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z65.2. Series: white cock, red cock, black cock. These crow at dawn and scatter ghosts. (Cf. E452.) Köhler-Bolte III 581.
Z71. Formulistic numbers. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Zahl”; Penzer I 242 n. 3, 255 n. 2, VI 14 n. 1; Feilberg Dania II 185ff.
Z71.0.1. Odd numbers – formulistic. Roman: Pliny Natural History X 151, XXVIII 23; Hindu: Caland Verhandelingen der Koniglijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam XVII (4) 23 and NS I (6) 73, 103; Indonesian: Kruyt Het Animisme 514.
Z71.0.2. Formulistic numbers: a number plus one (101, 1001, etc.). R. M. Meyer Archiv f. Religionswissenschaft X (1907) 89ff.; *BP IV 397ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
Z71.1. Formulistic number: three. **R. Mueller Die Zahl Drei in Sage, Dichtung u. Kunst (Teschen, 1903); Wundt Völkerpsychologie VI 341; Diels Sibyllinische Blätter 40; Aly Volksmärchen bei Herodot 240: Hdwb. d. Märchens I 412ff.; *H. Usener “Dreiheit” Rheinisches Museum f. Philologie N. F. LVIII (1903) 1 – 47, 161 – 208; *Fb “tre”. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “trois”; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Africa (Bulu): Krug 120f. (Luba): DeClerq ZsKS IV 201; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 166.
Z71.1.0.1. Triads. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.
Z71.1.0.2. Formulistic numbers: threefold (e.g. three times thirty). Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Fang): Einstein 49.
Z71.1.1. Formula: three days and three nights. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.1.2. Three chairs in heaven for three saints. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.1.3. Three strains of (fairy) music. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.4. Three things that lead to hell (heaven). Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.5. Three innocent children: Ananias, Zacharias, Misael. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.6. Three Lents. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.7. Three Maries. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.1.8. Three orders of Irish saints. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.9. Three seas surrounding the earth. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.10. Three sods that none may escape: “The sod of his birth, the sod of his death, the sod of his burying.” Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.1.11. Three whom Christ raised from the dead. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.12. Three spiritual gifts of God. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.1.13. Three persons who spoke immediately after birth. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.14. Three weak things that are the strongest. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.15. Three worst things in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.16. Three reasons why men should condemn wealth. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.1.17. Three cries of the world. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.1.18. Three bad stories of the saints of Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.2. Formulistic number: four. Grimm Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer I 290ff.; Eisler Weltenmantel 337; Wundt Völkerpsychologie VI 354ff.; Brinton Myths of the New World 66ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.
Z71.2.0.1. Formulistic number: fourfold (e.g. 400, 4000). Jewish: Neuman.
Z71.2.1. Formula: north, south, east, west. (The cardinal directions.) India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.2.2. The four elements. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.2.3. The four humors. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.2.4. Four places that cleanse the soul. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.2.5. Four categories of souls at Judgment. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.2.6. Four things that prevent the holy life. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.2.7. Four things to which the glory of the world is compared. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.2.8. Sending four messengers with four winds. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.3. Formulistic number: five. Irish myth: Cross; English: Gawayne and the Green Knight lines 623ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Funf”; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 32ff.
Z71.3.0.1. Formulistic numbers: fivefold (e.g. 50, 500). Africa (Luba): De Clerq Zs KS IV 202.
Z71.3.1. Five sighs we should vent over our sins. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.3.2. Five wounds of Christ. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.4. Formulistic number: six. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 420a s.v. “Drie” nn. 408ff.
Z71.4.0.1. Formulistic number: sixfold. Jewish: Neuman.
Z71.5. Formulistic number: seven. *Nyrop Dania II 126; Grimm Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer I 292; Wundt Völkerpsychologie VI 349; *Roscher Die Sieben- und Neunzahl im Kultus und Mythus der Griechen (Leipzig, 1904); Aly Volksmärchen bei Herodot 241; *Fb “syv”. – Irish: *Cross, O‘Suilleabhain 45, 100, Beal XXI 316, 332; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “sept”; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 157, 178; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 457; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 49, 162, Graham; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 93 No. 6, 149 No. 24, 154 No. 26; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 224, 236, (Togo): Einstein 7, (Congo): Weeks Cannibals 217.
Z71.5.0.1. Formulistic numbers: sevenfold (e.g. 49, 70, 70,000, 7,777). (Cf. Z71.15.) Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 943; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 78 No. 43, 80 No. 46.
Z71.5.1. Seven brothers and one sister. Type 451; *Gummere Kittredge Anniversary Volume 17; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 565 No. 116.
Z71.5.2. Journey beyond seven seas. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.5.3. Seven year’s peace with no killing of men. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.5.4. King for seven years. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.5. Exile for seven years. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6. Seven as a number in religious and social records. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.1. Seven causes of poverty. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.2. Seven Deadly Sins. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.3. Seven ecclesiastical orders. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.4. Seven grades of wisdom. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.5. Seven joys of the Virgin Mary. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.6. Seven masses necessary to free soul from hell. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.5.6.7. Seven orders of poets. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.8. Seven gifts of God (Holy Spirit). Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.5.6.9. Seven penitential psalms. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.5.6.10. Seven prayers of saint. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.11. Seven to whom alms should be given. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.12. Seven fair rivers in Inis Eidheand (Eden) in the East of Africa. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.6.13. Seven daughters of Humility. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.5.7. King with seven wives and seven mares. The seven wives pregnant for seven years, the seven mares seven years in foal. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.5.8. Seven brothers marry seven sisters. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.6. Formulistic number: nine (99, 900, 999, 99,999, etc.). *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 419b, nn. 378 – 407; Grimm Deutsche Mythologie I 505f.; Ohrt Danske Trylleformler I 196ff.; Agrell Runornas Talmystik 70ff.; Grimm Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer I 84, 295; Wundt Völkerpsychologie V 82, VI 350; Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 1397; Wuttke Volksaberglaube, register. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 342 (99,999); India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 56, 206 No. 154; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 56ff.; Africa (Wakweli): Bender 76f.
Z71.6.1. Three times nine. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.6.2. Nine whirlpools of the world. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.6.3. (Nine) wonders of Ireland. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.6.4. Nine materials used in building Tower of Babel. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.7. Formulistic number: eleven. Wuttke Volksaberglaube register s.v. “Elf”; Oldenberg Religion der Veda 514; Jewish: Neuman; Icelandic: Boberg.
Z71.8. Formulistic number: twelve. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 420b nn. 416ff.; Wundt Völkerpsychologie VI 353; Hoops‘ Reallexikon I 496; Thien Motive 8f.; Fb “tolv”. – Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 64.
Z71.8.1. Twelve articles of faith. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.8.2. Twelve abuses of the world. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.8.3. Formulistic number: “twice twelve years”. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.8.4. Formulistic number: twelve plus thirteen. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.8.5. Formulistic number: twelve score. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.8.6. Formulistic number: twenty-four. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.8.7. Formulistic number: thirty-six. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.9. Formulistic number: thirteen. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 424a; Grimm Rechtsalterthümer I 298; *Kyriakides To Dysoionon tou Arithmou 13 (Athenae, 1953); India: *Thompson-Balys.
Z71.10. Formulistic number: sixteen. E. Skard Maal og Minne (1931) 106f.; India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.11. Formulistic number: thirty. (Cf. Z71.1.0.1.) Hdwb. d. Märchens I 420b nn. 432ff.
Z71.12. Formulistic number: forty. *Clouston Eastern Romances 456 n. 1; Dh I 228, 283, 284; Grimm Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer I 301; Wundt Völkerpsychologie VI 341; *Roscher Die Zahl 40 im Glauben der Semiten (Leipzig, 1909). – India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.13. Formulistic number: sixty. (Cf. Z71.4.) Hdwb. d. Märchens I 421a.
Z71.14. Formulistic number: seventy-two. (Cf. Z71.8.) Grimm Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer I 303, II 497; Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 989, 991; Schröder Germanentum u. Hellenismus 11f.; Thien Motive 2; Bojunga “Die 72 Völkerschalten in Widsith” Paul und Braune’s Beiträge XVI 545ff.; R. Michel ibid. XV 377. – Chinese: Wilhelm Chinesische Märchen 364, 366, cf. 358, 363.
Z71.15. Formulistic number: seventy-seven. (Cf. Z71.5.0.1.) *Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 991; Wuttke Volksabergl. 525b s.v. “Sieben und Siebenzig”; Gaster Thespis 180, 192, 221.
Z71.16. Formulistic numbers – miscellaneous. Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 430.
Z71.16.1. Formulistic number: eight. Irish myth: *Cross; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 154, 210, 411 s.v. “acht”; Polynesia: *Beckwith Myth 209f.; Hawaii: ibid. 233; Tahiti: ibid. 209; Cook Islands: ibid. 256, Samoa: ibid. 256; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 80, 376.
Z71.16.1.1. Eight deadly sins. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.16.1.2. Eight virtues. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.16.1.3. Eight miracles of Christ‘s body in the sacrament. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.16.1.4. Eight unprofitable types of fasting. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.16.2. Formulistic number: ten. Irish myth: Cross; Society Islands: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 430; Africa (Fang): Trilles 186.
Z71.16.2.1. Ten plagues. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.16.3. Formulistic number: twenty-five. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.4. Formulistic number: twenty-six. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.5. Formulistic number: thirty-two. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.6. Formulistic number: eighty. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.7. Formulistic number: sixteen hundred. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.8. Formulistic number: eighty thousand. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.9. Formulistic number: fifty-two lakhs. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.10. Formulistic number: fourteen. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.11. Formulistic number: fifteen. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.16.11.1. Fifteen characteristics of a good (bad) woman. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.16.11.2. The fifteen Oes. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.16.11.3. Fifteen signs before Doomsday. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z71.16.12. Formulistic number: seventeen. Irish myth: Cross.
Z71.16.13. Formulistic number: twenty-one. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.14. Formulistic number: twenty-two.
Z71.16.14.1. Twenty-two rooms and twenty-two doors built by skillful carpenter. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.15. Formulistic number: fifty-three. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z71.16.16. Formulistic number: fifty-six. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z72. Formulas based on the year. Irish myth: Cross.
Z72.1. A year and a day. (Cf. Z71.0.2.) *Fb “år” III 1195b; A Gobbe-Duval Essais de folklore juridique@2 (Paris, 1920) 178ff.; Schröder und v. Künssberg Lehrbuch d. dt. Rechtsgeschichte@6 (1922) 789 n.; Liebermann Herrig’s Archiv (1916) 401f.; Köhler-Bolte I 6. – Irish myth: Cross; English: Malory X 36, 39 and passim; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “an”, “congé”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18, 24.
Z72.2. Seven years, seven months, seven days. Type 451; BP I 431; Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 63.
Z72.3. Seven (three) years between feasts. Irish myth: *Cross.
Z72.4. Seven years as length of course in school. Irish myth: Cross.
Z72.5. Every third year as period of tribute. Irish myth: Cross.
Z72.6. Three hundred and sixty-five. Irish myth: Cross.
Z72.7. Twelve years and thirteen days. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z73. A day and a night. Irish myth: Cross.
Z73.1. After four days – another two days – another day. India: Thompson-Balys.
Z75. Formula: as many children as holes in a sieve. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “enfants”.
Z76. Formulistic exaggerations.
Z76.1. Three-fourths of men of Ireland die in one night. Irish myth: Cross.
Z78. Testament willing rewards and punishments. Conventional ending of a story. Child V 497 s.v. “testament”.
Z80. Formulistic rimes.
Z81. Blowing the house in. I‘ll huff and I’ll puff till I blow your house in. Type 124; *Taylor JAFL XLVI 78; BP I 40f.; Jacobs English Fairy Tales 251 No. 14.
Z90. Miscellaneous formulas.
Z91. Formula for other world: “Where no man goes and no crow flies.” India: Thompson-Balys.
Z92. Formulas of distance.
Z92.1. “A tree on island beyond the seven seas and the sixteen rivers.” India: Thompson-Balys.

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