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Prevuius group

Group No. 213


S. Unnatural cruelty

Group No.

S0 – S99

Group name

Cruel relatives


S0. Cruel relative.
S10. Cruel parents. *Types 327AB, 517, 832; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys. See also S300 – S399, Abandoned or murdered children, and many of the motifs in S200 – S299, Cruel sacrifices.
S11. Cruel father. *Types 451, 516, 671, 706, 725, 870; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 120; *Schlauch Constance and other accused Queens 40; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 326 n. 177.
S11.1. Father mutilates children. (Cf. S160.) *Type 706; Greek: Fox 74 (Phineus).
S11.2. Jealous father sends son to upper world on stretching tree. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 332 n. 199; Africa (Benga): Nassau 176 No. 23.
S11.3. Father kills child.
S11.3.1. Man who doubts his children’s paternity kills them. Murders wife and paramour. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
S11.3.2. Father kills deformed children. (Cf. S325.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross.
S11.3.3. Father kills son. India: Thompson-Balys.
S11.3.3.1. Father kills son (for stealing). Irish myth: *Cross.
S11.3.3.2. Father murders his two sons for whining. Tonga: Gifford 24.
S11.3.4. Cruel father, learning that he is to be killed by his son, puts to death all children born to him. (Cf. M375.) Irish myth: Cross.
S11.3.5. Cruel king slays brother and brother‘s son. Irish myth: *Cross.
S11.3.6. Father throws boy into river (sea). Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 407, (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 20 No. 3, (Fang): Tessman 91.
S11.3.7. Father orders son assassinated. (Cf. K512.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 529; Africa (Fang): Tessman 92.
S11.3.8. Father eats own children. (Cf. G10.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 920; Africa (Pangwe): Tessman 108, 365.
S11.4. Father plans child’s death. India: Thompson-Balys.
S11.4.1. Jealous father vows to kill daughter‘s suitors. Irish myth: *Cross.
S11.4.2. Father kisses son while planning to kill him. Icelandic: Boberg.
S11.4.3. Cruel fathers threaten to kill their children if they are of undesirable sex. India: Thompson-Balys.
S11.4.4. Cruel father seeks to kill infant son. Irish myth: *Cross.
S11.5. Father banishes son at request of fairy wife. (Cf. F302, S322.4.3.) Irish myth: Cross.
S11.6. Father flogs child. India: Thompson-Balys.
S12. Cruel mother. *Types 511, 590, 706, 765, 781; *BP I 551, III 2; *Boje 62f.; *Child V 475 s.v. “Cruel”. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mère”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 115, 148f., Espinosa II Nos. 115f.; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Eskimo: Rink 389, Kroeber JAFL XII 181; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 76 No. 12, 168 No. 24, 190 No. 28, (Angola): Chatelain 30 No. 1.
S12.1. Treacherous mother marries ogre and plots against son. *Type 590; *BP III 1; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl. II 392.
S12.1.1. Treacherous mother and paramour plan son’s death. India: Thompson-Balys.
S12.2. Cruel mother kills child. Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 139, 151, 157; India: *Thompson-Balys.
S12.2.1. Mother feeds newly-born illegitimate child to dog. (Cf. S312.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.
S12.2.2. Mother throws children into fire. Jewish: *Neuman.
S12.2.3. Mother forces child to break eating tabu: child dies. Africa (Fang): Tessman 162.
S12.3. Mother orders son‘s death. Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 6 – 8, 40 (38), 43 (41); Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.
S12.4. Cruel mother blinds son. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 99, Rasmussen I 312, III 201, Holm 31.
S12.5. Cruel mother expels (drives away) child. India: Thompson-Balys.
S12.5.1. Girl impregnated by god driven from home by mother. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 164.
S12.6. Cruel mother refuses children food. Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 625, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 168; Cook Islands: Clark 77.
S12.7. Mother tells healthy sons to wipe soiled hands on lame son. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 79.
S20. Cruel children and grandchildren.
S20.1. Children sell mother. N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict 340.
S20.2. Child hides food from starving parents. Marquesas: Handy 114.
S21. Cruel son. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 139, 151, 157; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 287, 547, 632; Africa (Fang): Einstein 161.
S21.1. Son buries aged mother alive. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 326 No. 4.
S21.2. Son blinds father. (Cf. Q451.7, S165.) Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda.
S21.3. Son gives mother as hostage. Irish myth: Cross.
S21.4. King banishes mother to stables. India: Thompson-Balys.
S21.5. Cruel son tries to sterilize father. Jewish: *Neuman.
S22. Parricide. (Cf. Q211.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 35, 1148, II 651, 1101, 1169; Tonga: Gifford 189.
S22.1. Parricide to obtain kingship. Irish myth: Cross.
S22.1.1. Adopted son plots death of parents. Usurps the throne. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
S222. Prince plans to kill wicked father for cruelty. India: Thompson-Balys.
S22.3. Father learns that his son is planning to kill him. Gives his son a weapon to do so. Son repents. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
S25. Cruel grandson.
S25.1. Boy kills his grandfather. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
S30. Cruel step- and foster relatives.
S31. Cruel stepmother. *Types 403, 425, 432, 450, 451, 480, 502, 510, 511, 516, 590, 592, 706, 708, 709, 720; BP I 42ff., 70ff., 79ff., 165ff., 207ff., 227ff., 412ff., *421, 427ff., 450ff., II 45ff., 229ff., 490ff., III 60ff., 137, 338f.; **W. Lincke Das tiefmuttermotiv im Märchen der germanischen Völker (Berlin, 1933); *MacCulloch Childhood 150; *Cox Cinderella passim; Böklen Sneewittchenstudien passim; *Arfert Unterschobene Braut passim; Rösch FFC LXXVII 120; Ranke FFC CXIV 154ff.; *Child V 497 s.v. “stepmother”; *Fb “stifmoder”; Dh III 414ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “marâtre”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 63 No. 453; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6, III No. 10, V No. 8, Rotunda; Greek: Grote I 103, 116; Jewish: *Neuman, *bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 375; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer I 185; Chinese: Ferguson 162, Eberhard FFC CXX 52f., 109, 125; Japanese: Ikeda, Anesaki 324; Korean: Zong in-Sob 201f. No. 97; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 209, Dixon 238f.; Hawaii, Micronesia, Melanesia: ibid 89 nn. 97 – 102; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 382ff.; S. A. Indian (Karib): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 147; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 228; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 269 No. 81.
S31.1. Adulteress and paramour plot against her stepson. They fear that he may betray them. Fischer-Bolte 214.
S31.2. Children enchanted by stepmother. (Cf. D683.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.
S31.3. Cruel bird stepmother feeds young ones with thorns. India: *Thompson-Balys.
S31.4. Cruel stepmother feeds children with fish spines (thorns) to kill them. India: Thompson-Balys.
S31.5. Girl persuades her father to marry a widow who has treated her kindly. *Roberts 136.
S32. Cruel stepfather. Type 970**; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.
S33. Cruel stepbrother. (Cf. K2211.3.) Irish myth: Cross.
S34. Cruel stepsister(s). Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
S36. Cruel foster father. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 480.
S37. Cruel foster son. (Cf. S22.1.1.) S. A. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 146, (Jivaro): ibid. 148, (Amuesha): ibid. 150.
S40. Cruel grandparents.
S41. Cruel grandmother. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “grand’mère”; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 254 No. 37.
S42. Cruel grandfather. Kills his grandchildren. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
S50. Cruel relatives-in-law. Chinese: Graham.
S51. Cruel mother-in-law. See references to K2110.1. and K2215, many of which have the present motif. *Type 706; *BP I 295ff.; *Dickson 25 n. 26, 29 n. 3, 30 n. 4, 31 n. 9, 41 n. 40; Saintyves Perrault 67; **Däumling Studie über den Typus des Märchens ohne Hände (München, 1912); *Andree (1878) 159; Hibbard 26; Schlauch Constance and Accused Queens 40. – English: Wells 96 (Chevalere Assigne), 118 (Octovian), 130 (Emare); Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 1480*; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 5, *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer III 44f.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 342, 736; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 125, 189; New Guinea: Dixon 136; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 180 n. 1.
S51.1. Cruel mother-in-law plans death of daughter-in-law. India: *Thompson-Balys.
S52. Cruel father-in-law. *Type 516; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 120; *BP I 46ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “gendre”; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99 – 103, 105; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 85, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 168.
S54. Cruel daughter-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 256f.; Marquesas: Handy 111.
S54.1. Burned and underbaked bread. Wishing to rid herself of her father-in-law, the daughter-in-law starts to feed him burned bread; but the old man begins to thrive on it. When she tries underbaked bread, he dies very soon. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2427*.
S55. Cruel sister-in-law. Chinese: Graham.
S56. Cruel son-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 126; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177.
S56.1. Lover asks girl to kill her father. India: Thompson-Balys.
S60. Cruel spouse.
S62. Cruel husband. *Type 760, 887. See references to H461. Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 152; Eskimo: Boas BAM XV 188, 310, 331.
S62.1. Bluebeard. Girl marries murderous husband. *Type 312; cf. Type 955; *BP I 404ff.; Child I 47; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 312f. Nos. 73, 77; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 91 – 93.
S62.2. Man has bride drowned so that he may marry another. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
S62.3. Barren wife exposed by husband. Jewish: Neuman.
S62.4. Husband leaves wife to die of thirst. Marquesas: Handy 99.
S63. Spouse murder pact. Princess kills her husband. Prince kills his wife. Murderers marry and usurp the throne. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.
S70. Other cruel relatives. Missouri French: Carrière.
S71. Cruel uncle. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 19 (William of Palerne); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “oncle”; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Greek: Aeschylus Agamemnon 1220 (Atreus); India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 447, 1303; Hindu: Keith 177; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 422; Samoa: ibid. 473; Mono: Wheeler No. 29; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 313 n. 127.
S71.1. Cruel uncle poisons nephew (king). Irish myth: *Cross.
S72. Cruel aunt. Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
S73.1. Fratricide. Krappe Revue des Études Anciennes XXXV (1933) 146ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Grote I 219; Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 13; Tonga: Gifford 83; Maori: Clark 157, Beckwith 157.
S73.1.0.1. Murder of stepbrother (foster brother). Irish myth: *Cross.
S73.1.1. Fratricide in order to gain control of kingship. Irish myth: *Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 492.
S73.1.2. Brother kills and eats brother. (Cf. G10.) Tonga: Gifford 27, Mono: Wheeler No. 22.
S73.1.3. Elder brother threatens to kill younger as soon as he is born. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 436.
S73.1.4. Fratricide motivated by love-jealousy. (Cf. T257.) Irish myth: Cross.
S73.2. Person banishes brother (sister). Irish myth: Cross.
S73.3. Man blinds brother. (Cf. S165.) Irish myth: *Cross.
S74. Cruel nephew. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
S74.1. Nephew (niece) kills uncle. Irish myth: *Cross.

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