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Prevuius group

Group No. 177


L. Reversal of fortune

Group No.

L100 – L199

Group name

Unpromising hero (heroine)


L100. Unpromising hero (heroine). Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.
L101. Unpromising hero (male Cinderella). Usually, but not always, the unpromising hero is also the youngest son. *BP I 183ff.; *Rank Mythus v. d. Geburt d. Helden; *Cosquin Contes indiens 494ff.; Cox 437 – 462, 519; M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII x; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 184b nn. 13ff.; Chauvin II 83 No. 9. – Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Wells 25 (The Tale of Gamelyn); Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 52 No. 32; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 408; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 185; Africa (Fang): Trilles 251f.
L101.1. Unpromising hero: aged man. Irish myth: Cross; N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 336.
L102. Unpromising heroine. Usually, but not always, the youngest daughter. See references to L50. *BP I 165ff.; **Cox passim; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”merle“; Missouri French: Carrière: Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/346); N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 336.
L103. Unpromising hero given great powers by deity. India: Thompson-Balys.
L110. Types of unpromising heroes (heroines).
L111. Hero (heroine) of unpromising origin. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
L111.1. Exile returns and succeeds. **A. Nutt FLR IV 1ff.; *Hibbard 111 n. 6; Boccaccio Decameron II No. 8 (Lee 39); v. Hahn Sagenwissenschaftliche Studien 341ff.; *Dickson 42 n. 42; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.
L111.1.1. Banished youth becomes mighty king. Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 1, Boberg.
L111.1.2. Fugitive bull-calf returns when grown and defeats his father. West Indies: Flowers 557 – 9.
L111.2. Foundling hero. *Dickson 144ff. n. 147; Hdwb. d. Märchens II 120b; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri-French: Carrière; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Tonga: Gifford 130; N. A. Indian: Lowie JAFL XXI 27.
L111.2.1. Future hero found in boat (basket, bushes). Legends of Moses, Cyrus, Beowulf and others. *Usener Die Sintfluthsagen (Bonn, 1899) 80ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I s.v. ”Aussetzung in Boot“; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
L111.2.1.1. Future heroine found in hollow tree (calfshed, house ”without door but only window and skylight“). Irish myth: *Cross.
L111.2.2. Future hero found on shore. Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Tonga: Gifford 122.
L111.2.3. Future hero found on top of a tree. Chinese: Graham.
L111.2.4. Future hero found in wolf den. Irish myth: *Cross.
L111.2.5. Heroine found in harp. Icelandic: Boberg.
L111.3. Widow’s son as hero. *Jacobs‘s list s.v. ”Widow’s son“; *Krappe Balor 126ff.; Garnett FL III 265; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
L111.4. Orphan hero. Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; New Hebrides: Codrington 283ff.; Buin: Wheeler No. 8; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/818); Africa (Wakweli): Bender 81.
L111.4.1. Orphan hero lives with grandmother. Avenges slaughtered kin. N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 320 n. 156 (most of the references).
L111.4.2. Orphan heroine. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Mossi): Frobenius Atlantis VIII 274ff. No. 120.
L111.4.3. Orphan brothers as heroes. Chinese: Graham.
L111.4.4. Mistreated orphan hero. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 93, Rasmussen I 123, 230, 238, II 34, 38, III 90, 295, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 188, (West Hudson Bay): ibid. 309, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 265, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 630.
L111.5. Bastard hero. Icelandic: Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 957; Africa (Nuba): Reinisch Sprachen von Nord-Ost-Africa (Wien, 1879) II 224ff. No. 9.
L111.6. Anchorite‘s son as hero. Icelandic: Boberg.
L111.7. Future hero (heroine) raised by animal. India: Thompson-Balys.
L111.8. Heroes sons of wife not favorite of king. India: Thompson-Balys.
L111.8.1. Heroine daughter of wife not favorite of king. India: Thompson-Balys.
L111.9. Hero of story neglected grandson of raja. India: Thompson-Balys.
L111.10. Unpromising fourth son succeeds. Africa (Luba): DeClerq ZsKS IV 200.
L112. Hero (heroine) of unpromising appearance. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.
L112.1. Monster as hero. *Type 708; *BP II 236; Cosquin Lorraine II 224; India: Thompson-Balys.
L112.1.1. Loathly man father of supernaturally born boy. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux MAFLS XL 159.
L112.2. Very small hero. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Hrólfssaga Gautrekssonar passim; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 133 – 135; Korean: Zong in-Sob 78 No. 44; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 24.
L112.3. Deformed child as hero. Penzer I 184ff.
L112.3.1. Hero with deformed head. India: Thompson-Balys.
L112.4. Dirty boy as hero. Type 301; Missouri French: Carrière; Chinese: Graham; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 183.
L112.5. ”Burnt-belly“ as hero. N. A. Indian (Pawnee): Dorsey CI LIX Nos. 42, 44, 47, Grinnell 87ff., (Skidi Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII No. 9, (Arikara): Dorsey CI XVII Nos. 17 – 19, (Hidatsa): Curtis N. A. Indian IV 165.
L112.6. ”Scar-face“ as hero. N. A. Indian (Blackfoot): Grinnell Blackfoot Lodge Tales (New York, 1892) 93, McClintock Old North Trail (London, 1910) 491.
L112.7. Skin-sore as hero. Africa (Basuto): Kidd The Bull of the Kraal and the Heavenly Maidens (London, 1908) 51ff. No. 1.
L112.7.1. Leper hero. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/45).
L112.8. Lame child as hero. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Wakweli): Bender 79.
L112.9. Ugly child becomes great poet. Irish myth: *Cross.
L112.10. One-armed hero. India: Thompson-Balys.
L112.11. Heroine born with pigeon’s head. Tonga: Gifford 31, 61 – 65.
L113. Hero (heroine) of unpromising occupation.
L113.1. Menial hero. Type 594*; *Cox xl, 437 – 446; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Micmac): Rand 440 No. 85, (Zuñi): Parsons MAFL XXXI 245.
L113.1.0.1. Heroine endures hardships with menial husband. Rewarded by his success. BP I 443ff.; cf. Type 900; Cosquin Lorraine I 138ff.; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl 348ff., (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 81, (Wichita): Dorsey JAFL XVI 160ff., (Teton): Curtis N. A. Indian III 111, cf. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 16.
L113.1.1. Swineherd as hero. (Cf. P412.2.) Hdwb. d. Märchens I 186b n. 109; Irish myth: *Cross:
L113.1.2. Stable-boy as hero. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”garçon“; Missouri French: Carrière.
L113.1.3. Mad fisherman as hero. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
L113.1.4. Shepherd as hero. Type 922; Jewish: *Neuman.
L113.1.5. Goatherd as hero. Icelandic: *Boberg.
L113.1.6. Cowherd hero. India: *Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.
L113.1.6.1. Cowherd‘s daughter (foster child) as heroine. Irish myth: *Cross.
L113.1.7. Slave as hero. Jewish: Neuman.
L113.2. Menial heroine. Cox 1-121 passim; BP I 183; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 119; Italian Novella: Rotunda.
L113.2.1. Heroine has been goatherd. Icelandic: Ragnars saga Loðbr. 127, 198, Boberg.
L113.3. Poor weaver as hero. India: *Thompson-Balys.
L113.4. Peasant as hero. Africa (Dschagga): Stamberg ZsES XXIII 296ff., (Ganda): Baskerville 1ff.
L113.5. Woodcutter hero. Africa (Nubian): Rochemonteix Quelques Contes Nubiens (Cairo, 1888) 48ff. No. 4, (Suaheli): Steere 13ff.
L113.6. Smith as hero. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 73ff., 114 – 34 (Velent), Boberg.
L113.7. Quack-doctor as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.
L113.8. Barber becomes king. India: Thompson-Balys.
L113.9. Tailor as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.
L113.10. Flute player as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.
L114. Hero (heroine) of unpromising habits. Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.
L114.1. Lazy hero. *Type 675; *Fb ”doven“ IV 102b; *Chauvin VI 64 No. 233 n. 1, 202; Oesterley No. 91; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 416.
L114.2. Spendthrift hero. Type 969; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.
L114.3. Unruly hero. Types 301, 650; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 95.
L114.4. Cheater as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.
L114.5. Hero with disgusting habits. Korean: Zong in-Sob 66 No. 36.
L115. Successful foolish son. India: *Thompson-Balys.
L116. Insane hero (heroine). Irish myth: Cross (L125).
L121. Stupid hero. (Cf. Z253.) Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 131; India: *Thompson-Balys.
L121.1. Half-wit successful. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 23.
L122. Unsophisticated hero. *Dickson 128ff. nn. 94 – 99; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
L123. Pauper hero. Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.
L123.1. Penniless hero. Loved by a courtesan, he proves later to be a great man. M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII xxiii.
L124. Dumb hero. Dickson 185; Irish myth: *Cross.
L124.1. Child silent till seventh year. Icelandic: *Boberg.
L124.1.1. Famous poet does not speak until he is fourteen (four, seven) years old. Irish myth: Cross.
L124.2. Silent hero. Icelandic: *Boberg.
L130. Abode of unpromising hero (heroine).
L131. Hearth abode of unpromising hero (heroine). *Cox 1 – 52, 87 – 121, 437, 446, 493; *Fb ”askefis“ IV 17b; Saintyves Perrault 124ff.; *Cosquin Contes indiens 494ff.; Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 115; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 119; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; Chinese: Graham; N. A. Indian (Micmac): Michelson JAFL XXXVIII 45ff.
L131.1. Ashes abode of unpromising hero. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
L132. Pig-sty abode for unpromising hero (heroine). *Type 314; Cox Nos. 1, 33, 77, 79, and passim; Chinese: Graham; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 351.
L133. Unpromising son leaves his home and goes into the world. Icelandic: *Boberg.
L134. Unpromising hero must live in hut. India: Thompson-Balys.
L140. The unpromising surpasses the promising.
L141. Stupid person surpasses clever. Missouri French: Carrière; Chinese: Graham; West Indies: Flowers 559.
L141.1. The stupid monk recovers the stolen flocks. A nobleman steals the abbot’s flocks, saying that the monks have no use for them since they eat no meat. The most learned of the monks tries to recover them, but without success. The most stupid is then sent. Asked to dinner, he eats till he can hold no more. He tells the nobleman that he ate as much as possible since he could take back with him only what he had in his stomach. The nobleman pleased with the reply returns the flocks. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 61; Alphabet No. 718; Mensa Philosophica No. 187.
L141.2. Simpleton‘s naive answer to robbers makes them think he knows their secret. They share their loot with him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
L141.3. Hero stupid at games but fleet of foot. Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 214.
L141.4. Inept child eventually surpasses others. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1122).
L142. Pupil surpasses master. *Fb ”mester“ II 584a; Alphabet No. 38; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
L142.1. Pupil surpasses thieves in stealing. *Type 1525E; *BP III 393 n. 1.
L142.2. Pupil surpasses magician. *Type 325; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.
L142.3. Son surpasses father in skill. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
L143. Poor man surpasses rich. *Types 676, 1535; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 187b; Irish: Beal XXI 336, O‘Suilleabhain 122; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 181, 201; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 256f.
L143.1. Poor girl chosen as wife in preference to rich. India: Thompson-Balys.
L143.2. Poor suitor makes good husband; rich suitor cruel. Africa: Weeks Jungle 443f.
L144. Ignorant surpasses learned man.
L144.1. Ignorant steward straightens his master’s accounts. The educated stewards have always cheated. The ignorant puts his belongings in one box, his master‘s in another. Both master and steward gain. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 355.
L144.2. Farmer surpasses astronomer and doctor in predicting weather and choosing food. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2448*; Russian: Andrejev No. 2132; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 921 II*.
L145. Ugly preferred to pretty sister. Type (4032); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”laide“.
L145.1. Ugly sister helps pretty one. *Type 711.
L146. Neglected surpasses favorite child.
L146.1. Ape tries to flee with favorite child; neglected child saves himself. The favorite child is killed through the mother’s overanxiety. Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 253), 146 (ST 510); Halm Aesop No. 366.
L147. Tardy surpasses punctual.
L147.1. Tardy bird alone succeeds at bird convocation. Chauvin V 38 No. 365 n. 1.
L148. Slowness surpasses haste.
L148.1. If you hasten you will not get there. In spite of the saint‘s advice the teamster hastens and breaks his wagon. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 255; Alphabet No. 324.
L151. Peasant girl outwits prince. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 3.
L152. Daughter succeeds on quest where son fails. Africa (Rozwi): Posselt Fables of the Veld (Oxford, 1929) 30ff.
L154. Scorning stops when it turns out that the scorned has saved the king by fighting alone against four. Icelandic: *Boberg.
L155. Disagreeable and disliked child surpasses the likeable one. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
L156. Unpromising hero kills those who scorn him. Icelandic: *Boberg.
L156.1. Lowly hero overcomes proud rivals. Korean: Zong in-Sob 120 No. 58.
L160. Success of the unpromising hero (heroine). Irish: *Cross, O’Suilleabhain 27, Beal XXI 309; India: Thompson-Balys.
L161. Lowly hero marries princess. *Types 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308*, 314, 325, 329, 400, 434, 502, 506, 507, 508, 513, 514, 530, 545B, 552, 553, 559, 560, 561, 570, 571, 575, 577, 580, 590, 594*, 725, 853, 854, 930, 935; Child V 488 s.v. ”marriages“. – Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 614.
L161.1. Marriage of poor boy and rich girl. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 81 No. 44; N. A. Indian (Zuñi): *Benedict II 336.
L161.2. Fool wins beautiful woman as wife. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 530B*; India: Thompson-Balys.
L161.3. Mercenary soldier (exile) accepted lover of princess. Irish myth: *Cross.
L162. Lowly heroine marries prince (king). *Types 310, 403, 428, 431, 440, 442, 450, 451, 501, 510, 511, 545A, 585, 652, 705, 706, 707, 708, 711, 870A, 873, 875, 883A, 887; Hibbard 190ff.; *Roberts 196. – Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 107f., 154, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 80, 142; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 5 and passim, *Rotunda; India: Cowell Jataka I 27f., *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 147, 423, II 103, 455, 1366; Japanese: Ikeda.
L165. Lowly boy becomes king. (Most references to L161 apply here). Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 51; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 249; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/45).
L175. Lowly successful hero invites king and humbles him. *Type 675; India: Thompson-Balys.
L175.1. Lowly successful soldier invites general and humbles him. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
L176. Despised boy wins race. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327f. nn. 185f. (many references), (Zuñi): *Benedict II 336.
L177. Despised boy wins gambling game. N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 336.

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