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Prevuius group

Group No. 17


Letter

A. Mythological Motifs

Group No.

A1000 – A1099

Group name

World calamities and renewals

Description

A1000. World catastrophe. The world is destroyed. The incidents are usually the same whether a final destruction is thought of or a destruction which may be overcome by a renewal of the earth. – **Olrik Ragnarök; Fb "verden" III 1039ab; *G. Neckel Studien zu den germanischen Dichtungen vom Weltuntergang (Stzb. d. Heidelberger Akad. d. Wissenschaften 1918); **H. Fischer Weltwenden (1928); **Henne-am Rhyn Das Jenseits: kulturgeschichtliche Darstellung der Ansichten über Weltuntergang (1881); **Reitzenstein Weltuntergangsvorstellungen (Kyrkohistoriska Arsskrift [Uppsala 1924]). – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Egyptian: Smith Dragon 111; Hindu: Keith 105. – S. Am. Indian (Guarani): *Métraux RMLP XXXIII 124.
 
M357. Prophecy: world catastrophe.
 
A1001. Series of world catastrophes. **Olrik Ragnarök; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3012, Legends No. 15. – Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 95.
 
A1002. Doomsday. Catastrophes precede the Day of Judgment. *Olrik Ragnarök. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 461ff.; Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307), *Neuman; Hindu: Keith 105; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 279. – Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 116ff. – Cf. Revelations passim.
 
A1075. End of world heralded by coming of Antichrist. B259.8. Birds' wings drip blood when birds hear of Day of Judgment. E751. Souls on Judgment Day. M341.2.20. Prophecy: wholesale slaughter to be inflicted by colossal wheel rolling over Europe. Q155.1. Condemned souls released from hell on Doomsday at request of saint.
 
A1002.1. Widespread calamity when feast of John the Baptist shall fall on certain day. Irish myth: Cross.
 
V70.3.1. Feast of Saint John the Baptist.
 
A1002.2. Signs before the Day of Judgment. **Heist Fifteen Signs Before Doomsday (East Lansing, Michigan, 1952). – Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1075. End of world heralded by coming of Antichrist. M363.0.1. Coming of Antichrist prophesied. Z71.16.14.3. Fifteen signs before doomsday.
 
A1002.2.1. No rainbow for fifteen years before the Day of Judgment. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1002.2.2. Bleeding wood as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.3.).
 
A1002.2.3. Talking stone as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.4).
 
A1002.2.4. Unusual migration of birds as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.5.).
 
A1003. Calamity as punishment for sin. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Maori: Beckwith Myth 317; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 158.
 
A1005. Preservation of life during world calamity. (Cf. A1020, A1038, A1045.) – Persian: Carnoy 308; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.
 
A1005.1. Preservation of life of certain persons in Ireland during Flood. (Cf. A1006.5.) – Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1005.2. Inclosure made during world calamity and only best types of animals and men preserved. Persian: Carnoy 308; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1005.3. Holy Land not ravaged by deluge. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1006. Renewal of world after world calamity. Icel.: De la Saussaye 352, Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman. – S. Am. Indian (Bakairi): Lévi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 347, (Namicuara): Lévi-Strauss ibid. 369.
 
A1006.1. New race from single pair (or several) after world calamity. (Cf. A1038, A1045.) – *Olrik Ragnarök 479 s.v. (Erneuerungв). – Greek: *Grote I 93; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys. – Marquesas: Handy 110; Ellice Is.: Beckwith Myth 270; Hawaii: ibid. 315; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 91; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 144, (Chiriguano): ibid. 157, 163, 170f., (Guaporé River): Lévi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379; African (Lamomi): Bouveignes 29.
 
A1006.2. New race from incest after world calamity. Hindu: Keith 92; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
 
A1006.3. New race made of red earth after world calamity. Smith Dragon 121.
 
A1006.4. New race from union of girl and rat. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1006.5. Ireland repopulated by persons who escape flood. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1006.6. Ireland, waste for centuries after flood, is repopulated by immigrants. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1006.7. Whole tribe descended from lone woman-survivor of doomed city. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1006.8. One bear-child escapes death, is ancestor of all bears. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1006.9. After world-fire life recreated from tree. Africa (Fang): Trilles 132f.
 
A1007. World calamity will begin in Palestine. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1009. World catastrophes – miscellaneous.
 
A1009.1. First race of men perishes when sun first rises. S. Am. Indian (Aymara): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 571, (Chibaya): La Barre ibid. 585.
 
A1009.2. Animate and inanimate objects attempt to destroy humanity. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 158.
 
A1009.3. Large stone falls from sky killing all but one couple. S. Am. Indian (MorР№): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 406.
 
A1010. Deluge. Inundation of whole world or section. – **Anderson Nordasiatische Flutsagen; **Andree Die Flutsagen (Braunschweig, 1891); **Diestel Die Sintflut und die Flutsagen des Altertums@2 (Berlin 1876); *Woods Encyc. Religion and Ethics s.v. (Delugeв); **Winternitz Die Flutsagen des Altertums (Wien 1901); **Fischer Weltwenden: Die grossen Fluten in Sage und Wirklichkeit (Leipzig 1925); **Gerland Der Mythus von der Sintflut (Bonn 1912); **Usener Die Sintflutsagen untersucht (Bonn 1899); Ley Eiszeit (Anhang: Eiszeit u. Sintflut) (Erfurt 1928); *Riem Die Sintflut in Sage und Wissenschaft (Hamburg 1925); *F. von Schwarz Sintflut und Vðlkerwanderung (Stuttgart 1894); **Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn (1915); *Maria Alice Moura Pessoa A Bibliographic Study of the Deluge Myth in the Americas (MA Thesis, Columbia University 1948). – Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 19, *Frazer Apollodorus I 55 n. 1, II 88 n. 2; Egyptian: Müller 75f.; Persian: Carnoy 270; Hindu: Keith 105, Charpentier Kleine BeitrРґge 34 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys; Indo-Chinese: Scott 267, 278ff.; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 16 No. 8; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 361ff. – Indonesian: Dixon 178ff., 256f.; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 189; Melanesian: Cole. 119f.; Polynesian: ibid. 38; Samoan: ibid. 17; Australian: ibid 280; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 307, 314. – N. A. Indian (general): *Thompson Tales 286 n. 57, Alexander N. Am. 299 f. n. 49, also 177, 180, 203, 205 (Pima, Walapai, Sia, Hopi); Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 347; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55; Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 637, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 452, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 48, (Northwest Canada): PР№titot Traditions 2; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 152f.; Mixtec: ibid. 87; S. Am. Indian (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 39, (Chibcha): ibid. 203, (Amazon tribes): ibid. 311, (Jivaro, Yugua): Steward-Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627, 736, (Cubeo): Goldman ibid. (3) 798, (Aymara): Tschopik ibid. (2) 571, (Zaparoans, Pebans): Steward ibid. (3) 532, (Bacairi): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 347, (Nambicuara): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 369, (Guaporé): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379, (Caingang): Métraux ibid. (1) 473, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie ibid. (1) 397. – African: *Wagener 13ff.
 
A1010.1. Sun and moon do not shine during deluge. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1010.2. Great flood lasts eight months. Maori: Beckwith Myth 316.
 
A1011. Local deluges. **Schmarsel Die Sage von der untergegangenen Stadt; *RTP XXVIII 27 and references to earlier volumes. – Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 81 n. 2; Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1011.1. Flood partially caused by breaking forth of springs. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1011.2. Flood caused by rising of river. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 170.
 
A1011.3. God's promise never to destroy world by water does not apply to local floods. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1012. Flood from fluids of the body.
 
A1012.1. Flood from tears. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 57b; polynesian: Dixon 38 n. 117.
 
A1012.1.1. Flood from Adam's tears of repentance. Dh I 223.
 
A1012.1.2. Flood from tears of grieving lover. N. Am. Indian (N'tlaka'panaq): British Association for the Advancement of Science LXIX 574f.; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): NordenskiÖld Indianerleben 253f.
 
A1012.2. Flood from urine. *Jochelson JE VI 367 (Koryak, Eskimo, Athapascan Indians).
 
A1012.2.1. Flood caused by loosing fairy horse and allowing it to stale. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1012.3. Flood from blood. American Indian (Mono): Gifford JAFL XXVI 306.
 
A1012.3.1. Flood from slain giant's blood. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A1013. Flood from belly. It flows from pierced belly of monster. – Indonesian: Dixon 196 n. 33; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 57c.; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 127.
 
A1013.1. Vomiting of a whale causes flood. N. Am. Indian (DР№nР№): Petitot Traditions (Paris 1886) 318f.
 
A1015. Flood caused by gods or other superior beings. (Cf. A1018.) – Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch Epos XI 53ff., 69ff.; Marquesas: Handy 109f.; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133, (Yuracare): ibid. 503.
 
A1015.1. Flood from conflict of gods. Sea god and rain god. – Cook Group: Dixon 39 n. 121, 122; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Campana Archivio per l'Antropologia et la Etnologia XXXII 22.
 
A1015.1.1. Flood from conflict of monsters (giant animals). S. Am. Indian (Araucanian): Cooper BBAE CXLIII (2) 753, (Aymara): Tschopik ibid. (2) 571, (Chiriguano): Métraux ibid. (3) 484.
 
A1015.2. Spirit causes deluge. Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 10. – S. Am. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434, (Guaporé River): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379.
 
A1015.3. Flood caused by deity stamping on floor of heavens. Maori: Beckwith Myth 250, Clark 162.
 
A1016. Pseudo-scientific explanations of the flood. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684; Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 267.
 
A1016.1. Flood from animals' boring into ground (turtles, crawfishes, etc.). American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus No. 5.
 
A1016.2. Deluge produced by hot liquid which burns as it floods. American Indian (Salinan): Mason JAFL XXVII 163f., (Krawak): Ehrenreich Mythen und Legenden 49.
 
A1016.3. Flood caused by melting of ice after great spell of cold. N. Am. Indian (DР№nР№): Petitot Traditions 373 – 378; S. Am. Indian (Gusinde): Métraux MAFLS XL 37.
 
A1016.4. Flood from broken calabashes of water. American Indian (Puerto Rico): Fewkes RBAE XXV 73f., (Carajú): Baldus Ensaios de Etnologia Brasileira 174, Lowie Encyc. Rel. Ethics s.v. (floodв).
 
A1016.5. Making mountains out of flat earth causes flood. N. Am. Indian (Apache): Goddard PaAM XXIV 28f.
 
A1016.6. Moon falls into sea and causes flood by overflowing. S. Am. Indian (Fueginos): Coazzi Rev. Chil. Hist. Geogr. X 31.
 
A1016.7. Flood whenever shard at earth's core moves. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1017. Flood caused to satisfy emotional need.
 
A1017.1. Desire of man for sun causes flood. S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Métraux BBAE CXXXIV 26.
 
A1017.2. Flood caused by prayer. Maori: Beckwith Myth 316.
 
A1017.3. Flood caused by curse. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.
 
A1018. Flood as punishment. *Frazer Old Testament I 144 – 360; Spanish Exempla: Keller. – Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Fox 158; Babylonian: Spence 45f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1056. – Society Is.: Dixon 39 n. 120; Hawaiian, Maori, Marquesas: ibid. 40; N. Am. Indian (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 59, (Pomo): Angelo JAFL XLVI 241, (Wishosk): Kroeber JAFL XVIII 96, (Apache): Goddard PaAM XXIV 8, (Hopi): Voth FM VIII 53, (ZuСЃi): Benedict ZuСЃi Mythology I 10ff.; Caribbean (Cuan): Stewart BBAE CXLIII (4) 267; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369, (Cubeo): Goldman JAFL LIII 244, (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 29, (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315. – See also references to (Sintflutв) in A1010 and A1015, where in nearly all cases the gods produce the flood as punishment.
 
A1018.1. Flood as punishment for breaking tabu. Fiji, Tahiti, Maori, Andaman: Beckwith Myth 316 – 319; S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mataco, Lengua): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.
 
A1018.2. Flood as punishment for incest. American Indian (Namba): Müller Anthropos XXIX 186.
 
A1018.3. Flood brought as revenge for injury. Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 318; N. Am. Indian (Carrier): Jennes JAFL XLVII 141ff., (Ts'etsaut): Boas JAFL IX 262, (North Pacific Tribes): Boas Indianische Sagen 79, (Haida): Swanton BBAE XXIX 142, (Kwakiutl): Boas and Hunt JE III 100, (Mono): Gifford JAFL XXVI 326, (Shasta): Dixon JAFL XXIII 36, (Pima): Lloyd Aw-Aw-Tam 36ff., (Ojibwa): Jones-Michelson PAES VII 151, 271, (Menomini): Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 255 – 260, Hoffman RBAE XIV 133; Central and S. Am. Indian (Cahita): Beals BBAE CXLII 216f., (Bororo): Baldus Ensaios de Etnologia Brasileira 176ff., (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133.
 
A1019. Deluge – miscellaneous.
 
A1019.1. Subsidence of earth beneath flood. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1019.2. Serpent king causes flood by damming rivers. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1019.3. Flood because earth has become too thickly populated. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1019.4. Flood puts out world-fire. (Cf. A1030.) – S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133, (Tucuna): Nimuendajú ibid. 724, (Cubeo): Goldman JAFL LIII 244.
 
A1020. Escape from deluge.
 
A1021. Deluge: escape in boat (ark). *Dh I 258ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324, Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Greek: Fox 19, Grote I 93; Hebrew: Genesis, ch. 6, 7, 8; Jewish: Moreno Esdras; Babylonian: Spence 173f.; Hindu: Keith 99; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1056; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 84; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 364. – Pelew Is. (Micronesia): Dixon 257; Maori: Beckwith Myth 316. – American Indian: *Thompson CColl II 452, (Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 637f., (Carrier): Jenness JAFL XLVII 141ff., (Chipewyan): Lowie PaAM X 195, (Coos): Frachtenberg CU I 45 – 49, (Kathlamet): Boas BBAE XXVI 23, (Nootka): Sapir JAFL XXXII 353ff., (Chimariko): Dixon UCal. V 304, (Salishan): Teit MAFLS XI 13, 132; (Crow): Lowie paAM XXV 16, (Cochiti): Benedict BBAE XCVIII 2ff., (White Mountain Apache): Goodwin MAFLS XXXIII 50ff., (Ojibwa): Radin JAFL XLI 70ff., (Choctaw): Bushnell AA n. s. XII 528f., (Shawnee): Spencer JAFL XXII 319, (Natchez): Swanton BBAE LXXXVIII 121, 214, (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 85f., (Arawak): ibid 273, (Carib): ibid. 39, (Mbaya): Müller Anthropos XXIX, (Mura): Nimuendajú BBAE CXLIII (3) 265, (Taulipang): Camara Cascudo Antologia de Folclore Brasileira 124ff. (These are only a selection of the American Indian references).
 
A1021.0.1. Persons excluded from Noah's ark build another ark and sail to Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1021.0.2. Escape from deluge in wooden cask (drum). Chinese: Graham; S. A. Indian (Guaporé): Lévi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379.
 
A1021.0.3. Deluge: escape in gourd. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1021.0.4. Deluge: escape on floating tree. Korean: Zong in-Sob 16 No. 8.
 
A1021.0.5. Deluge: escape in hollow tree trunk. American Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 636ff., (Mexican): Bancroft Native Races of the Pacific States of America (New York 1874 – 76) III 66ff.
 
A1021.0.6. Deluge: escape on floating building. American Indian (Tlingit): Bancroft Native Races V 14, (Cahita): Beals BBAE CXLII 216f.
 
A1021.1. Pairs of animals in ark. Seed of all beings put into ark to escape destruction. – See references to (Sintflutsageв) in A1010; also Dh I 267ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis 6:19; Babylonian: Spence 175; Hindu: Keith 147. – Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85f.
 
A1021.2. Bird scouts sent out from ark. *Dh I 283. – Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis 8:7ff., Neuman; Babylonian: Spence 176.
 
A1022. Escape from deluge on mountain. Greek: Grote I 93; Hebrew: Genesis 8:4, Neuman; Hindu: Keith 99; India: Thompson-Balys. – Philippine: Dixon 179; Borneo: ibid. 180; West Caroline Is.: ibid. 257; Australian: ibid. 280; Polynesian: ibid 38 n. 118; Cook Group: ibid. 39 n. 121; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 215. – N. Am. Indian (Bella-Bella): Boas MAFLS XXV 1f., (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 232ff., (LuiseСЃo): Du Bois UCal VIII 157, (Shasta): Dixon JAFL XXIII 36, (Blackfoot): Wissler paAM II 19, (Chiricahua Apache): Opler MAFLS XXXVII 1f., (ZuСЃi): Benedict CU XXI 10ff.; S. Am. Indian (Araucanian): Alexander Lat. Am. 330, (Inca): ibid. 230, (Yunca, Peru): ibid. 230, (Caingang, Amazon): ibid. 312. (Only a selection of references for North and South America.).
 
A1023. Escape from deluge on tree. India: Thompson-Balys. – American Indian (Paiute): Steward UCal XXXIV 372, (Plains Cree): Skinner JAFL XXIX 350, (Fox): Jones JAFL XIV 233ff., (Catawba): Speck CU XXIV 23, (Ackawoi): Alexander Lat. Am. 270, (Caingang): ibid. 312, (Guayaki): Métraux-Baldus BBAE CXLIII (1) 444, (Maina): Steward-Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 649.
 
A1024. Escape from deluge in cave. Andaman Is.: Beckwith Myth 319; American Indian (Cheyenne): Dorsey FM IX 36, (Arawak, Antis, Yuracare): Spence The Problem of Atlantis 95.
 
A1025. Escape from deluge on island. Society Is.: Dixon 39.
 
A1026. Escape from deluge on foot. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 84.
 
A1027. Rescue from deluge by fish. Hindu: Keith 75, 99.
 
A1028. Bringing deluge to end.
 
A1028.1. Trickster sticks spear in ground and leads water to sea, ending deluge. S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369.
 
A1028.2. Birds fill sea with dirt and overcome flood. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.
 
A1029. Escape from deluge – miscellaneous.
 
A1029.1. Marvelous tree survives deluge. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1029.2. (Four) persons who, in four quarters of the world, survived the flood and thus preserved ancient tradition. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1029.3. Escape from deluge in pot or jar. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 170, (Guarayu): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 438.
 
A1029.4. Flood: refuge in huge gourds with seven rooms in each. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1029.5. Escape from deluge in box or basket. American Indian (Thompson River): Teit JE VIII 230, (Apache): Gould JAFL XXXIV 319, Russell JAFL XI 253ff., (Guarayu): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 438, (Cubeo): Goldman ibid. (3) 798, (Chaco): NordenskiÖld Indianerleben 253f.
 
A1029.6. Survivors of flood establish homes. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 170f.
 
A1030. World-fire. A conflagration destroys the earth. Sometimes (as with the flood legends) the tradition is somewhat local and does not refer to an actual destruction of the whole earth; sometimes the fire marks the end of the world. – *Olrik Ragnarök 483 s. v. (Weltbrandв), *Danske Studier (1913) 204ff.; *Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt 452. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff., Boberg; Greek: Grote I 94; Lithuanian: Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI 133f.; Jewish: Neuman; Babylonian: Meissner Babylonien und Assyrien II 118; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 368ff.; Hindu: Keith 105; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 84. – Maori: Dixon 47 n. 33; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 57d.; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare, W. Brazil): Alexander Lat. Am. 313, (Araucanian): ibid. 330, (Chaco, Tupinamba, Apapocuva-Guarani, Tembé, Shipaya, Carajú, Mura, Cashinawa, Witoto, Arawak, Yuracare): Métraux MAFLS XL 36 (Mataco): ibid. 35, (Toba): ibid. 33, (Tucuna): Nimuendajú BBAE CXLIII (3) 724, (Bacairi): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 347.
 
A1031. Causes of world-fire.
 
A1031.1. A (flame of fire swifter than a blast of windв) as punishment for the sin of the Irish. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1031.2. World-fire after theft of fire. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1031.3. Evil demons set world on fire. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare, Tupinamba, Arawak): Métraux MAFLS XL 36.
 
A1031.4. Fall of sun causes world-fire. S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mataco, Lengua): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Mocovi): Métraux MAFLS XL 34.
 
A1031.4.1. All countries burned while the wife of sun god pours fire from a small bowl. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1031.5. World-fire because of man's arrogance. African (Fang): Trilles 131.
 
A1031.6. Miscellaneous reasons for world-fire. S. Am. Indian (Witoto, Apapocuva-Guarani): Métraux MAFLS XL 36, (Toba): ibid. 19, (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 316.
 
A1035. Quenching the world-fire.
 
A1035.1. Rain invoked to destroy world-fire. Maori, Melanesian: Dixon 49.
 
A1035.2. Creator puts out world-fire with his staff. S. A. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 316.
 
A1036. Earth recreated after world-fire. S. Am. Indian (MunderucСЉ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 282.
 
A1038. Men hide from world-fire and renew race. (Cf. A1006.1., A1045.) – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 311 No. 47; India: Thompson-Balys. – S. Am. Indian (Toba, Arawak, Mura, Yuracare, Tupinamba): Métraux MAFLS XL 34 – 36, (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 158; African (Fang): Trilles 133f.
 
A1039. World-fire – miscellaneous.
 
A1039.1. Vulture sent out as scout to see whether earth has cooled from world-fire. (Cf. A1021.2.).
 
A1040. Continuous winter destroys the race. Spoken of as (Fimbulwinterв). It ushers in the end of the world. – *Olrik Ragnarök 479; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Persian: Carnoy 309. – S. Am. Indian (Toba, PilagР±, Tierra del Fuego): Métraux MAFLS XL 30, 37, (Chaco): Métraux BBAE CLXIII (1) 367.
 
A1045. One pair escapes continuous winter and renews race. (Cf. A1006.1, A1038.) – *Olrik Ragnarök 479 s. v. (Fimbulwinterв).
 
A1046. Continuous world-eclipse. India: Thompson-Balys. – S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mocovi, Mataco, Choroti): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Tupinamba): Métraux ibid. (3) 131, (Guarani): Métraux MAFLS XL 33.
 
A1046.1. World-eclipse ended by bat making sun smile. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1050. Heavens break up at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 480 s. v. (Himmelв).
 
A1051. Behavior of stars at end of world.
 
A1051.1. Stars fall down at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 482 s. v. (Sterneв); Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1051.2. End of world when stars in one constellation overtake those in another. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 425.
 
A1052. Behavior of sun at end of world.
 
A1052.1. Sun devoured by monster at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 482 s.v. (Sonneв).
 
A1052.2. Sun shining at night as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.1).
 
A1052.3. End of world when four (seven) suns appear in sky. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 157, II 566.
 
A1053. Behavior of moon at end of world.
 
A1053.1. Moon shining by day as sign of Doomsday. (Cf. A1002.) Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.2).
 
A1057. Seven days silence in whole universe at the end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.10).
 
A1058. End of world when culture hero removes one of the world-props. S. Am. Indian (GuaranРЅ): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.
 
A1060. Earth-disturbances at end of world. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1061. Earth sinks into sea at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 479 s.v. (Erdeв).
 
A1061.1. Earthquakes at the end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.12). – S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 158.
 
A1062. Mountains fall together at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 484 s. v. (ZusammenstСЊrzenв).
 
A1063. Water-disturbances at end of world.
 
A1063.1. Sea makes extraordinary noise and throws out fishes at end of world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.6).
 
A1063.2. Sea water mixes with fresh water at end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.8).
 
A1065. Continuous drought at end of world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 736; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 171.
 
A1066. Sun will lock moon in deep ditch in earth's bottom and will eat up stars at end of world. Africa (Fang): Einstein 36.
 
A1067. Extraordinary wind at end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.15).
 
A1068. Sun thrown on fire: period of darkness, rain. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 83.
 
A1069. Flow of molten metal at end of world. Persian: Carnoy 262.
 
A1070. Fettered monster's escape at end of world. Giant, or monster, is fettered in depths of the earth. His movement causes earthquakes. When he succeeds in freeing himself from the fetters and escapes, the world will end. – *Olrik Ragnarök 278, 478ff. s.v. (Erdbebenrieseв), (Schlangeв), (Raubtierв), (Ungeheuerв), Danske Studier (1913) 3ff.; Anholm Danske Studier (1904) 141; *Krohn Der gefangene Unhold; *Von der Leyen Der gefesselte Unhold. – Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: De la Saussaye 246; Lettish and Lithuanian: Gray 322; Persian: Carnoy 324; Babylonian: Spence 78.
 
A1070.1. Birth of monsters as sign at end of world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.7).
 
A1071. Fettering of underground monster. Gaster Thespis 160, 329.
 
A1071.1. Underground monster fettered by trick. Is persuaded to try on fetters. (Sometimes told of fettering Satan, who plays same role.) – *Type 803; *Olrik Ragnarök 204ff., 248ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Lithuanian Legends of the Devil in Chains (Tautosakos Darbai III [1937] 321 – 331.)
 
A1071.2. Forging of chain for fettered monster. Smiths hit once in three or four times on the bare anvil. All of these blows go to forging chains for the monster (devil). – Olrik Ragnarök 204ff., 248ff., 253 (Prometheus), 269 (Loki).
 
A1072. Form of fettered monster.
 
A1072.1. Fettered monster in human form. *Olrik Ragnarök 83f.
 
A1072.2. Fettered monster as ferocious animal. *Olrik Ragnarök 85, 481 s.v. (Erdbebenrieseв). – S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.
 
A1072.3. Fettered monster as snake. *Olrik Ragnarök 84, 482 s. v. (Schlangeв).
 
A1072.4. Fettered monster as dragon. Irish myth: Cross; Gaster Thespis 160, 329.
 
A1074. Fettered monster's captivity.
 
A1074.1. Monster fettered with sword just out of reach. If he reaches it he will free himself. – *Olrik Ragnarök 136ff., 184ff., 225.
 
A1074.2. Fettered monster's vain attempt to reach sword with man's help. Could he reach it he would escape. – *Olrik Ragnarök 139ff., 185, 223ff.
 
A1074.3. Fettered monster questions visitor. He asks (Are lambs still being produced?в) or the like; i.e. is nature still normal? He must remain fettered till he hears that nature's laws no longer hold. – *Olrik Ragnarök 149ff., 180ff.
 
A1074.4. Fettered monster preyed upon by vulture. Cf. Prometheus. – *Olrik Ragnarök 151ff., 183f., 288.
 
A1074.5. Fettered monster kept just out of reach of water. The water is always drunk by vulture as he is ready to take it. – *Olrik Ragnarök 151ff., 183f., 288.
 
A1074.6. Fettered monster vainly loosens his stake. Each time he loosens it, it is driven in the ground. – *Olrik Ragnarök 186f., 289.
 
A1074.7. Fettered monster's weakened chains renewed by supernatural power. Are almost licked in two by dog but then renewed. – *Olrik Ragnarök 152, 189ff., 217f., 289.
 
A1074.8. Fettered monster's weakened chains renewed by stroke of a smith. (Cf. A1071.2.) – *Olrik Ragnarök 152, 189ff., 217f., 289; Fb (smedв) III 402a.
 
A1075. End of world heralded by coming of Antichrist, a gigantic destructive one-eyed monster. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1075.1. Signs before the birth of Antichrist. Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1080. Battle at end of world. Armageddon. – Revelations 16:16; Fb (krigв) II 296b.; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman, Moreno Esdras (N307.13).
 
A1080.1. Horse shall wade in blood at Armageddon. *Fb (hestв) I 600a.
 
A1081. Battle of the gods at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 480 s.v. (GÖtterschlachtв).
 
A1082. Battle of gods and monster at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1082.1. Battle of gods and giants at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 480 s.v. (GÖtterschlachtв).
 
A1082.2. Odin battles Fenris Wolf at end of world. (Cf. A1070.) – *Olrik Ragnarök 479 s.v. (Fenris-wolfв).
 
A1082.2.1. Other gods battle Fenris wolf at end of world. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A1082.2.2. God battles hound of hell at end of world. Icel.: Boberg.
 
A1082.3. Thor battles Midgard serpent at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 481 s.v. (Midgardschlangeв).
 
A1082.3.1. End of world to come at disease and death of snake encircling the world. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1082.4. God battles Leviathan at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1082.5. God conquers Satan at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1082.6. Battle of saints with Lucifer at end of world. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 781ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI 133f.
 
A1082.7. Battle of angels with Leviathan and Behemoth at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1084. Prophecy of defeat in battle as sign of end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M324.1).
 
A1085. End of the gods. *Olrik Ragnarök 51f.; Irish myth: Cross.
 
A1087. Monsters kill each other off at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.
 
A1090. World calamities and renewals: miscellaneous motifs.
 
A1091. Natural laws inoperative at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarök 46ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Graham.
 
A1091.1. Three horses from dove's egg on last day. *Fb (hestв) I 600a.
 
A1093. End of world announced by trumpet. *Olrik Ragnarök 116ff.
 
A1095. The Messianic Age. Jewish: **Neuman.
 
A1097. Extraordinary man at end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.16).
 
A1099. World calamities – additional motifs.
 
A1099.1. World destroyed by rain of stones. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
A1099.2. World devoured by ogre. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.
 
A1099.3. World turned topsy-turvy and eaten by an earthworm. India: Thompson-Balys.

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