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Prevuius group

Group No. 16


A. Mythological Motifs

Group No.

A950 – A999

Group name

Land features


A950. Origin of the land. Chinese: Graham; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47.
A951. Contours of land caused by plowing of goddess. (Cf. A901.) – *Olrik in Danske Studier (1910) 1ff.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 181; Danish: De la Saussaye 280.
A951.1. River valley licked out by giant beast. Irish myth: Cross.
A951.2. Contours of land caused by rooting of swine. Irish myth: Cross.
A951.3. Contours of land caused by occult hero driving harrow. India: Thompson-Balys.
A952. Land rises out of sea. Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 75.
A953. Land thrown down from heaven. Tonga: Gifford 15.
A954. Land born from goddess. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 302.
A955. Origin of islands.
A955.0.1. Islands created by order of deity. Marquesas: Handy 122f.; Marshall Is.: Davenport 221.
A955.1. Islands as deity's stepping-stones. (Cf. A901.) – Greek: Fox 250.
A955.2. Wissowa s.v. (Anapheв) 2060, Apollonius Rhodius IV 1709ff.
A955.3. Origin of island's shape and position.
A955.3.1. Origin of an island's shape. India: Thompson-Balys.
A955.3.2. Origin of island's position. Mono-Alu, Farau: Wheeler 70.
A955.3.2.1. Primeval hero moves islands into their present position. *Frazer Pausanias II 48. – Japanese: Anesaki 248ff., Ikeda; Marshall Is.: Davenport 222.
A955.4. Island plowed out by goddess. (See A951.).
A955.5. Islands from cow and calf transformed by evil eye of one-eyed god. Irish myth: Cross.
A955.6. Islands from stones cast by giantess. (Cf. A901, A963.5.) – Irish myth: Cross.
A955.7. Islands from webs woven by primeval spiders. India: Thompson-Balys.
A955.8. Island fished-up by demigod (hero). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 61, 227, 308; Tonga: Beckwith Myth 369, Gifford 15, 20; Maori: Clark 48ff.; Marquesas: Handy 103; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (x-G. 13/52).
A955.9. Goddess gives birth to islands. Tonga: Gifford 102.
A955.10. Islands from transformed object or person. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 347; Tahiti: Henry 129, 346; Marshall Is.: Davenport 222; Tonga: Gifford 24, 68, 179; Marquesas: Handy 44.
A955.11. Islands originally form continent, later separated. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 468; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 216f., 230, 328; Marquesas: Handy 112; Tonga: Gifford 81; Easter Is.: Métraux Ethnology 389.
A955.12. Old woman as guardian of floating islands of the gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 68.
A956. Origin of peninsulas. Greek: Aeschylus Suppliants line 542. – Tonga: Gifford 68.
A957. Origin of desert. Jewish: Neuman.
A960. Creation of mountains (hills). Norwegian: Solheim Register 22; Persian: Carnoy; Chinese: Graham; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47.
A961. Mountains from primeval animal.
A961.1. Hills from flapping of primeval bird. Hills and valleys are formed from the flapping of a giant turkey-buzzard when the earth is still plastic. – Yuchi: Alexander N. Am. 62.
A961.2. Mountains from hacked-up fish drawn from bottom of primeval water. Earth originates from a fish drawn from the water. It is hacked up and thus made to form mountains. – Maori: Dixon 43.
A961.3. Mountain from accident to primeval lizard. Lizard passing through a mountain is broken; his fore and hinder parts become mountains. – Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 215.
A961.4. Mountains spring from scattered parts of slain giant serpent's body. India: Thompson-Balys.
A961.5. Mountains (cliffs) from bones of killed giant. Icel.: Boberg.
A962. Mountains (hills) from ancient activities of god (hero).
A962.1. Mountain from part of deity's (hero's) body. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 170 (bones), 188f.; Maori: Beckwith Myth 379 (navel); Tahiti: Henry 339 (ribs, spine).
A962.2. Mountains made with God's hand. Jewish: Neuman.
A962.3. Mountains from primeval journeys of a god. (Cf. A901.) – Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 332.
A962.4. Mountains pressed together by God. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 4 No. 4, XXXIII 51 No. 4.
A962.5. Mountains made with the hand. Jewish: Moreno Esdras.
A962.6. Mountains originated from primeval journeys of the first man. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 14.
A962.7. Hills from hero's striking (earth) with sword. Irish myth: Cross.
A962.8. Origin of hills and ridges: pieces of shattered god's head. India: Thompson-Balys.
A962.9. Mountains and hills are former sons, daughters of gods. India: Thompson-Balys.
A962.10. Hills represent loads from culture-hero's shoulders. India: Thompson-Balys.
A963. Mountains from stones (soil, sand) dropped or thrown.
A963.1. Mountains from stones dropped from giant's clothes. He carries the stones in his clothes but loses them as he walks. – German: Grimm Deutsche Mythologie I 443; Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 1043; French: Sébillot France IV 7ff.; Swedish: Wessman 68 Nos. 581 – 3. – Indonesian: L. de Backer L'archipel indien 232ff.
A963.2. Mountains from breaking of God's sieve. He is sifting stones and the bottom of the sieve breaks, letting huge stones and mountains fall through. (Cf. A971.) – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 4 No. 5; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No. 1.
A963.3. Soil dropped to form mountains. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59.
A963.4. Mountains and hills from stones thrown by giant at church. Germanic: Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens s. v. (Findlingssteineв); Celtic: Thurneysen Irische Helden- und Königsage 431; Danish: Schmidt Danmarks Kaempesten (1932) (DF XXXIX) 66ff.; Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 19ff., (1931) 11ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 493 – 96; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 68 Nos. 586 – 591.
A963.5. Hills from stones cast by giants. Irish myth: Cross.
A963.6. Hill from anvil (cast by supernatural smith). Irish myth: Cross.
A963.7. Hill from sand left by passersby. – Lithuanian: Balys Historical.
A963.8. Hill as unfinished tower built in the likeness of Nimrod's tower. Irish myth: Cross.
A963.9. Clay soil dropped from sky to form hill. Tonga: Gifford 39.
A964. Mountains (hills) from ancient contest (fight).
A964.1. Holes in hills result of fight between gods. India: Thompson-Balys.
A964.2. Balys.
A964.2.1. Mountains fight each other for honor of being the spot for the revelation. Jewish: Neuman.
A964.3. Battle of demons: hills torn up. India: Thompson-Balys.
A965. Origin of mountain chain.
A965.1. One mountain in love with another stretches leg out to meet her: origin of a mountain chain. India: Thompson-Balys.
A966. Origin of volcanoes. Maori: Clark 43.
A967. Origin of mounds. Tonga: Gifford 121.
A967.1. Mounds from horns cast by cattle. Irish myth: Cross.
A968. Origin of cliffs.
A968.1. Cliffs become hard. Were formerly soft but become hard by God's order. (Cf. A975.) – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 3; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 139 No. 2.
A968.2. Cliff from lovers' leap. Lovers in despair throw themselves from a high place. This becomes a cliff. – *Crane Vitry 220f. No. 214; Ward Cat. Romances III 17; U.S.: Baughman. – Common among the North American Indians.
A969. Creation of mountains and hills – miscellaneous.
A969.1. Mountain from buried giant. India: Thompson-Balys.
A969.2. A969.2. Cloud on lofty male mountain induced by a beautiful female mountain to bow to her feet: hence their present shape. India: Thompson-Balys.
A969.3. Mountains and valleys formed from great fire. India: Thompson-Balys.
A969.4. A969.4. Hills because sky asked earth to wrinkle up its feet. India: Thompson-Balys.
A969.5. Water freezes and forms mountains. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 482.
A969.6. Hill brought to country as adopted child. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 379.
A969.7. Origin of mountains as punishment. Jewish: Neuman.
A969.8. Origin of crevasse. Africa (Bushongo): Torday 251.
A969.9. Mountain or hills from actions of the devil. England: *Baughman.
A970. Origin of rocks and stones. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325f.; Jewish: Neuman. – Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47.
A971. Origin of rocks from breaking of God's sieve. See references in A963.2.
A972. Indentions on rocks from prints left by man (beast). (Cf. A901.) – *Fb (stenв) III 552b; *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 96; Dh II 8. – Irish: Thurneysen Irische Helden-u. Königssagen 189, Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Danish: Schmidt DF XXXIX 13ff.; French: Sébillot France I 369ff.; India: Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian: Krickeberg IndianermРґrchen aus Nordamerika 245, Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59; Aztec: Krickeberg MРґrchen der Azteken 60, 204, and passim; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.
A972.1. Indentions on rocks from imprint of gods and saints. *Toldo Studien zur vgl. Literaturgeschichte V 337ff.; Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 95. – Irish myth: *Cross; Eng., Scot., Ire., Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 977; Greek: *Grote I 180. – Hawaii Beckwith Myth 65, 142, 212f.; S. Am. Indian (MunderucСЉ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.
A972.1.1. Indentions on rocks from footprints of Christ. Dh II 199. – Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Kirialaxsaga 66.
A972.1.2. Priest stamps on stone to prove truth of pope; print is still visible. England: Baughman.
A972.1.3. Footprints of holy man are still seen in stone where he stood to preach. England: Baughman.
A972.2. Indentions on rocks from footprints of fairies (angels, devils). Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 Nos. 22, 23. – Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 500ff.
A972.2.1. Indention on rock from footprint of angel. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
A972.2.2. A972.2.2. The devil's footprint. Eng., Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.
A972.3. Holes in stones caused by piercing by saint's finger. Irish: Plummer Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae clvi.
A972.3.1. Holes in stone caused by saint (warrior). Irish myth: Cross.
A972.3.1.1. Indentions on rock from weapons (limbs) of robbers through power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.
A972.3.1.2. A972.3.1.2. Indentions on rocks from footprints of saint's cow. Irish myth: Cross.
A972.4. Imprint of horse in rocks. – French: Sébillot France I 383ff.; Danish: Thiele Danmarks Folkesagn I 209, II 47, Schmidt DF XXXIX 22 – 23; German: Р®iСЂriks saga I 157, 220. – India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
A972.5. Indentions on rocks from marks of various persons.
A972.5.1. Indentions on rocks from head of infant hero (saint). Irish myth: Cross.
A972.5.2. Chasms between rocks mark (leapsв) of giants, heroes, etc. Irish myth: Cross.
A972.5.3. Indentions on rock from paws of King Arthur's dog. Irish myth: Cross.
A972.5.4. Indentions on rocks from weapons, knees, and elbows (of persons slain by hero). Irish myth: Cross.
A972.5.5. Rocks or hill-tops flat because persons (gods) slept or cooked on them. Irish myth: Cross.
A972.5.6. Hole in stone caused by weapon of warrior. Irish myth: Cross.
A972.6. Indentions on rocks caused by giants. Irish myth: Cross.
A972.7. Great fish killed by hero and cut into sixteen pieces: the great stones may still be seen. India: Thompson-Balys.
A973. Origin of stones: punishment for discourtesy. Jesus asks a man what he is sowing. He answers, (Stones.в) Jesus turns the crop to stones. This is how stones originate. – *Dh II 95. – Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 4; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 No. 2, England: Baughman.
A974. Rocks from transformation of people to stone. Greek: Fox 175; Icel.: Boberg. – Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 175; Marshall Is.: Davenport 229; Tonga: Gifford 99, 130; Marquesas: Handy 106; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo: Boas RBAE VI 639; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 97.
A974.1. Certain stones are druids transformed by power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.
A974.2. Certain stones are transformed giants. Irish myth: Cross.
A975. Why stones became hard. By God's order. (Cf. A968.1.) – Schmidt DF XXXIX 36; von Sydow Folkeminder och Folktankar VI 73; Fb (Adamв) IV 3a. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 3; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 139 Nr. 2; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 Nos. 3, 4. – Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 88.
A975.1. Why stones no longer grow. Devil sows stones; God sends cold to prevent their growing. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3015, Legends Nos. 16f.
A975.1.1. Why stones no longer grow: punishment for injuring foot of holy person. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3015. Legends Nos. 19, 25.
A975.2. Why certain rock produces fire when struck with steel.
A975.2.1. Fire producing rock result of contest between god of fire and god of rain. India: Thompson-Balys.
A976. Why rocks at river are covered with moss. Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 49.
A977. Origin of particular stones or groups of stones.
A977.1. Giant responsible for certain stones. (Cf. A963.1.) – Canada, England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman; Icel.: Boberg.
A977.2. Devil throws stones. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
A977.2.1. Devil and man throw stones in contest. England, Wales: *Baughman.
A977.2.2. The devil throws stones at church or churchmen. (Cf. A963.4.) – England: *Baughman.
A977.2.3. Devil throws down quoits when he is told that it is wrong to play on Sunday. They remain as stones to this day. – England: Baughman.
A977.3. Devil drops stones. England: *Baughman.
A977.3.1. The devil drops stones from apron. (Cf. A963.1.) – England, Ireland: *Baughman.
A977.4. The devil turns object or animal to stone which is still seen. England, U.S.: *Baughman.
A977.5. Origin of particular rock. India: Thompson-Balys.
A977.5.1. Certain stones are cheeses transformed by saint. (Cf. A974.) – Irish myth: Cross.
A977.5.2. Pile of stones in certain chapel formed of fragments of salmon transformed by saint. Irish myth: Cross.
A977.5.3. Stone column is membrum virile of ancient hero. Irish myth: Cross.
A977.5.4. Two rocks from split and transformed lapdog. Irish myth: Cross.
A978. Origin of minerals.
A978.1. Origin of minerals from body of dead culture hero. Persian: Carnoy 294.
A978.2. Iron created to punish cedar's pride. Jewish: Neuman.
A978.3. Origin of emeralds from marvelous vase broken into pieces. India: Thompson-Balys.
A979. Other stories about stone origins. Tahiti: Henry 341; Marquesas: Handy 132; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 18, 22.
A979.1. Stone rent at time of crucifixion. England: Baughman.
A980. Origin of particular places.
A983. Origin of valleys or hollows. Jewish: Neuman; Tonga: Gifford 89.
A984. Pillars of Hercules at Gibraltar set up by Hercules. (Cf. A901.) – Greek: Fox 86.
A986. Bridge of the Gods. A conflict of the gods breaks a primeval bridge and thus causes a rapid in a river (the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon). – Salishan: Alexander N. Am. 134.
A988. Cairn marks burial place. Irish myth: Cross.
A989. Origin of particular places – miscellaneous.
A989.1. Dark brown patches on soil mark place where marvelous cow (Glas) and her calf lay. Irish myth: Cross.
A989.2. Roads marked out by supernatural cows. Irish myth: Cross.
A989.3. Certain stones are druids' (saints') seats (chairs). Irish myth: Cross.
A989.4. A989.4. Pile of stones (cairn) marks site of battle. Irish myth: Cross.
A990. Other land features.
A991. Origin of villages. Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 36; India: Thompson-Balys.
A992. Origin of sacred places. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3725; India: Thompson-Balys.
A992.1. Origin of sacred post (placed there by ancestral culture hero). India: Thompson-Balys.
A992.2. Sacred place where thunderbolt fell down. Blinkenberg The Thunderweapon (Cambridge 1911); Handwb. d. Abergl. II 325 (Donnerkeilв).
A992.3. Ground bursts open and a temple rises from it. India: Thompson-Balys.
A994. Five great roads of Ireland "discovered" on night of king's birth. Irish myth: Cross.
F1099.2.1. Roads miraculously appear on day of hero's birth.
A995. Origin of cities. Jewish: Neuman.
A996. Origin of settlements (places later to be settled). Jewish: Neuman.
A997. Origin of boundaries. Jewish: Neuman.
A998. Origin of clay. India: Thompson-Balys.

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