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Prevuius group

Group No. 158


Letter

K. Deceptions

Group No.

K400 – K499

Group name

Thefts and cheats II

Description

K400. K400. Thief escapes detection.
 
K401. K401. Blame for theft fastened on dupe. *Penzer IV 191f. n. 1; Boccaccio Decameron VIII No. 6 (Lee 257); Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 129.
 
K401.0.1. K401.0.1. Thief accuses his companion of having stolen the gold they have both stolen. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K401.1. K401.1. Dupe’s food eaten and then blame fastened on him. Trickster eats the common food supply and then by smearing the mouth of the sleeping dupe with the food escapes the blame. *Type 15; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 21; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 173, 177, 179, (Zulu): Callaway 164, (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 366 No. 17, (Hottentot): Bleek 18 No. 9, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 48 No. 5, (Basuto): Jacottet 10 No. 1, (Benga): Nassau 93 No. 4, (Kaffir): Theal 95, 96, 114, Kidd The Essential Kaffir (London, 1904) 384, (Fang): Tessman 57; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 80 No. 17, Friends 147 No. 20, (South Carolina): Parsons JAFL XXXVIII 222; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 238. See all references to K372.
 
K401.1.1. K401.1.1. Trail of stolen goods made to lead to dupe. The crane in revenge for the loss of her young ones strews pieces of fish from the dwelling of the mongoose to that of the snake. The mongoose follows the trail and kills the snake. *Penzer V 61 n. 3; Bødker Exempler 287 No. 37; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
 
K401.2. K401.2. Stolen goods taken to dupe’s house so that he is accused. Icelandic: Boberg; Bødker Exempler 303 No. 74; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 178 n. 1 (Palamedes); Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 100.
 
K401.2.1. K401.2.1. Crow causes serpent to try to swallow a stolen collar and thus be accused of the theft. Chauvin II 87 No. 23; Penzer V 47 n. 3, 214, 226f.
 
K401.2.2. K401.2.2. Necklace dropped by crow into snake’s hole leads men to kill snake which had eaten the crow‘s fledglings. Bødker Exempler 281 No. 25; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
 
K401.2.3. K401.2.3. Surreptitious transfer of stolen object to innocent person’s possession brings condemnation. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 349, 892.
 
K401.3. K401.3. Stolen goods left in suitor‘s room. Impoverished lover falsely accused so as to be rid of him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K401.4. K401.4. Thief makes believe that he has been robbed of money entrusted to him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K401.5. K401.5. Thief successfully accuses owner of having stolen property he covets. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K402. K402. The lamb without a heart. Accused of eating the lamb’s heart, the thief maintains that it had no heart. *Type 785; *BP II 149, 153; Wienert FFC LVI 40, 107; Oesterley No. 83; Herbert III 205; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 57; Penzer V 130 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K402.1. K402.1. The goose without a leg. Accused of eating the goose‘s leg, the thief maintains that it had no leg, and cleverly enforces his point by showing geese standing on one leg. (Usually the master confounds the rascal by frightening the geese so that they use both legs) *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 229 No. 75; Boccaccio Decameron VI No. 4 (*Lee 177); Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2424*; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 191; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 508.
 
K402.2. K402.2. The bird without a tail. Thief maintains that the bird had no tail. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 184.
 
K402.3. K402.3. The ass without a heart. The ass as toll-gatherer is killed by the lion for asking for toll. The fox eats the ass’s heart. When the lion asks for it, the fox replies that the ass could have had no heart since he was such a fool as to ask the lion for toll. **Keidel “Die Eselherz Fabel” Zs. f. vgl. Litgsch. n. ser. VII No. 58; Gaster Exempla 229 No. 244; Penzer V 130 n. 1; *Chauvin II 99 No. 58; Bødker Exempler 299 No. 63; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K403. K403. Thief claims to have been transformed into an ass. While the owner sleeps the thief steals his horse, hitches himself to the wagon, and claims that he is the horse transformed into a man. *Type 1529; *BP III 9, 391 n. 3; Chauvin VII 137; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 229 No. 487; *Basset 1001 Contes I 492; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 150 No. 1852*; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 437.
 
K404. K404. Thief escapes by leaving animal’s severed tail and claiming that the animal has escaped and left his tail. *Type 1004.
 
K404.1. K404.1. Tails in ground. Thief steals animals and sticks severed tails into the ground, claiming that animals have escaped underground. *Type 1004; BP III 392 n. 1; *Fb “hale” I 537, “svin” III 676a; Icelandic: Sveinsson FFC LXXXIII No. 1004; Missouri French: Carrière; Louisiana Creole: Fortier MAFLS II 110 No. 2; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 241; Africa (Vai): Ellis 249 No. 41; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 98 No. 20, Nights 230 No. 39, 241 No. 41, (Virginia): Smiley JAFL XXXII 368, (South Carolina): Parsons MAFLS XVI 31f., JAFL XXXIV 8; Bahama: Cleare JAFL XXX 228; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 252 No. 29; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 109 n. 2, 113.
 
K404.2. K404.2. Ox’s tail in another‘s mouth. The thief kills one ox and puts the tail in another ox’s mouth: the owner thinks one ox has eaten the other. Type 1004; *BP III 392 n. 2; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1525G*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 1525G*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1525G*.
 
K404.3. K404.3. Stolen sheep‘s tails severed and put in tree. Owner made to believe that they have escaped through the air. *Type 1004.
 
K405. K405. Thief successfully claims that stolen goods are his own.
 
K405.1. K405.1. Grain-thief’s wagon falls into ditch: duped owner helps him. The thief makes the owner believe that the grain belongs to the thief. Type 1564*.
 
K405.2. K405.2. The stolen pot pawned with the real owner. The thief gets a receipt from the owner and thus defends himself when accused of theft. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 823; cf. No. 860.
 
K405.3. K405.3. Thief successfully claims that stolen image has been given him by the saint himself. Wesselski Erlesenes 64ff.
 
K406. K406. Stolen animal disguised as person so that thief may escape detection.
 
K406.1. K406.1. Stolen sheep dressed as person sitting at helm of boat. Type 1525H*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1525H*.
 
K406.2. K406.2. Stolen sheep dressed as baby in cradle, so that thief may escape detection. (Mak.) Whiting Speculum VII 552; Fb “lam” II 370a, “hundehvalp” IV 228b; *Baugh MPh XV 729; *Smyser JAFL XLVII 378; *Stroup JAFL XLVII 380, Southern Folklore Q. III 5f.; *Cosbey Speculum X 310ff.; Middle English: Second Shepherd’s Play; Irish myth: Cross (K521.1.3); Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 144 No. 1735B*.
 
K406.3. K406.3. Stolen animal magically transformed so that thief may escape detection. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K407. K407. Severed limb prevents detection. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K407.1. K407.1. Thief has his companion cut off his head so that he may escape detection. *Type 950; BP III 395ff.; *Krappe “Trophonios and Agamedes” Archiv für Religionswissenschaft XXX 228-241; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Greek: Grote I 122; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K407.2. K407.2. Companion‘s arm allowed to be cut off so as to prevent detection. Thief has had his arm cut off as he enters a hole in a wall. He lets his companion also enter and have his severed. *DeVries Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsche Taal- en Letterkunde XLV 213ff.
 
K407.2.1. K407.2.1. Thief’s confederate cuts off own arm to furnish alibi for family‘s grief. (Previously he had severed father’s or brother‘s head to escape detection.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.
 
K407.3. K407.3. Elephant cuts piece from own leg and puts it on shelf, lest he be accused of stealing meat. Africa (Cameroon): Lederbogen 3.
 
K408. K408. The stolen cow successively pawned. In one night a thief pawns a cow four times, always stealing it immediately and finally delivering it back to its owner. *Wesselski Mönchslatein 119 No. 100.
 
K411. K411. Thief presents alibi. Plays all night for dance while confederate commits actual theft. Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 244 No. 21.
 
K411.1. K411.1. Thief shams illness as alibi. Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 271 No. 6, (Nago): Basset Contes populaires d’Afrique 217ff. No. 90.
 
K412. K412. Detection of theft of bull escaped by putting boots on bull. *Fb “tyr” III 908b.
 
K413. K413. Thieves stretch chain across road and evade pursuers. Type 965**; Fb “kjæde” II 145, “reb” III 26a, *“røver” III 131b.
 
K414. K414. Quartered thief‘s body sewed together to escape detection. Type 676; *BP III 143; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 389.
 
K415. K415. Marked culprit marks everyone else and escapes detection. *Type 950; BP III 395ff.; *Schoepperle I 214 n. 3; Boccaccio Decameron III No. 2 (Lee 62); *Penzer V 274f., 284, VII 36, 217ff.; *Chauvin V 83 No. 24 n. 2; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2440*; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 435; Africa: Werner African 223.
 
K415.1. K415.1. Many persons admit theft so that it is impossible to find real thief. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K416. K416. Repentant thief pretends to have found stolen cow. Upbraids owner for not guarding her better. *Wesselski Mönchslatein 119 No. C; Mensa Philosophica No. 52.
 
K416.1. K416.1. Thief pretends to have recovered stolen horse. Returns it to owner after using it all he desires. Nouvelles Récréations No. 24.
 
K417. K417. Thief swallows stolen goods to escape detection.
 
K417.1. K417.1. Flower thief eats flowers to escape detection. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K418. K418. The owner is duped by thief who gives him the task of solving a riddle about the theft just accomplished. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1635*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1545*.
 
K419. K419. Thief escapes detection – miscellaneous.
 
K419.1. K419.1. Thief cannot remember whom he delivered the goods to. Though he has eaten the food trusted to him, he claims to have delivered it, but cannot remember the person who opened the door. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 63.
 
K419.2. K419.2. Thief avoids detection by disguising as a woman. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K419.3. K419.3. Umpire awards his own stolen coat to thief. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1525K*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1525 I*.
 
K419.4. K419.4. Stolen bacon offered to the owner. Making off with bacon, thief accidentally enters farmer’s living-room. Boldly says: “Master, the devil from hell sends you bacon.” The farmer: “Take yourself off to hell with the bacon.” Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1627B*.
 
K419.5. K419.5. Thief paints horse black on one side and leaves other side white. Hoodwinked guardians make conflicting report of theft. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
 
K419.6. K419.6. Husks replaced in granary so theft of grain is unnoticed. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K419.7. K419.7. Goldsmith as thief in king‘s treasury. Makes golden human figure and says it is a corpse. Gets by guards. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K419.8. K419.8. Thieves escape detection by carrying woman on bier and drowning her outcries with wailing. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K419.9. K419.9. Blame for theft fastened on inanimate objects. Japanese: Ikeda (K402).
 
K419.10. K419.10. Blame for theft fastened on fairies. Maori: Clark 196.
 
K420. K420. Thief loses his goods or is detected.
 
K421. K421. Robber mistakenly carries off worthless goods and leaves valuable. Chauvin II 83 No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K421.1. K421.1. Thief hoping to gain bigger booty, loses smaller. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K421.2. K421.2. Thieves directed to a hornet’s nest as supposed money hiding place. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K421.3. K421.3. Two cheats exchange articles as genuine and both find themselves cheated. (Cf. K306.) India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K422. K422. Thief rendered helpless by magic. *Type 952; *BP III 453; *Fb “stjæle” III 575a; *Kittredge Witchcraft 200f. nn. 95 – 101; Alphabet No. 669; England, U.S.: Baughman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 300 No. 10.
 
K423. K423. Stolen object magically returns to owner. Irish myth: *Cross. See all references to D1602 and its subdivisions.
 
K423.0.1. K423.0.1. Stolen animal returns to owner. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
K424. K424. Thief condemned when witnesses of theft are able to find the stolen goods. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 808.
 
K425. K425. King‘s daughter put into brothel to catch thief. *Type 950; *BP III 395ff.; *Chauvin VIII 186; Schoepperle I 214 – 222 passim.
 
K426. K426. Apparently dead woman revives when thief tries to steal from her grave. Type 990; **Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 353; XXX – XXXII 127; *Hertel ibid. XXI 282.
 
K427. K427. Clever animal betrays thief. Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 48; West Indies: Flowers 509.
 
K427.1. K427.1. Clever animal betrays thief. Horse catches arm of thief and holds on until help comes. Spanish Exempla: Keller.
 
K428. K428. Magic statue betrays a thief by indirection. He has threatened to smash the head of the magic statue if it betrays him. The statue says, “Whoever would tell the truth now is likely to have his head smashed.” *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 8.
 
K431. K431. Mouse’s tail in mouth of sleeping thief causes him to cough up swallowed magic ring. *Type 560; *Aarne MSFO XXV 51; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K432. K432. Person being robbed deceives robbers and calls help. (Cf. K551.5.) India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K432.1. K432.1. Clever woman being robbed makes excuse for screaming and summoning help. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K432.1.1. K432.1.1. Clever husband being robbed induces wife to make outcry and summon help. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K432.2. K432.2. Owner pretends to help burglars to divide booty: handles weights so loudly that police are summoned. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K433. K433. Child‘s curiosity exposes thief. Thief steals pig. Slaughters it together with one of his own and takes both to market. Puts little pig inside large one to avoid paying tax on two. Boy notices three hind legs. Thief is caught. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K434. K434. Clever girl discovers robber and cheats him.
 
K434.1. K434.1. The girl seizes the robber concealed under the bed by the beard and says: “What a coarse bundle of flax. I need a finer one.” Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 959A*.
 
K434.2. K434.2. Disguised robber in night-lodging tries to pull up confederate on rope: princess discovers him and catches him. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K434.3. K434.3. Girl tells the thief money is in chest. When he looks in chest, girl drops lid on him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 959C*.
 
K435. K435. Child’s song incriminates thief. U.S.: Baughman; West Indies: Flowers 509f.; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 235 No. 4, 239 No. 10.
 
K435.1. K435.1. Husband makes rhymes about cakes wife has stolen. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K436. K436. Blind thief trying to steal dates from withered tree killed by slipping of rope. Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XX 53.
 
K437. K437. Robber overcome.
 
K437.1. K437.1. Robber cheated by substitution. Spending the night in company with a suspicious-looking stranger, the man does not go to sleep, but leaves his clothes in bed and waits to see what will happen. When the stranger wakes up in the night, he stabs at his sleeping companion, who shoots him down. (Cf. K525.1.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 965*.
 
K437.2. K437.2. Robber with hand of glory killed. A robber disguised as a beggar gets night‘s lodging at a farm house. Using a candle made of human fat or hand of a corpse, he tries to charm the household into a deep sleep (D1162.2.1). One man who is suspicious and has not gone to sleep sees this and kills the robber. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 963*.
 
K437.3. K437.3. Sausage as revolver. Man scares robber with sausage; later boasts of event at inn. Robber hears this. Innkeeper secretly lends man a real revolver; robber is shot down when boldly attempting a second attack. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 970*.
 
K437.4. K437.4. Conqueror of robber discovers his money-stick. Thinking that he has killed the robber, the man takes his stick or knife with big handle. The robber recovers and, disguised as a beggar, inquisitively looks at the stick. The man is suspicious and by examining finds much money inside it. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 962*; Russian: Andrejev No. 961 I*.
 
K437.5. K437.5. Robbers enslaved. Youth told by two robbers to go to town and sell bracelet for each. He goes and offers to sell two slaves. Goes back with buyer and cries out “Did you say both?” “Yes.” Youth is paid; robbers are enslaved. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K439. K439. Thief loses his goods or is detected – miscellaneous.
 
K439.1. K439.1. Betrayal through exchange of stolen goods. Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 26.
 
K439.2. K439.2. Thief claims that stolen goods are his own: detected by master. Type 1564**.
 
K439.3. K439.3. Thief tricked into robbing himself. He has placed a coat on the goods to be stolen. His associate changes the place of the coat. Chauvin II 83 No. 7; Bødker Exempler 273 No. 5; Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K439.4. K439.4. Thief leaves food untouched when owner pretends to be poisoned by it. (Playing poison.) American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 54 No. 7, Nights 297 No. 50; Bahama: *Parsons MAFLS XIII 122; West Indies: Flowers 511.
 
K439.5. K439.5. Sheep thief pretends to buy wethers from the ram, names the price himself. Owner overhears, takes the ram to the thief to collect. U.S.: Baughman.
 
K439.6. K439.6. Robbers fed poisoned food. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K439.7. K439.7. Robber induced to give respite and come to man‘s office to get promised larger sum. Cheated. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K439.7.1. K439.7.1. Tortoise asks greedy man to give him first ruby it has given him to be sure second one will be perfect match: disappears into water with it. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K439.8. K439.8. Owner pretends to think thief is family god and binds him. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K439.9. K439.9. Owner feigns madness and thus raises alarm: thieves captured. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K439.10. K439.10. Hidden person sees robbers concealing treasure and takes it. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K439.11. K439.11. Thief hides in large bottle to get into room: bottle put into water to boil. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K440. K440. Other cheats.
 
K441. K441. Double reward successfully claimed.
 
K441.1. K441.1. The double pension. A husband and wife are jointly under a pension from the king. She reports her husband dead and gets the whole pension. He likewise reports her dead and gets the whole money. Chauvin V 274 No. 155 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K441.2. K441.2. The doubly-feed lawyer. A lawyer takes a car as fee from a widow and an ox from her adversary. He pleads for the latter saying that the ox draws the car. *Herbert III 375 No. 23; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 125; Scala Celi 20a No. 122; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
 
K441.2.1. K441.2.1. Dishonest notary invents debt and collects from both parties. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K441.3. K441.3. Fee from two persons for the same monopoly. Man to furnish goods exclusively to animal. Bargains at same time with another to do the same thing. Africa (Fjort): Dennett 98 No. 26.
 
K441.4. K441.4. Trickster collects from both husband and wife. Estranged couple both pay him to effect reconciliation. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 12.
 
K442. K442. False claim of reward. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 159 No. 31, (Ekoi): Talbot 387.
 
K442.1. K442.1. Reward offered for stolen object (princess). Thief (abductor) returns and enforces reward. *Type 575; *BP II 131.
 
K443. K443. Money (or other things) acquired by blackmail. U.S.: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 512.
 
K443.1. K443.1. Hidden paramour buys freedom from discoverer. *Type 1535; *BP II 1ff.; Japanese: Ikeda.
 
K443.2. K443.2. Clever wife gets money from those who attempt to seduce her. Payment for keeping silence. *Type 890; Cosquin Études 457ff.; Norwegian: Christiansen Norske Eventyr 113 No. 890; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K443.2.1. K443.2.1. Clever wife gets husband appointed to position occupied by man who attempts to seduce her. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K443.3. K443.3. Money exacted from watchers who permit goods to be stolen. Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 196 No. 95.
 
K443.3.1. K443.3.1. Money exacted from watchers who permit chest to be stolen. The chest is said falsely to be full of money and the watchers subject to severe punishment. *Type 1535; *BP II 10.
 
K443.4. K443.4. Money exacted from watcher who permits theft of wooden cow supposed to be real. *Type 1535; *BP II 1ff.
 
K443.5. K443.5. Trickster entices wolves out of a stable by music: exacts money from their watcher for his carelessness. *Types 1650, 1652.
 
K443.6. K443.6. Trickster exacts promise of marriage as price of silence after having seen a princess naked. *Type 850; *BP II 528.
 
K443.6.1. K443.6.1. Trickster exacts beautiful wife from curious people. They look into a carriage in which it is falsely said there is a princess. Trickster’s dead wife is in the carriage. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
 
K443.6.2. K443.6.2. Trickster exacts money as price of silence after lying with princess (queen). India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K443.7. K443.7. Fox eats his fellow-lodger: accuses another and demands damages. He spends the night with a cock in a house. He eats the cock but in the morning accuses the sheep of having eaten it. In the next inn likewise he says that the ox has eaten the sheep, etc. In compensation he demands a larger animal each time. Type 170.
 
K443.8. K443.8. Priest induced to betray secrets of confessional: money then exacted from him for silence. The trickster confesses that he has had intimacies with the priest‘s maid and then overhears the priest scold the maid. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 650; Irish: Beal XXI 334.
 
K443.9. K443.9. Women lead man into intrigue and then shout for help. Get money. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K443.10. K443.10. Rascal extorts money for silence about companion‘s poverty. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K443.11. K443.11. Usurer blackmailed. Shrewd suitor persuades usurer to charge him 100 per cent interest, then has him arrested. Thus gets daughter for wife. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K443.12. K443.12. Princess has brought ill luck to bridegroom. When palace and retainers disappear after wedding and only humble hut remains, clever fox tells king his daughter’s feet have brought ill luck to the groom, his master. King gives half his kingdom in compensation. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K443.13. K443.13. Rascal extorts money for silence about breach of food tabu. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K444. K444. Dream bread: the most wonderful dream. Three pilgrims agree that the one who has the most wonderful dream shall eat the last loaf. One eats it and declares that he dreamed that the others were dead and would not need it. *Type 1626; **Baum JAFL XXX 378; *BP IV 139; *Dunlop-Wilson II 201; Basset 1001 Contes I 516; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 95; Barbeau JAFL XXXII 178; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 243 No. 540; *Oesterley No. 106; Scala Celi 73a No. 415; Ward II 240; Herbert III 246; Alphabet No. 238; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 22 No. 98; L. Schmidt Oesterr. Zs. f. Vksk. 1954, 135. – Icelandic: Sveinsson FFC LXXXIII No. 1626*; Russian: Andrejev No. 2100*; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
 
K444.1. K444.1. Egg as reward of appropriate saying. First brother (knocking egg against wall): “Casca cascorum.” Second (breaking shell and sprinkling dirt over it): “Sar, sale, sapiensa”. Third (eating egg): “Consumatus es.” Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 153 No. 1942; Japanese: Ikeda.
 
K444.2. K444.2. Bag of cakes said to be full of cobras. Boy eats cakes. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K444.3. K444.3. The bag with the rice for the road. Boy eats rice and throws empty bag on the road. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K445. K445. The emperor‘s new clothes. An impostor feigns to make clothes for the emperor and says that they are visible only to those of legitimate birth. The emperor and courtiers are all afraid to admit that they cannot see the clothes. Finally a child seeing the naked emperor reveals the imposture. *Type 1620; **Taylor MPh XXV 17; *Chauvin II 156 No. 32, VIII 130 No. 120; *Wesselski Gonnella 133 No. 33; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K445.1. K445.1. God to reveal self to those of legitimate birth. All afraid to admit not seeing God. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K445.2. K445.2. Whoever hears singing snake must die. Killed by deaf man. (Cf. B214.1.10.) Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 145.
 
K446. K446. The heller thrown into others’ money. A rascal sees robbers dividing their booty. He puts a red string through his only coin (a heller) and slips it into the others‘ money. He claims the money as his and says that he has marked it with a heller having a red string through it. The robbers divide. *Type 1615; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 197 No. 387; Chauvin V 254 No. 151 n. 2, VII 153; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 566.
 
K446.1. K446.1. Half a grain. Trickster drops half a grain into grain cellar then demands half of the grain supply. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K447. K447. Contraband gold discovered when king offers large price for gold. Wesselski Archiv Orientální I 77.
 
K448. K448. Cheater marks coveted object with his name and later claims it. Irish myth: Cross.
 
K451. K451. Unjust umpire as trickster’s confederate. (Cf. K455.7.) Icelandic: Boberg.
 
K451.1. K451.1. Unjust umpire decides a religious dispute. His confederate thus wins an absurd wager. *Type 613; *BP II 468ff.; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 489; **Christiansen FFC XXIV 46ff.; Jewish: Gaster Exempla 191 No. 29, Neuman; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 395.
 
K451.2. K451.2. The wager that sheep are hogs. A trickster wagers with a sheep driver that the sheep he is driving are hogs. The next man to overtake them will act as umpire. The trickster‘s confederate now arrives and declares that they are hogs. *Type 1551; *Clouston Tales II 27; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 632; *Penzer V 104; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 213 No. 437; Chauvin II 96 No. 51, VII 150 No. 430; *Oesterley No. 132; Crane Vitry 141 No. 20; Alphabet No. 766; Hazlitt Shakespeare Jest-Books II 176; Bødker Exempler 295 No. 56; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K451.3. K451.3. Concealed confederate as unjust witness. A rascal who has hidden with a simple man a treasure found by them carries it away secretly, trying to have his associate condemned on the witness of a tree in which his father is concealed. Chauvin II 91 No. 34; Bødker Exempler 287 No. 36; Penzer V 59 n. 2; Edgerton JAPS XL 271; Spanish Exempla: Keller.
 
K451.4. K451.4. Trickster’s confederate gives fabulous appraisal to worthless piece of glass. Priest is duped into buying it as a diamond. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K451.5. K451.5. Confederate answers for corpse. Man poses as returned heir to dead man; pretends to address corpse for identification. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K452. K452. Unjust umpire misappropriates disputed goods. Chauvin VII 38ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K452.1. K452.1. Dividing the discovered oyster. The umpire takes the oyster itself as fee and gives each contestant half the shell. Wesselski Arlotto II 254 No. 171.
 
K452.2. K452.2. Unjust umpire keeps the stakes when contest cannot be decided. U.S.: Baughman.
 
K453. K453. Cheating through knowledge of the law. Irish myth: Cross.
 
K455. K455. Deception into giving false credit.
 
K455.1. K455.1. Supper won by trick: the mutual friend. A parasite makes the host believe him to be a friend of a certain guest and the guest to think him a friend of the host. *Chauvin VI 132 No. 285.
 
K455.2. K455.2. Supper won by disguising as an invited guest. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 234.
 
K455.3. K455.3. Old beggar disguised as gentleman: much money borrowed on his credit. *Type 1526; *BP III 394 (4).
 
K455.4. K455.4. The other man to pay the bill. Three feast at an inn and each makes the host believe that one of the others will pay. None has money and the host is cheated. *Bédier Fabliaux 447; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 150 No. 1848. Cf. Wesselski Bebel II 136 No. 111.
 
K455.4.1. K455.4.1. Trickster buys chickens telling owner that priest will pay. When owner comes to collect, the trickster tells the priest that a heretic has come for confession. Then he flees. (Cf. K242.1.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.
 
K455.5. K455.5. The priest as surety. Feasters are imprisoned because of failure to pay for the food. They name the priest as surety and are released. The priest has been told that the host is possessed and agrees to come to heal him in two weeks. The host loses the money. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 646.
 
K455.6. K455.6. Complaint about the empty bottle. While the servant in the inn is bringing a glass, the trickster drinks the wine and then complains that he has been given an empty bottle. The servant must bring another. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 371.
 
K455.7. K455.7. Greatest liar to get his supper free. Wager. Each lie is corroborated by a confederate, who poses as a newly arrived stranger. *BP II 509; Japanese: Ikeda.
 
K455.8. K455.8. Credit based on forgery.
 
K455.8.1. K455.8.1. Forged letter used to obtain credit, consideration, and entertainment. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.
 
K455.8.2. K455.8.2. Forged testament used to dupe host. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.
 
K455.9. K455.9. Worthless chests offered to obtain credit. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K1667. K1667. Unjust banker deceived into delivering deposits by making him expect even larger.
 
K455.10. K455.10. Trickster receives huge sum on trifling credit by chain of borrowings. Pays small sum in advance for first sum borrowed. Pays this borrowed sum in advance for larger, etc. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K461. K461. Trickster takes goods given in charity to his family. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 159.
 
K461.1. K461.1. The bear helps the fox’s mother get berries: the fox eats them. Type 39.
 
K461.2. K461.2. Monkey causes girl to cry as if from hunger: eats food given her. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K464. K464. Eavesdropping sexton duped into giving suppliant money. The trickster prays to the Virgin for a certain sum of money and promises repayment of double at the end of the month. The sexton throws the money to him, but never receives it back. Type 1543*.
 
K465. K465. Owner bids on his own goods at auction. Rival buyer pays extravagant price. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 204 No. 405; Chauvin VIII 107 No. 83.
 
K471. K471. The substituted porridge. In cooking dinner fox‘s porridge is light, bear’s black. At dinner fox steals spoonful of bear‘s porridge and lets bear taste it. Bear believes that fox’s porridge is as bad as his own. *Type 9 C; Dh IV 249ff.; Krohn Bär (Wolf) und Fuchs (JSFO VI) 97ff.
 
K473. K473. Sham blood and brains. Fox covers his head with milk and says that his brains have been knocked out. Frightens bear. *Type 3; Dh IV 243; Krohn Bar (Wolf) und Fuchs (JSFO VI) 59ff.; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 287; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 21 No. 5, 377 No. 68.
 
K474. K474. Trickster cheats rescuers into digging his well. The well that he has dug falls in. He throws his clothes into the hole and hides. People going to church think that man is drowned and dig the well out. Type 1614*.
 
K475. K475. Cheating through equivocation. Köhler-Bolte I 513; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “équivoque”; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K475.1. K475.1. The stolen meat handed about. The thief hands it to his confederate. He says, “I haven’t it.” The confederate says, “I didn‘t steal it.” Wienert FFC LVI 84 (ET 505), 103 (ST 162); Halm Aesop 301.
 
K475.2. K475.2. “Have we leave to go?” Two prisoners are made stable boys on their promise not to escape secretly. Before horse race starts they ask: “Do we have your leave to go?” They go home. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K475.3. K475.3. Why go all the way to fair? Man robbed of his plate of cakes half way to fair asks another vendor, “Why go to the fair, when half way up people come demanding your plate?” Vendor goes on and meets with same fate. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K476. K476. Cheating by substitution of worthless articles. Indonesia: De Vries’s list No. 290.
 
K476.1. K476.1. Entrails substituted for meat. Prometheus divides slain ox so that bones and entrails seem to be choicest part. (Zeus is not deceived.) Greek: Fox 13.
 
K476.1.1. K476.1.1. Rock substituted for ham by trickster. Pierre Faifeu No. 24.
 
K476.1.2. K476.1.2. Tortoise cheats leopard by substituting bundle of resin for bundle of meat. Africa (Jaunde): Heepe 106.
 
K476.2. K476.2. False articles used to produce credit.
 
K476.2.1. K476.2.1. Nugget of supposed gold (lead) given to help build church: money then borrowed. *Wesselski Bebel I 230 No. 141.
 
K476.2.2. K476.2.2. Reward for the bag of lead. A man sews up lead in a bag and feigns to have found it. A merchant claims it and thinking it filled with gold pays him a large reward. *Wesselski Bebel I 204 No. 83.
 
K476.3. K476.3. Water sold as wine. Wine-casks partitioned: one half wine, other half water. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.
 
K476.3.1. K476.3.1. Innkeeper serves sweetened water for wine, cat for rabbit, mule for beef. Revue Hispanique XLV 114.
 
K476.4. K476.4. False set of rings to offset genuine. Jewels bought with counterfeit money. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K476.4.1. K476.4.1. Priests substitute gilded images of calves for those of solid gold. Jewish: *Neuman.
 
K476.5. K476.5. While swimming with the lizard, toad exchanges own ugly daughter for lizard‘s pretty one. Africa (Luba): DeClerq ZsKS IV 209.
 
K476.6. K476.6. Lean geese substituted for fat by trickster. Pierre Faifeu No. 5.
 
K476.7. K476.7. Woman gives friend dried comb while she herself eats the honey. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K476.8. K476.8. Cheating by substitution of common cow for magic one. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K477. K477. Attention secured by trickery.
 
K477.1. K477.1. Audience secured with the pope by rudeness. A woman bribes a man to get her an audience with the pope. By turning his back to the sacrament and saying that the woman had instructed him to do so, he brings it about that she is summoned into the presence. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 347.
 
K477.2. K477.2. Deception into listening to speaker. He secures the audience‘s attention by beginning a tale. He then launches into his speech. Wesselski Mönchslatein 74 No. 64; Wienert FFC LVI 38; Halm Aesop Nos 177, 339.
 
K477.3. K477.3. Entry into enemy’s presence by pretending to be a messenger from a relative. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K478. K478. Butter weighed with the bread. The peasant weighs the butter which he is selling to the baker along with the bread which he is buying. Type 1566**.
 
K481. K481. Demi-coq by means of his magic animals and magic water collects money. *Type 715; *BP I 258; Missouri French: Carrière.
 
K481.1. K481.1. Blackbird to avenge capture of his wife carries rope, club, cat, ants and river in ears. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K482. K482. Money received to bury sham-dead person.
 
K482.1. K482.1. Husband and wife each receive money (from different persons) to bury the other, who is supposed to be dead. Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 154.
 
K482.2. K482.2. Trickster reports treasure‘s owner dead: receives it from children. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K483. K483. Color of devil’s cows changed while he sleeps so that he does not know them. Only those not changed (all black, all red, etc.) belong to the devil. Dh I 188; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 134.
 
K484. K484. Cheating by raising an alarm.
 
K484.1. K484.1. Trickster gets money from a bank by raising an alarm and demanding “what is owing to him.” *Wesselski Gonnella 99 No. 3.
 
K484.2. K484.2. Host with overstock of sour wine spreads rumor of dragon at his house. A crowd gathers and he sells all his wine. *Wesselski Morlini 309 No. 65.
 
K484.3. K484.3. False alarm of robbery causes cheated man to be imprisoned. Boccaccio Decameron IX No. 4; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Persian: Lorimer Persian Tales (London, 1919) 321 No. 52.
 
K485. K485. The devil gets into the ark. The devil wants to know what Noah is doing when he is building the ark. He forbids Noah’s wife to enter the ark until Noah has also invited him. *Type 825; *Dh I 258; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3100, Legends Nos. 192 – 195.
 
K486. K486. The double-cheating miller. He confesses that he has an oversized measure and agrees to get a smaller one. He measures back the grain in the smaller measure. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 146 No. 1800B*.
 
K487. K487. Counselor accuses conspirators in order to confiscate their estates. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
K488. K488. Lawyer’s dog steals meat. The lawyer tells the butcher that the dog‘s owner (himself) is liable for damages. He ask double the amount of the damages as fee. Type 1589.
 
K491. K491. Trickster paid to educate an ass. He gets paid in advance. He gradually starves the ass. *Type 1675; *BP I 59; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VII 93; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 247f. No. 552; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K491.1. K491.1. Trickster paid to teach monkey to talk. Nouvelles Récréations No. 88; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K491.2. K491.2. Horse to be taught to speak. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K492. K492. Girl serves her father with piece of her own flesh in place of chicken. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 125 No. 1374B; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K492.1. K492.1. Woman serves beggar with coals instead of food. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K493. K493. Dupe betrayed by asking him ambiguous questions. They are phrased in such a way that he understands them differently from the way they are intended. Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 283.
 
K494. K494. Wolf announces dawn prematurely to collect debt. The contract is to be fulfilled at daybreak. The wolf imitates the cock and crows, but is caught. Cape Verde Islands: *Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 6 n. 1.
 
K495. K495. Trickster shams sickness so that partner does all the work. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K496. K496. Foxes persuade man to plant cooked plants. They eat them at night. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
K498. K498. Persons deceived into eating meat in Lent, the meat being disguised as butter. (Cf. K499.2.1, K499.2.2.) Irish myth: Cross.
 
K499. K499. Additional cheats.
 
K499.1. K499.1. Trickster sells mother’s wine to merchant without asking her permission. Mother saves part of wine because purchaser is dilatory in removing casks. Pierre Faifeu No. 35.
 
K499.2. K499.2. Object with a hollow as instrument of cheats.
 
K499.2.1. K499.2.1. Saint who desires broth containing no butter receives broth into which butter has been poured surreptitiously through hollow mixing-stick. (Cf. K498.) Irish myth: Cross.
 
K499.2.2. K499.2.2. Saint who desires pottage of nettles containing no milk receives pottage into which milk has been poured surreptitiously through pipe. The secret is revealed, and the saint blesses the cook‘s successors. Irish myth: Cross.
 
K499.3. K499.3. Old man cheats crocodile by playing on its ignorance of agriculture. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K499.4. K499.4. Trickster breaks cat of taste for milk by overheating its milk. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K499.5. K499.5. Embarrassing gift. Trickster unwilling to pay for burial fee of aged cow, gives cow to unwitting Brahmin as gift. Cow dies soon and Brahmin must pay. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K499.6. K499.6. God cheats birds by giving false description of tamarind fruit. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K499.7. K499.7. Gullible king gives large sums to minister for construction of imaginary weapon and then more to have it destroyed. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
K499.8. K499.8. Trickster dupes rival by exchanging beds: receives his food. Overhears maiden tell rival she will bring food at night, waits until rival is asleep and carries him to another bed, takes his place, and is fed by maiden. Africa (Wute): Sieber 190.
 
K499.9. K499.9. Treacherous friend drinks out of other’s flask to save the water in his own. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 186.
 
K499.10. K499.10. Fox pretends to go to work, but goes out to sleep. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 175.

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