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Prevuius group

Group No. 14


A. Mythological Motifs

Group No.

A800 – A899

Group name

The earth


A800. Creation of the earth. *H. F. Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn (1915); A. Kühn Berichte über den Weltanfang bei den Indochinesen und ihren Nachbarvölker (1935); Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 280; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham. – N. A. Indian (general): Thompson Tales 272 n. 1, (Ojibwa) Skinner JAFL XXXII 287, (Kaska) Teit JAFL XXX 441ff. – See also all references in this section (A800-839).
A401. Mother Earth. A625. World parents: sky-father and earth-mother.
A801. Earth born of Chaos. Greek: Grote I 4ff.
A605. Primeval chaos.
A802. China first land to appear in our world. India: Thompson-Balys.
A810. Primeval water: In the beginning everything is covered with water. – **Dh I 1 – 89 passim; Gaster Oldest Stories 69. – Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325 – 26; Finnish: Kalevala rune 1; Egyptian: Müller 48; Babylonian: Spence 71; Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 313ff.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786; India: *Thompson-Balys. – Batak: Voorhoeve Oversicht 63ff.; Marquesas: Handy 122; Marshall Is.: Davenport 221; Oceanic: Dixon 8 n. 7 (Maori), 18f. (Samoa), 20 (Society Is., Tonga), 105 (Admiralty Is., Polynesia, Indonesia, Micronesia), 157 (Minahassa), 158f. (Borneo), 248f. (Marshall Is., Yap), 270 (Arunta); Bushongo: Werner African 144, African: Stanley 5; S. Am. Indian (Guarayu): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 437. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 29, Alexander N. Am 260 (Haida), (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 53; Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86; Quiché: ibid. 160.
A810.1. God and Devil fly together over primeval water. Dh I 6.
A50. Conflict of good and evil creators.
A810.2. Primeval water to subside in a specified time. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55.
A810.2.1. Waters of heaven would engulf earth were it not for firmament. Jewish: Neuman.
A811. Earth brought up from bottom, of primeval water. (Cf. A812.) – India: Thompson-Balys. – New Britain, New Hebrides: Dixon 105.
A811.1. Earth originates from fish brought from bottom of sea. The fish is hacked with knives; hence, mountains. – Oceanic (Maori, Hawaiian, Central Polynesian, Tonga, Samoan, New Hebrides, Union Group, Gilbert Is., New Britain): Dixon 43f.
A962. Mountains from hacked-up fish drawn from primeval water.
A811.2. Earth brought up by three gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 326.
A812. Earth Diver. From a raft in the primeval sea, the creator sends down animals to try to bring up earth. After a number of animals have failed, one (often the muskrat) succeeds. The earth is made from the bit brought up. – **E. W. Count The Earth Diver and the Rival Twins (Proceedings 29th International Congress of Americanists [Chicago, 1952] 55 – 62); Walk "Die Verbreitung des Tauchmotivs in den Urmeerschöpfungs- (und Sintflut-) Sagen" Mitteil. d. anthrop. Gesellschaft Wien LXIII (1933) 60 – 76. – Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 318, *322ff.; Hatt Asiatic Influences 12 – 36; India: *Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 30, (Calif. Indian): Gayton and Newman 53.
A812.1. Devil as Earth Diver. Satan dives for earth at instance of God. Succeeds only third time (by use of right formula). He hides the earth under his tongue. It swells, and he must be rescued by God. – *Dh I 2 – 89 passim, *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 277ff. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 1; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 455f., Aarne FFC XXV 139 No. 1; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 No. 1; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3005; Legends Nos. 7 – 10, 12f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 313ff.
A812.2. Earth from egg from bottom of sea recovered by bird. – Borneo: Dixon 165.
A812.3. Creator sends crow, after creating her, to scout for earth-nucleus. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A813. Raft in primeval sea. Creator is on the raft and there creates the earth. (Cf. A812.) – India: Thompson-Balys; Sumatra: Dixon 162.
A813.1. Earth in form of raft supported by spirits. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.
A813.2. Lotus-leaf raft in primeval sea. India: Thompson-Balys.
A813.3. Creator rests on tree or stake. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55
A814. Earth from object thrown on primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys.
A814.1. Earth from stone thrown on primeval water. Oceanic: Dixon 18 (Samoa), 158 (Borneo), 163 n. 29 – 32. (Philippines, Samoa, Tonga, Micronesia).
A814.2. Earth from sand strewn on primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys; Yap: Dixon 249.
A814.3. Tungus: Holmberg Siberian 328f.; Japanese: Anesaki 223. – Hawaii: Dixon 15
814.4. Earth from tree grown in primeval water. Tungus: Holmberg Siberian 329.
A814.5. Earth from steam made by fire thrown into primeval water. Tungus: Holmberg Siberian 330.
A814.6. Earth scattered in a circuit in four directions on primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55.&
A814.7. Earth from primeval water mixed with seeds of tobacco. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55.
A814.8. Earth from lotus seed placed on water. India: Thompson-Balys.
A814.9. Earth from egg breaking on primeval water. (Cf. A1222). – India: Thompson-Balys.
A814.10. Earth from creator's spittle falling on primeval water. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A814.10.1. Earth from spittle of primeval potter spreading on surface of water. India: Thompson-Balys.
A815. Earth from turtle's back. Earth erected on back of a turtle floating in primeval water. (Cf. A844.1.). – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 31.
A815.1. Earth from serpent's head. Earth reared on head of serpent floating in primeval water. – Borneo, Sumatra: Dixon 159f.
A816. Earth rises from sea. *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 279. – Icel: *Olrik Ragnarök 23, MacCulloch Eddic 325. – Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86.
A816.1. Stone emerges from primeval water. Devil sits on the stone, which becomes a mountain. – *Dh I 6.
A816.2. Ocean under this world. India: Thompson-Balys.
A816.3. God causes primeval sea to roll back and leave bare all the hills. India: Thompson-Balys.
A817. Earth let down from sky on to primeval ocean. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 330.&
A820. Other means of creation of earth.
A821. Earth made of lac. India: Thompson-Balys.
A822. Earth made by mud shaken from back of primeval boar. India: Thompson-Balys.
A822.1. World is transformed mud parrot in golden cage. India: Thompson-Balys.
A823. Earth made by cups of earth placed on spiders's web. India: Thompson-Balys.
A824. Earth made by transformation of broken ground. India: Thompson-Balys.
A825. Thompson-Balys.
A826. Earth sets like curds. India: Thompson-Balys.
A827. Earth made by drying up of primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys.
A828. Earth from worm scratched by creator's nails. India: Thompson-Balys.
A828.1. Earth excreted by worm. India: Thompson-Balys.
A830. Creation of earth by creator. Genesis ch. I. – Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Tahiti: Henry 341; Marquesas: Handy 122; Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 109.
A831. Earth from body of person (animal).
A831.1. Earth from body of son of deity. India: Thompson-Balys; Kamchadale: Holmberg Siberian 330.
A831.2. Earth from giant's body (Ymir). (Cf. A614.1.). *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 282. – Icel: MacCulloch Eddic 325; India: Thompson-Balys.
A831.3. Earth by sacrifice of son and daughter of first couple. India: Thompson-Balys.
A831.4. Earth by murder of first brother and sister. India: Thompson-Balys.
A831.5. Earth from the body of murdered child. India: Thompson-Balys.
A831.6. Earth from body of slain animal. India: Thompson-Balys.
A831.7. Earth from body of divine suicide. India: Thompson-Balys.
A831.8. Gods create the earth from their dead victim's blood and bones. India: Thompson-Balys.
A831.9. Earth created from Adam's body. Jewish: Neuman.
A832. Creation because of creator's lonesomeness. Dissatisfied at being alone in center of primeval water, God creates the earth. – *Dh I 35; India: Thompson-Balys.
A833. Earth from creator's cuticle. (Cf. A1211.5.). India: Thompson-Balys; San Carlos Apache: Goddard PaAM XXIV 7.
A835. Earth from nut in devil's mouth. God throws a nut over his left shoulder. The devil catches it in his mouth. The nut grows rapidly and the devil spits it out. – Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 No. 1.
A835.1. Earth created from snow under divine throne. Jewish: Neuman
A836. Creator prepared earths's nucleus as one would a rice cake. India: Thompson-Balys.
A837. Creator creates earth piecemeal. Jewish: Neuman.
A840. Support of the earth. India: Thompson-Balys.
A841. World-columns. Four (two, etc.) columns or supports sustain the earth. – Irish myth: Cross; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 385, 400; Jewish: Neuman; Greek: *Grote I 70; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX III No. 66. – Sumatra: Dixon 163; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 286 n. 56; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 154. – See also references to A665.2.1.
A841.0.1. The four world-columns fastened immovably by two gods with their mother's hairs. India: Thompson-Balys.
A841.1. Four world-cords. Earth is suspended from the sky by cords at four corners. India: Thompson-Balys; Cherokee: Alexander N.Am. 60.
A841.2. Four maidens as earth-supports. One is at each of the cardinal points. (Cf. A842.). – Hindu: Keith 134.
A841.3. Twelve iron pillars steady the earth. India: Thompson-Balys.
A841.4. Four earth-nails. India: Thompson-Balys.
A842. Atlas. A man supports the earth on his shoulders. – Greek: Fox 88, *Grote I 70; Gaster Oldest Stories 129. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 286 n. 56b; Chibcha: Alexander Lat. Am. 203.
A842.1. Goddess standing on her head supports earth. India: Thompson-Balys.
A842.2. Old woman supports earth on her head. India: Thompson-Balys.
A843. Earth supported on post. The post has an old woman as guardian. When she is hungry the post shakes, causing earthquakes. – Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 222. – N. A. Indian (Tlingit, Hare): Boas RBAE XXXI 732.
A843.1. Earth supported on cross of wood. S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (ApapocuvР±): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 136.
A844. Earth rests on animal's back. *Encyc. Religion and Ethics I 491b.
A844.1. Earth rests on turtle's back. (Cf. A815.). – Siberian: *Holmberg Siberian 327; India: *Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 31.
A844.2. Earth supported by bull. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 311; Armenian: Ananikian 93.
A844.3. Earth supported by fish. *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 281. – Siberian: Holmberg Siberian.
A844.4. Earth supported by frog. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 311.
A844.5. Earth rests on the horns of a bull who rests upon a fish. India: Thompson-Balys.
A844.6. Earth rests on tortoise, serpent, elephant. (Cf. A1145.1.). – India: Thompson-Balys.
A844.7. Earth rests on elephant's back. India: Thompson-Balys.
A844.8. Earth rests on cobra's head. India: Thompson-Balys.
A844.9. Earth supported on great boar's tusk. India: Thompson-Balys.
A844.10. Earth supported on vast number of birds' legs. India: Thompson-Balys.
A844.11. Earth rests on leviathan. Jewish: Neuman.
A844.12. Serpent supports the earth. (Cf. A844.6.). Hindu: Keith 120, 155, Penzer VI 71 n. 1 (thousand-headed serpent); India: *Thompson-Balys.
A849. Support of the earth – miscellaneous.
A849.1. Earth founded on stone. Jewish: Neuman.
A849.2. Earth rests on God's arm. Jewish: Neuman.
A849.3. Earth supported by prop. S. Am. Indian (ApapocuvР±-GuaranРЅ): Métraux MAFLS XL 36.
A850. Changes in the earth.
A851. How the earth became oblong. God the Father situated on one side of the earth, the Son on the other. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 2; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 139 No. 3.
A852. Making the earth smaller. Earth made too large. God learns from devil by trickery how to make it smaller. – *Dh I 3 – 89 passim, 127ff.
A853. Making the earth larger. Gradually extended during creation. See references to A812 in which this idea is always involved. – Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 317. – Oceanic: Dixon 29; India: Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 30.
A853.1. Doubling size of the earth. Increase of population necessitates change. – Persian: Carnoy 307.
A855. Opposite of present. Everything on the earth – courses of rivers, height of mountains, human reproduction, etc. – are at first the reverse of the present condition. – N. A. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 225.
A856. Hardening of the earth. At first it is soft, but is hardened by sun's rays. – India: Thompson-Balys. – Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 39.
A856.1. Primeval earth hardened by wind. India: Thompson-Balys.
A856.2. Ground, previously all wet, dries up when first woman cuts her little finger and blood drips on ground. India: Thompson-Balys.
A857. Steadying the earth. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.
A857.1. Why earth becomes warm and wet: two huge copper vessels steaming over fire are underneath earth. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A857.2. Creator's giant servant puts a valley where earth's crust is heavy and a mountain where it is light so as to stabilize it. – India: Thompson-Balys.
A857.3. Creator's giant servant puts trees to hold earth together where it slipped. India: Thompson-Balys.
A857.3.1. Roots created to hold land firm. Tahiti: Henry 342.
A870. Nature and condition of the earth. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325.
A871. Earth square with four quarters. Irish myth: Cross; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 308.
A871.0.1. Taprobane at eastern end of the world. Irish myth: Cross.
A871.0.2. Unextinguishable fire at end of earth. S. A. Indian (MbayР±, Mataco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.
A871.1. Four streams from four corners of earth. Patch PMLA XXXIII 623 n. 77.
A871.2. Four rivers, rising in paradise, water primitive world. Irish myth: Cross.
A872. River that flows around the world. Greek: *Grote I 220, 232, 310 (River Ocean); Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
A872.1. Seven seas encircle the world. India: Thompson-Balys.
A873. Above and below the earth are great clouds. India: Thompson-Balys.
A875. Earth wheel-shaped (flat and round). Greek: Grote I 4, 310; Hindu: Keith 16; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 308.
A875.1. Navel of the earth. Omphalos, the central point on the earth disc. – *Holmberg Baum des Lebens 150 s.v. (Mittelpunktв); *Frazer Pausanias V 314f.; *Pease Cicero De Divinatione 353 (Bk. II 115); *Roscher Abh. kgl. SРґchs. Ges. d. Wiss. (Phil. hist. Kl.) XXIX (1913) 9, XXXI (1915) 1, Berichte d. kgl SРґchs. Ges. d. Wiss. (Phil. hist. Kl.) LXX (1918) 2; Warren Paradise Found (1885) 225ff.; Gaster Thespis 170f.; Jewish: Neuman; Norse: Boberg.
A875.1.1. Mountain at center of earth. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1136.
A875.2. Well in the midst of earth from which eleven rivers originate. (Cf. A871.1.) Icel.: Boberg.
A876. Midgard Serpent. A serpent surrounds the earth. – Icel.: De la Saussaye 346, MacCulloch Eddic 279, 328, Boberg; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 345; Western Asia (general): Frobenius Erdteile VI 196; India: Thompson-Balys. – Arapaho: cf. Dorsey FM IV 13; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 57.
A876.1. The leviathan that surrounds the globe. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.
A878. Earth-tree. Tree of life or fate.--*Wünsche “Das Wasser des Lebens in den Märchen der Völker” Zs. f. vgl. Litteraturgeschichte XIII 166ff.; **Holmberg Baum; Dh I 6 (five eastern branches given to man, others forbidden); *Albright Am. Jour. Semitic Langs. XXXIX 161.--*Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 150ff., 200.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 331ff. (Yggdrasil); Irish Myth: Cross; Egyptian: Müller 36.
A878.1. Stream of paradise from roots of world-tree. Holmberg Baum 70ff.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 320f., 334.
A878.1.1. Other streams from roots of earth-tree. Icel.: Boberg.
A878.1.2. Three wells under the three roots of earth-tree. Icel.: Boberg.
A878.2. Lake of milk by tree of life. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 414.
A878.3. Animals at earth-tree.
A878.3.1. Snake at roots of earth-tree. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 332; Boberg; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 357.
A878.3.2. Hart(s) eating of the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.
A878.3.3. Chattering squirrel in the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.
A878.3.4. Wise eagle in the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.
A878.3.5. Hawk in the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff. – Icel.: Mac Culloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.
A878.3.6. Golden cock in earth-tree. Icel.: Boberg.
A878.4. Earth-tree furnishes health-giving and hunger-satisfying sap. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 350, 353.
D1472. Food and drink from magic objects.
A881. Zones of earth corresponding to Zodiac. Jewish: Neuman.

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