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Prevuius group

Group No. 119


Letter

H. Tests

Group No.

H0 – H199

Group name

Identity tests: Recognition

Description

H0. H0. Identity tests. Recognition. Elaborate means are employed in folk-literature for the recognition of persons even though they have been separated a very short time. The various means used are detailed in the following discussion.
 
H10. H10. Recognition through common knowledge. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H11. H11. Recognition through story-telling. Telling of a story known to both persons concerned brings about recognition. Icelandic: *Boberg; Arabian: Burton Nights III 96ff., S V 155, 164, S VI 34f., 476; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: De Vries’s list No. 224.
 
H11.1. H11.1. Recognition by telling life history. *Type 506; Köhler-Bolte II 351ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 19; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H11.1.1. H11.1.1. Recognition at inn (hospital, etc.) where all must tell their life histories. *Type 304; *BP II 255 n. 1, 505; bin Gorion Born Judas I 189, 374; *Chauvin V 90 No. 28 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2.
 
H11.1.2. H11.1.2. Recognition: life story painted on wall. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H11.1.3. H11.1.3. Recognition by life history sung. (Cf. H12.) India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H11.1.4. H11.1.4. Recognition by tracing ancestry. Greek: Homer Iliad VI 215, Aeschylus Suppliants 290.
 
H12. H12. Recognition by song (music). Person is recognized because the song is sung only by him or because he is the only one besides the listener who knows it. Thien Motive 9; Norse: De la Saussaye 137; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *452f.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”chanson“; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 3 and the legend of Richard Coeur de Leon and Blondel; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 359; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 530, 539; New Zealand: Dixon 83; West Indies: Flowers 455.
 
H12.1. H12.1. Missing female poet discovered through test of poetic ability. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H12.2. H12.2. Recognition by verse of song. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H12.2.1. H12.2.1. Recognition by matching a couplet together. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H13. H13. Recognition by overheard conversation (usually with animals or objects). Person not daring to reveal self directly thus attracts attention and recognition. *Types 313, 533, 706, 870; *BP I 19, III 445ff.; *Fb ”hest“ I 598b, ”ovn“ II 774a; **Liungman Jordkulan passim; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 62, 69 Nos. 445*B, 515*; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Thonga): Junod 231.
 
H13.1. H13.1. Recognition by overheard conversation with animal.
 
H13.1.1. H13.1.1. Recognition by overheard conversation with horse. *Type 870; **Liungman Jordkulan passim; *BP III 444ff.; Fb ”hest“ I 598b.
 
H13.1.2. H13.1.2. Recognition by overheard conversation with dog. Type 533; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 307b.
 
H13.1.3. H13.1.3. Recognition by overheard conversation with cow. Chinese: Graham.
 
H13.2. H13.2. Recognition by overheard conversation with objects. *Type 870; *BP III 444ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 8; Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H13.2.1. H13.2.1. Recognition by overheard conversation with bridge. Bridge which will trip up bridal party if king is not marrying an equal. Disguised princess praises bridge for its recognition of her equality with the king. *Type 870.
 
H13.2.2. H13.2.2. Recognition by overheard conversation with stone. *Types 710 870; BP I 19 n. 2; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 62 No. 445B*, Espinosa Jr. No. 114.
 
H13.2.3. H13.2.3. Recognition by overheard conversation with plant. *Type 870.
 
H13.2.4. H13.2.4. Recognition by overheard conversation with churchdoor. *Type 870.
 
H13.2.5. H13.2.5. Recognition by overheard conversation with cups (or other utensils). *Type 710; *BP I 19 n. 2.
 
H13.2.6. H13.2.6. Recognition by overheard conversation with flax. By comparing her fate with that of the flax the heroine is able to reveal herself. *Type 710; BP I 19 n. 2; *Köhler-Bolte I 131.
 
H13.2.7. H13.2.7. Recognition by overheard conversation with stove. *Type 533; *BP II 275; *Fb ”ovn“ II 774a; K. Ranke Festschrift f. W.-E. Peuckert, Berl. 1955, 46.
 
H13.3. H13.3. Recognition from overheard conversation of two sons. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H13.4. H13.4. Recognition from overheard conversation with flower-woman. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H14. H14. Recognition by observing emotional reactions of another to object of common experience.
 
H14.1. H14.1. Recognition by seeing husband shed tears on sight of bird (main character in a former experience common to both husband and wife). India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H14.2. H14.2. Recognition by tears at recital of own exploits. Greek: Homer Odyssey VIII 94.
 
H15. H15. Identity tested by account of common experiences. Missouri French: Carrière.
 
H15.1. H15.1. Identity tested by demanding that person say again what he said on former occasion. (Impostor fails.) *Types 425, 870; Tegethoff 21; Missouri French: Carrière.
 
H15.2. H15.2. Recognition by recalling common experiences. Jewish: *Neuman.
 
H16. H16. Recognition by describing or producing object of common knowledge.
 
H16.1. H16.1. Recognition by brother king of lost brother brought about by model of their father‘s palace which lost brother builds of clay. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H16.2. H16.2. Recognition by wounds on lip and finger received at common adventure. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H16.3. H16.3. Recognition of brothers brought about by bouquet of flowers tied as father’s gardener used to do. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H16.4. H16.4. Recognition by describing unique bed. Greek: Homer Odyssey XXIII 183ff.
 
H17. H17. Recognition by reminders of what has been said. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 3; Jewish: Neuman.
 
H18. H18. Recognition by password. Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 236 No. 40.
 
H19. H19. Recognition through common knowledge – miscellaneous.
 
H19.1. H19.1. Recognition by ability to identify property.
 
H19.1.1. H19.1.1. Recognition of reincarnated person by ability to identify former weapons. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H19.2. H19.2. Recognition by answer to conundrum (known only to two persons). India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H20. H20. Recognition by resemblance. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”reconnaissance“; Greek: Homer Odyssey IV 144, 150.
 
H21. H21. Recognition through picture. Picture is publicly displayed and brings about recognition of lost person. *Type 881; *BP II 505; Köhler-Bolte I 528; *Chauvin V 92 No. 196, 94 No. 30; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries‘s list No. 223.
 
H22. H22. Recognition through image. Jewish: *Neuman.
 
H24. H24. Recognition from dream. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H30. H30. Recognition through personal peculiarities
 
H31. H31. Recognition by unique ability. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H31.1. H31.1. Recognition by unique ability to dislodge sword. Sword is stuck in a stone or tree. English: Wells 43 (Arthour and Merlin); Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Volsunga saga 7; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H31.2. H31.2. Recognition by unique ability to bend bow. Greek: Fox 139; Jewish: Neuman.
 
H31.3. H31.3. Recognition by unique ability to swing spear. Greek: Roscher Lexikon ”Achilleus“ I 12.
 
H31.4. H31.4. Only one man can lift small pot from ground. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H31.5. H31.5. Recognition by unique ability to cut (carve) tree, etc. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H31.6. H31.6. Recognition by unique ability to break iron apple with first stone cast. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H31.7. H31.7. Recognition by unique ability to perform magic act. German: Grimm Nos. 76, 89; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Kordofan): Frobenius Atlantis IV 134ff. No. 13.
 
H31.7.1. H31.7.1. Recognition by ability to shed pearls for tears. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H31.7.2. H31.7.2. Only one man is able to read magic book. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H31.8. H31.8. Recognition by unique ability to shoot, swim, and drink. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H31.9. H31.9. Recognition by unique ability to handle easily a heavy stone. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H31.10. H31.10. Recognition by unique ability to play chess. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H31.11. H31.11. Recognition by unique ability to read inscription. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H31.12. H31.12. Only one man is able to pluck fruits from tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H31.12.1. H31.12.1. Bridegroom alone able to pluck flower from bride’s grave. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H32. H32. Recognition by extraordinary prowess. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.
 
H35. H35. Recognition by unique manner of performing an act. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H35.1. H35.1. Recognition by unique manner of playing lute. Chauvin V 152 No. 75; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H35.1.1. H35.1.1. Recognition by unique manner of playing harp. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H35.1.2. H35.1.2. Recognition by unique manner of playing flute. German: Grimm No. 181; Chinese: Graham.
 
H35.2. H35.2. Recognition by unique cookery. Only one person could have prepared the food in this way. *Chauvin VI 105 No. 270 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H35.3. H35.3. Recognition by unique needle-work. *Type 506; von der Hagen I cxxxix; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H35.3.1. H35.3.1. Recognition of false bride by inability to finish true bride‘s weaving. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H35.3.2. H35.3.2. Recognition by embroidery. Chinese: Graham (H141.).
 
H35.4. H35.4. Recognition by unique manner of carving chips. These sent down stream for recognition. (Cf. H135.) *Schoepperle II 301ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H35.4.1. H35.4.1. Recognition by ogam carving on withe (rod, tree). Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H35.5. H35.5. Recognition by manner of throwing cakes of different weights into faces of old uncles. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.
 
H36. H36. Recognition by exact fitting of clothes. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H36.1. H36.1. Slipper test. Identification by fitting of slipper. *Type 510; *Cox Cinderella 504ff.; *BP I 187; *Fb ”sko“ III 288a; Cosquin Contes Indiens 48ff.; Saintyves Perrault 115ff., 156. – Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; New Mexican: Rael Mod. Lang. Forum XVIII (1933).
 
H36.1.1. H36.1.1. Recognition by shoes with which the father had once beaten his son. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H36.2. H36.2. Garment fits only true king. (Cf. H41.) Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H36.2.1. H36.2.1. Crown fits only legitimate successor to throne. Jewish: Neuman.
 
H38. H38. Person’s rank betrayed by habitual conversation.
 
H38.1. H38.1. Disguised king (noble) recognized by habitual speech.
 
H38.2. H38.2. Impostor of low origin recognized by habitual speech.
 
H38.2.1. H38.2.1. Tailor married to princess betrays trade by calling for needle and thread. *Type 1640; BP I 148 ff.
 
H38.2.2. H38.2.2. Peasant boy masking as prince betrays self by his answers. *Köhler-Bolte I 172.
 
H38.2.3. H38.2.3. Recognition of maidservant substitute bride by her habitual conversation. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H38.2.4. H38.2.4. Weaver married to princess betrays trade by talking in his sleep. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H38.2.4.1. H38.2.4.1. Weaver married to princess betrays his identity when he unconsciously waves his hands as though he were weaving and asks for his shuttle. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H38.2.5. H38.2.5. Substitution of low-caste boy for promised child detected when he prefers long road to short one through jungle (swimming instead of ferry, etc.) India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H38.3. H38.3. Slave recognized by his conversation, habits, and character. Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H41. H41. Recognition of royalty by personal characteristics or traits. (Cf. H36.2, H71.) Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H41.1. H41.1. Princess on the pea. Princess recognized by her inability to sleep on bed which has a pea under its dozen mattresses. *BP III 330; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 575b; Grimm No. 182a; *Fb ”seng“; Penzer VI 288ff.; Wirth AA o.s. VII (1894) 367ff.; Arthur Christensen Acta Orientalia XIV 241 – 257; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H41.2. H41.2. High-spitting the test of a chief. N. A. Indian (Quileute): Farrand-Mayer JAFL XXXII 253 No. 1, (Chinook): Boas BBAE XX 160, (Nootka): Boas RBAE XXXI 919.
 
H41.3. H41.3. Test of king (pope): his candle lights itself. *Type 671; *Köhler-Bolte I 148.
 
H41.4. H41.4. Flame issuing from mouth as sign of royalty. English: Wells 14f. (The Lay of Havelok).
 
H41.5. H41.5. Unknown prince shows his kingly qualities in dealing with his playmates. Type 920; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 40ff., 323ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H41.5.1. H41.5.1. Unknown prince reared by fisher spends money on princely tastes. *Boje 126; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H41.6. H41.6. Prophecy for newborn princesses: the one who takes gold in the mouth will be married to a prince; the one who takes hawkweed, to a peasant. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H41.7. H41.7. Task: to ride horse whereby one becomes king. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H41.8. H41.8. Test of royalty: ability to sow, reap, and winnow rice in one day. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H41.9. H41.9. King recognized by unique ability to occupy certain seat (Siege perilous). Irish myth: *Cross; *Nutt Studies in the Legend of the Holy Grail (London, 1888) 81f., 88.
 
H41.9.1. H41.9.1. Chariot tilts under anyone who is not entitled to throne. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H41.10. H41.10. Chief in disguise carries bundle so large that rank is recognized. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 388.
 
H44. H44. Recognition by perfume. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H45. H45. Recognition of deity. Tonga: Gifford 56.
 
H45.1. H45.1. God recognized by his supernatural powers. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H45.2. H45.2. Milk gushes forth from cows when they sit under tree inhabited by deity. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H45.3. H45.3. Test of a god: when his image is bound it frees itself. Oertel Studien z. vgl. Littg. VIII 116; Frazer Pausanias III 336f.; Zs. f. Vksk. II 197, III 89, 448.
 
H45.4. H45.4. God in disguise recognized by tokens on his feet and hands. Greek: Homer Iliad XIII 71.
 
H45.5. H45.5. Girl sleeping naked awakened: is she a goddess? If mortal, she will cover herself; if a goddess, will not. Tonga: Gifford 191.
 
H46. H46. Cannibal recognized by cloud of dust raised. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 47, 142, (Basuto): Jacottet 4 No. 1, 206 No. 30, (Kaffir): Theal 125.
 
H46.1. H46.1. Cannibal nature of woman recognized when she devours dead buffalo raw. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H47. H47. Demon recognized by corpse it occupies turning to worm when stake is driven through it. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H48. H48. Animal in human form recognized. (Cf. H64.)
 
H48.1. H48.1. Fox (in man’s form) cries out like a fox in his sleep. S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 122.
 
H48.2. H48.2. Fox (in man‘s form) betrays identity when he procures fox-food for human wife. S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 123.
 
H49. H49. Recognition through personal peculiarities – miscellaneous.
 
H49.1. H49.1. Unique scent of their rice betrays abandoned children. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H50. H50. Recognition by bodily marks or physical attributes. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H51. H51. Recognition by scar. (Cf. H56.) *Type 314; Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 9, *Rotunda; Greek: Odyssey, books XIX, XXIV; Arabian: Burton Nights I 248; Jewish: *Neuman; Indonesia: De Vries’s list No. 158; Chinese: Werner 281; N. A. Indian (Ponka): Dorsey CNAE VI 606, (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 109, (Eastern Cree): Skinner PaAM IX 92.
 
H51.1. H51.1. Recognition by birthmark. *Types 400, 850; Dickson 49 nn. 58, 59; cf. Shakespeare‘s Cymbeline II, 2, 38; BP II 318, 528; German. Grimm No. 92; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 140; N. A. Indian (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 109.
 
H55. H55. Recognition through branding. *Types 314, 502, 883B; Dickson 41; Chauvin V 152; Tawney I 37, 92; Burton Nights VII 89 n.; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H55.1. H55.1. Recognition through branding with hoof-marks. *Types 314, 502; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”marque“, ”mule“.
 
H55.2. H55.2. Sacred animals branded by conjurer. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 327.
 
H55.3. H55.3. Recognition by tatoo. Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 370.
 
H56. H56. Recognition by wound. (Cf. H51.) *Types 314, 502; *Cosquin Études 447ff.; Dickson 42 n. 41; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 169, 170; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 417.
 
H56.1. H56.1. Recognition by hole burned in hand when woman removes glove. *Wesselski Märchen 198.
 
H56.2. H56.2. Mutilation of children‘s bodies for identification. *Dickson 42 n. 41.
 
H57. H57. Recognition by missing member. *Hartland Perseus III 208f.; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 150, 168, 171.
 
H57.0.1. H57.0.1. Recognition of resuscitated person by missing member. *Type 313; French: Cosquin Lorraine II 11.
 
H57.1. H57.1. Recognition by broken tooth. New Zealand: Dixon 84.
 
H57.2. H57.2. Recognition by missing finger. *Hartland Perseus III 207ff.; Dickson 42 n. 42; Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”doigt“; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. 120, 121.
 
H57.2.1. H57.2.1. Severed finger as sign of crime. Robber bridegroom thus detected. *Type 955.
 
H57.2.2. H57.2.2. Recognition of murdered person by severed fingernail. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H57.3. H57.3. Recognition by missing toe. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.
 
H57.4. H57.4. Recognition by description of woman with missing hands. Nouvelles de Sens No. 12.
 
H57.5. H57.5. Recognition by artificial hands. *Type 706; *BP I 295ff.
 
H58. H58. Tell-tale hand-mark. Clandestine lover is identified by paint marks left on his skin by his mistress. *Type 950; Köhler-Bolte I 200; India: Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Tawney I 15; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 273 n. 1.
 
H58.1. H58.1. Disguised mistress identified by chalk marks left on back by lover. Heptameron No. 43.
 
H58.2. H58.2. Clandestine lover identified by scratches left on face by lady. Heptameron No. 4.
 
H61. H61. Recognition by ornaments under skin.
 
H61.1. H61.1. Recognition of twins by golden chain under their skin. Köhler-Bolte I 119.
 
H61.2. H61.2. Recognition of disenchanted person by ornaments under his skin. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 348 n. 249b.
 
H61.3. H61.3. Recognition by means of ring enclosed in wound. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 104.
 
H61.4. H61.4. Recognition by grain of gold under skin. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H62. H62. Recognition of transformed person (animal). (Cf. H48.) India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H62.0.1. H62.0.1. Recognition of man transformed to horse. Chinese: Graham.
 
H62.1. H62.1. Recognition of person transformed to animal. *Type 325; *BP II 60.
 
H62.1.1. H62.1.1. Person transformed to animal recognized by his eyes. *Fb ”öje“ III 1166a; Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H62.1.2. H62.1.2. Person transformed to animal recognized by ability to read. Scotch: Campbell-McKay.
 
H62.2. H62.2. Horse recognizes kol transformed to look like his master and throws him off. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H62.3. H62.3. Marvelous horse identified by prince though in form of miserable worn-out one. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H63. H63. Recognition of other transformed persons.
 
H63.1. H63.1. Woman transformed to flower is recognized by the absence of dew on petals. Type 407; BP III 259; German: Grimm No. 160.
 
H64. H64. Recognition of disenchanted person by physical attributes.
 
H64.1. H64.1. Recognition of disenchanted person by thread in his teeth. As werwolf he has torn woman’s apron and caught thread in teeth. *Fb ”varulv“ III 1015a.
 
H64.2. H64.2. Werwolf killed and recognized by man‘s clothes under the wolf’s skin or rosary on the neck. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3680.
 
H64.3. H64.3. Person disenchanted from animal ”unable to hide his tail.“ India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H64.4. H64.4. Person disenchanted from animal unable to eat after manner of men. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71. H71. Marks of royalty. (Cf. H41, H171.5.) *Type 533; *BP II 275; Köhler-Bolte I 130; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.1. H71.1. Star on forehead as sign of royalty. *Type 707; *BP I 102, II 380, 393; *Fb ”stjærne“ III 577b, ”guldstjærne“ I 515a; Köhler-Bolte I 119; Dickson 48; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 311 No. 56; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 137; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.1.1. H71.1.1. Moon on forehead and stars in palm of hand as sign of royalty. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.2. H71.2. Gold (silver) hairs as sign of royalty. *Types 533, 707; *BP II 275, 380, 393; *Fb ”hår“ I 771b; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.2.1. H71.2.1. Golden body of boy as sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.3. H71.3. Pearls from hair as sign of royalty. *Type 707; BP II 380, 393.
 
H71.4. H71.4. Roses from lips as sign of royalty. Princess laughs roses. *BP I 100.
 
H71.5. H71.5. Cross between shoulders as sign of royalty (nobility). Dickson 48f.; English: Wells 14f. (The Lay of Havelok); Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H71.6. H71.6. Bright eyes as sign of royalty (nobility). Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H71.6.1. H71.6.1. Luminous face as sign of royalty. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 29, *Cross.
 
H71.6.2. H71.6.2. Gold tint as sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.7. H71.7. Child born with chain around neck: sign of royalty. *Type 707; BP I 432, II 380ff.; Todd MLN VI 7; Wesselski Märchen 174 No. 64; Wells Manual 96 (Chevalere Assigne).
 
H71.7.1. H71.7.1. Girl born with costly jewels: sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.7.2. H71.7.2. Prince born with bow of gold and string of silver. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.8. H71.8. Tears of blood: sign of royalty. Jewish: Neuman; S. A. Indian (Inca): Alexander Lat. Am. 252.
 
H71.9. H71.9. Red teeth as sign of royalty. Africa (Thonga): Junod 231.
 
H71.10. H71.10. Marvel as sign of royalty. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.10.1. H71.10.1. Tree bows before prince. De Vries FFC LXXIII 329; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.10.2. H71.10.2. Water stands still before prince. De Vries FFC LXXIII 329.
 
H71.10.3. H71.10.3. Frogs croak at prince‘s command. De Vries FFC LXXIII 330.
 
H71.10.4. H71.10.4. Chariot horses spring at anyone who is not entitled to throne. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H71.10.5. H71.10.5. Two blocks of stone that move apart to allow passage of chariot of true king. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H71.10.6. H71.10.6. Stone screams under feet of legitimate king. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H71.10.7. H71.10.7. Arrows turn aside for prince (king). India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H71.11. H71.11. Gold in stool as sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys:
 
H75. H75. Identification by a hair.
 
H75.1. H75.1. Identification by hair found floating on water. *Type 531; *BP III 31 n. 1. 33; **Golther ”Die Jungfrau mit den goldenen Haaren“ Studien zur Literaturgeschichte M. Bernays gewidmet (Leipzig, 1893). – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 355 n. 281.
 
H75.2. H75.2. Identification by hair dropped by bird. *Type 531; *BP III 31 n. 1, 33; **Golther ibid.
 
H75.3. H75.3. Recognition by hair found in a fish which has swallowed it. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H75.4. H75.4. Recognition by golden hair. Types 314, 502; BP II 275. – Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H75.5. H75.5. Identification by wolf’s hair. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H75.6. H75.6. Recognition by missing hair. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 187, 189, Thalbitzer 7.
 
H75.7. H75.7. Recognition of murderers by their short hair. Tonga: Gifford 34.
 
H78. H78. Recognition by feather.
 
H78.1. H78.1. Youth shoots raven and takes feather to raven‘s sister as token. *Type 553.
 
H78.2. H78.2. Identification by feather taken from hero when he was transformed to bird. *Type 665.
 
H79. H79. Recognition by physical attributes – miscellaneous. Jewish: *Neuman.
 
H79.1. H79.1. Troll’s daughter after being cooked in kettle recognized by golden fingernail. Fb ”guldnagle“ I 514.
 
H79.2. H79.2. Identification of man by his little toe. Chinese: Werner 337.
 
H79.3. H79.3. Recognition by voice. Icelandic: Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H79.4. H79.4. Recognition by smile. Sultan frees prisoner when he recognizes him as a former aid. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
H79.5. H79.5. Identification of man by his skull. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H79.6. H79.6. Recognition by large breasts that woman in bed is not husband‘s wife. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 35.
 
H79.7. H79.7. Recognition of monk by his large organ. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 15.
 
H79.8. H79.8. Identity established because one of man’s teeth is blue. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H80 – H149.
 
H80 – H149. IDENTIFICATION BY TOKENS
 
H80. H80. Identification by tokens. Types 300, 301, 304, 306, 873; English: Child V 499 s.v. ”tokens“; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18; Greek: Fox 71; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H80.1. H80.1. True redeemers to be recognized by tokens. Jewish: *Neuman.
 
H81. H81. Clandestine lover recognized by tokens.
 
H81.1. H81.1. Hero lies by sleeping girl and leaves identification token with her. *Types 304, 550, 551; *BP II 505; *Fb ”sove“ III 472a; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 26; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H81.1.1. H81.1.1. Hero takes token from sleeping princess. Type 304; BP II 505; German: Grimm No. 111.
 
H81.2. H81.2. Clandestine visit of princess to hero betrayed by token. *Type 851; BP I 197; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H81.3. H81.3. Clandestine visit of lover to queen betrayed by token. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H82. H82. Identifying tokens sent with messenger. English: Child V 499 s.v. ”tokens“; Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H82.1. H82.1. Tokens sent to jailor as warrant of king‘s authority. English: Child V 499 s.v. ”tokens“.
 
H82.2. H82.2. Marriage tokens identifying lover. English: Child V 499 s.v. ”tokens“; Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H82.3. H82.3. Tokens between lovers. (Cf. H105.6.) Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H82.4. H82.4. Ring sent from husband to wife as token that he has been baptized, and that she should also be. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H82.5. H82.5. Token sent as warning. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H82.6. H82.6. Token sent with youth to relatives, that they may take care of him. Icelandic: *Boberg.
 
H83. H83. Rescue tokens. Proof that hero has succeeded in rescue. (Cf. H105, H105.1, H105.2.) *Types 300, 301, 304, 306; *Hartland Perseus III 203ff. (list of tokens).
 
H84. H84. Tokens of exploits.
 
H84.1. H84.1. Branches broken from tree to prove journey. Type 306; German: Grimm No. 133.
 
H84.2. H84.2. Cup taken as proof that one has been present at feast. Type 306; German: Grimm No. 133.
 
H84.3. H84.3. Flail substantiates story of witnessing threshing in heaven. Type 852; German: Grimm No. 112.
 
H84.4. H84.4. Stolen ring as proof of daring theft. German: Grimm No. 192.
 
H85. H85. Captive sends token of safety. Africa (Swahili): Steere 143, (Zulu): Callaway 221.
 
H86. H86. Inscribed name on article as token of ownership. (Cf. H94.10.) German: Grimm Nos. 60, 101, 111.
 
H86.1. H86.1. Saber with king’s name inscribed on it. German: Grimm No. 111.
 
H86.2. H86.2. Articles of clothing with name embroidered on them taken as tokens. German: Grimm No. 111.
 
H86.3. H86.3. Ring with names inscribed on it. German: Grimm No. 101.
 
H86.4. H86.4. Handkerchief with name on it. German: Grimm No. 60.
 
H87. H87. Garlands (flowers) as token. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H88. H88. Recognition by tokens left as trail. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H90. H90. Identification by ornaments. *Type 870A; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H91. H91. Recognition through precious metal.
 
H91.1. H91.1. Recognition through gold found in eagle‘s nest. English: Wells 114 (Sir Isumbras).
 
H91.2. H91.2. Recognition by gold wrapped in mantle. *Hibbard 9.
 
H91.3. H91.3. Identification by producing three golden apples. German: Grimm No. 136.
 
H92. H92. Identification by necklace. *Types 450, 870, 870A; *BP I 79ff., III 443ff., 445; *Fb ”guldkjæde“ IV 192a; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 514.
 
H93. H93. Identification by jewel. French: Cosquin Lorraine I 220 n.; Hindu: Tawney I 170.
 
H93.0.1. H93.0.1. Recognition by smell of jewels worn about neck. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H94. H94. Identification by ring. *Types 301, 304, 882; *BP II 348; Thien Motive 33; *Fb ”ring“ III 60a; *Hartland Perseus III 207ff.; Liungman Två Folkeminnes. 25 n. 1; Saintyves Perrault 204ff.; Irish myth: *Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 26; English: Wells 9ff. (Horn Childe and Maiden Rimnild), 73 (Sir Percyvelle of Galles), 80 (Sir Tristrem); Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 181; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 3; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer II 76f., Tawney I 142 n., II 620; Chinese: Graham.
 
H94.0.1. H94.0.1. Recognition of wife’s ring in friend‘s possession informs husband of her unfaithfulness. Heptameron No. 8.
 
H94.1. H94.1. Identification by ring baked in cake. *Type 400.
 
H94.2. H94.2. Identification by ring baked in bread. *Type 510; *Fb ”ring“ III 60a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”bague“.
 
H94.3. H94.3. Identification by ring dropped in pitcher of wine. Penzer II 76 n. 1.
 
H94.4. H94.4. Identification by ring dropped in glass (cup) of wine. *Types 400, 506, 510; *Fb ”guldring“ I 514b, ”ring“ III 60a; *BP II 348; Wesselski Mönchslatein 111 No. 95; Irish: O’Suilleabhain 53, Beal XXI 320; English: Wells 9 (King Horn), Child V 493 s.v. ”ring.
 
H94.5. H94.5. Identification through broken ring. (Cf. H100.) The two parts of the ring fit together. Type 361, BP II 428; *Fb “guldring” I 514b, “ring” III No. 95; Heptameron No. 24; Köhler-Bolte I 585; Wesselski Mönchslatein 111 No. 95; Icelandic: Boberg; English: Child V 493 “ring”; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 210.
 
H94.6. H94.6. Recognition through arm-ring. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 227 No. 40.
 
H94.7. H94.7. Recognition by ring springing off finger. Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 9.
 
H94.8. H94.8. Recognition by medallion (plaque). Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
H94.9. H94.9. Identification through ring concealed in garland. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H94.10. H94.10. Recognition through gold ring with owner‘s name engraved on it. (Cf. H88.) India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H94.11. H94.11. Recognition by earrings. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 35.
 
H95. H95. Recognition by bracelet. Chinese: Graham.
 
H96. H96. Identification by amulet. (Cf. D1070.) Jewish: Neuman.
 
H100. H100. Identification by matching parts of divided token. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H101. H101. Identification by broken weapon. Point of weapon broken off. Later found to match rest of weapon. English: Wells 80 (Sir Tristrem); Icelandic: Ragnarssaga Loðbrókar 118, Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18f.; Indonesia: cf. De Vries’s list No. 163.
 
H101.1. H101.1. Identification by matching weapon with wound. Africa (Chaga): Stamberg ZsES XXI 296ff., Gutmann 82f. No. 41, (Ganda): Baskerville 1ff.
 
H102. H102. Identification by indenture. Each of two persons keeps his half of a contract which has been torn in two. Fitting of the halves brings about recognition. English: Child II 499b.
 
H102.1. H102.1. Identification by fitting together two pieces of parchment. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
H103. H103. Pieces taken from flags serve to identify. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “drapeau”.
 
H105. H105. Parts of slain animals as token of slaying. *Hartland Perseus III 207; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 242b. nn. 37 – 47; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 343 No. 59.
 
H105.1. H105.1. Dragon-tongue proof. Dragon slayer cuts out the tongues and uses them later to prove his identity as slayer. *Types 300, 303; *Hartland Perseus III 203ff.; **Ranke FFC CXIV 251ff.; *BP I 534ff., 548; Fb “tunge” III 893b; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 242a nn. 24 – 47; Schoepperle I 204 n. 3; Irish myth: Cross; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 7, 18f.; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 63 n. 4; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 323ff.; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 278 No. 90.
 
H105.1.1. H105.1.1. False dragon-head proof. Impostor cuts off dragon heads (after tongues have been removed) and attempts to use them as proof of slaying the dragon. *Type 300; *BP I 534ff. and all references to H105.1; *Parsons FL XXXII 194ff.; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H105.2. H105.2. Tongue as proof that man has been murdered. *Fb “tunge” III 894a; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H105.2.1. H105.2.1. Tongue of slain giant as proof of slaying. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H105.3. H105.3. Arm of monster kept as token of innocence of dog. Scottish: Campbell-McKay.
 
H105.4. H105.4. Head of monster as token (proof) of slaying. Africa (Ronga): Junod Les Chants et les Contes des Ba-Ronga (Lausanne, 1897) 317ff. No. 30.
 
H105.4.1. H105.4.1. Monster‘s beard as proof of visit. Type 461; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 602, *Boberg.
 
H105.5. H105.5. Ears, fingers and noses of demons cut off as proof of killing them. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H105.5.1. H105.5.1. Recognition of tiger-slayer by tips of ears, nose, and tail of tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H105.5.2. H105.5.2. Teeth and fingernails of slain cyclops taken as proof. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H105.5.3. H105.5.3. Beak and claws of slain monster as proof of slaying. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H105.5.4. H105.5.4. Abandoned son shows claws and tail of tiger to which his parents have exposed him. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H105.6. H105.6. Identification between lovers by matching claw and leg of dragon. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H105.7. H105.7. Sex organs of enemy as proof of slaying. Jewish: Neuman.
 
H106. H106. Identification by severed limbs. (Cf. also H105.)
 
H106.1. H106.1. Identification by severed hand. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H106.2. H106.2. Severed head as proof of killing. Type 507B (H. C. Andersen Rejsekammeraten); Icelandic: *Boberg; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
 
H110. H110. Identification by cloth or clothing.
 
H111. H111. Identification by garment. *Types 301, 510B, 451; English: Wells 116 (Sir Eglamour of Artois), 126 (Lai le Freine); Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Africa (Benga): Nassau 229 No. 34.
 
H111.1. H111.1. Identification by royal garments. Burton Nights S VII 108; English: Wells 126 (Lai la Freine).
 
H111.2. H111.2. Identification by feather cloak. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 420, 479.
 
H112. H112. Identification by scarf. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “foulard”.
 
H113. H113. Identification by handkerchief. *Types 300, 301; *Hartland Perseus III 206ff.; Missouri French: Carrière; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mouchoir”; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H114. H114. Identification by glove. English: Wells 134 (Sir Degare); Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H115. H115. Identification by veil. *Hartland Perseus III 206.
 
H116. H116. Identification by girdle. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
 
H117. H117. Identification by cut garment. Garment is cut and fragment taken as token. *Types 304, 851; *BP I 197, II 505; *Hartland Perseus 208ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H118. H118. Identification by shred of garment of rescued princess used as bandage for wound. Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H119. H119. Identification by cloth or clothing – miscellaneous.
 
H119.1. H119.1. A piece of cloth on one’s back as a guarantee against his being eaten on the way. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H119.2. H119.2. Needle left in garment of husband by abducted wife as sign. Chinese: Graham.
 
H120. H120. Identification by tokens – miscellaneous.
 
H121. H121. Identification by cup. English: Wells 158 (Amis and Amiloun); Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
H125. H125. Identification by weapons. Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H125.1. H125.1. Identification by sword. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 100 (Theseus).
 
H125.2. H125.2. Identification by spear. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 416.
 
H125.3. H125.3. Identification by war-club. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 508.
 
H125.4. H125.4. Recognition by dart. Maori: Beckwith Myth 482.
 
H126. H126. Identification by coat of arms. English: Wells 117 (Sir Torrent of Portyngale).
 
H131. H131. Identification by axe. Recognition by axe which man bears. Fb “økse” III 1171b.
 
H132. H132. Recognition by knife. Man who is werwolf recognized by knife which was carried away by the wolf. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 74; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 131 No. 74.
 
H133. H133. Recognition by calabash. Slave recognizes calabash and knows that girl lives. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 27.
 
H134. H134. Recognition through books. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.
 
H135. H135. Leaf (chip) sent down stream as a warning to one below. (Cf. H35.4.) Child I 40b, 487a; *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt 301ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H135.1. H135.1. Recognition by trimmed leaf thrown from tree hiding place. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Africa (Nyanja): Rattray Some Folk-Lore Stories (London, 1907) 149ff. No. 24, (Chaga): Stamberg ZsES XXIII 296ff.
 
H135.2. H135.2. Milk poured into stream as signal. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H142. H142. Recognition by token – mouth-harp left by bed. Chinese: Graham.
 
H145. H145. Identification by magic hand. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H147. H147. Recognition by tobacco-pipe. Chinese: Graham (H107).
 
H150. H150. Circumstances of recognition. Missouri French: Carrière.
 
H151. H151. Attention drawn and recognition follows.
 
H151.1. H151.1. Attention drawn by magic objects: recognition follows. *Type 707; *BP II 380ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone Introduction; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H151.1.1. H151.1.1. Attention drawn by playing marbles with remarkable jewel. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H151.1.2. H151.1.2. Attention drawn by gold and silver decorated mouse: as princess turns after it, suitor recognizes her. Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H151.1.3. H151.1.3. Recognition by ability to perform marvels. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H151.2. H151.2. Attention drawn by helpful animal‘s theft of food from wedding table; recognition follows. *Type 301, 900; BP I 443ff.; *Philippson FFC L 53; *Fb “mad” II 525a.
 
H151.3. H151.3. Recognition when parents come to son (priest, pope) to be confessed. *Type 933; *Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 173 (to Gonzenbach No. 85); *Baum PMLA XXXI 562 n. 59; Japanese: Ikeda.
 
H151.4. H151.4. Recognition by cup in sack: alleged stolen goods. Cup is placed in the sack of Joseph’s brethren, they are accused of theft; this gives occasion for recognition. *BP I 489; *Fb “sæk” III 720b, “bæger” IV 83a; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 10; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H151.5. H151.5. Attention attracted by hints dropped by heroine as menial: recognition follows. *Type 510; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H151.6. H151.6. Heroine in menial disguise discovered in her beautiful clothes: recognition follows. *Type 510; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H151.6.1. H151.6.1. Enchanted heroine seen temporarily disenchanted: recognition follows. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 6.
 
H151.6.2. H151.6.2. Recognition because of imperfection of disguise. Type 510; German: Grimm No. 152.
 
H151.7. H151.7. Hero‘s power to transform girl to carnation brings about recognition. *Type 652.
 
H151.8. H151.8. Husband attracted by wife’s power of healing: recognition follows. *Type 712.
 
H151.9. H151.9. Abandoned child joins parents in game: recognition follows. Oceanic (New Zealand, Melanesia): Dixon 42 n. 10.
 
H151.9.1. H151.9.1. Abandoned child recognized in game. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H151.10. H151.10. Combat of unknown brothers brings about recognition. Dickson 108 n. 18; Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H151.11. H151.11. Hero is served at table by his unknown son: recognition of his wife follows. English: Wells 130 (Emare). Cf. Chaucer‘s Man of Law’s Tale.
 
H151.12. H151.12. Geese tell of beauty of their mistress and bring about recognition. *Type 533; Köhler-Bolte I 347; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 7.
 
H151.13. H151.13. Disguised hero‘s golden hair discovered by spying princess. Type 314.
 
H151.14. H151.14. Tears fall on person below and indicate presence of those above (on cliff, tree, etc.).
 
H151.14.1. H151.14.1. Recognition by tear falling from tree where girl has been abandoned. India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 77.
 
H151.15. H151.15. Seller of trinkets tells of heroine’s address of son as “tiger‘s son” and brings about recognition of true bride. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H152. H152. Recognition through accidental encounter.
 
H152.1. H152.1. Poor people given alms: one of them recognized. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H152.1.1. H152.1.1. Woman entertains every traveler in the hope of finding her husband. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H152.2. H152.2. Impoverished husband in service of wife recognized. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H152.3. H152.3. Abandoned wife recognized among workers. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H153. H153. Outcast wife (children) builds castle identical with king‘s, invites him, and is recognized. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H154. H154. Recognition of abandoned child when parent comes to him for relief from famine. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H155. H155. Abandoned queen invites all to forest, gives appropriate food to her persecutors, and is recognized. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H157. H157. King finds note with children in casket floated down river identifying them as his. (Cf. S141.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 526.
 
H161. H161. Recognition of transformed person among identical companions. Prearranged signals. *Type 313, 325; *BP II 29, 516ff.; *Fb “hest” I 598b; *Köhler to Gonzenbach II 246. – Missouri French: Carrière; Hindu: Keith 142; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 340 n. 224.
 
H161.0.1. H161.0.1. Recognition of person among identical companions. Irish myth: *Cross; Chinese: Graham.
 
H162. H162. Recognition of disguised princess by bee lighting on her. Fb “bi” IV 36b; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.
 
H162.1. H162.1. Insect points out deity by settling where he is. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 18.
 
H162.2. H162.2. King selected by having a cricket light on his head. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.
 
H162.3. H162.3. Recognition of disguised princess by bull. Africa (Madagascar): Renel I 144ff. No. 26, 148ff. No. 27.
 
H163. H163. Recognition of own cow in herd of twenty thousand. Hornet helper. Africa: Werner African 154.
 
H165. H165. Father recognizes son after having thrown him in oven. Marquesas: Beckwith Myth 482.
 
H171. H171. Animal (object) indicates election of ruler. *Egerton JAOS XXXIII 158; *Chauvin VI 75 No. 239; Irish: Beal XXI 309.
 
H171.1. H171.1. King selected by elephant’s bowing to him. *Penzer V 175ff.; *Hartland Ritual and Belief (1914) 290ff.; *Christiansen FFC XXIV 124; Paris Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 6 n. 8. – India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H171.1.1. H171.1.1. Elephant raises girl three times to be king‘s wife. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H171.2. H171.2. Bird indicates election of king (pope). *Type 671; *BP I 325; Fb “pave” II 793a; *Loomis White Magic 66; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H171.3. H171.3. Horse indicates election of emperor. *Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 157; Penzer IV 104, V 176; Herodotus II cap. 84 – 87; Herbert III 210; Oesterley No. 270.
 
H171.4. H171.4. Man before whom riderless car stops chosen king. *Penzer V 175ff.
 
H171.4.1. H171.4.1. Man before whom oxen stop chosen king. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H171.5. H171.5. Stone of destiny (Lia Fáil). Roars out under rightful king. (Cf. H71.) Irish myth: *Cross.
 
H171.6. H171.6. Pope selected by chair moving toward candidate. Irish: O’Suilleabhain 27 (b).
 
H172. H172. Animal will serve only certain man.
 
H172.1. H172.1. Horse will permit only certain man to ride him. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H173. H173. Disguised man recognized by dog. Greek: Fox 139; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H173.1. H173.1. Chieftain recognized by faithful swineherd. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H173.2. H173.2. Chieftain recognized by former captive. Irish myth: Cross.
 
H173.3. H173.3. Animal first to recognize his returned master. *Boje 105, 108ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.
 
H175. H175. Recognition by “force of nature”. Unknown member of family immediately and magically recognized. *Dickson 16f., 69 n. 17; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 86.
 
H175.1. H175.1. Recognition of son by gushing up of milk in mother‘s breasts. *Cosquin Études 199ff., 238; *Chauvin V 13 No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H175.2. H175.2. Child mystically recognizes woman as his mother. Chinese: Graham.
 
H175.3. H175.3. Sick prince‘s pulse beats violently when his loved one passes by. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H175.4. H175.4. Fire issues spontaneously from fireless hearth when man approaches. India: *Thompson-Balys.
 
H175.5. H175.5. Ghost of unknown child passes over heads of parents and bursts in a spray of blood. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 183.
 
H181. H181. Recognition by unmasking. *Type 900; India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H182. H182. Beating brings about outcry and recognition. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H183. H183. Identification by nurse. Long-missing person identified by his childhood nurse. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
H184. H184. Recognition by miraculous sight of seer (saint). Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 119 (Cassandra).
 
H186. H186. Hero spits twice at his wife as sign of recognition. Chinese: Graham.
 
H187. H187. Recognition by servant: saves master from death. Italian Novella: Rotunda.
 
H188. H188. Princess appears before crane (who had demanded her in marriage) and is recognized by him despite loathly disguise. India: Thompson-Balys.
 
H192. H192. Recognition by supernatural manifestation. Jewish: Neuman.
 
H192.1. H192.1. Recognition of man acceptable to God: knife leaps into his hand. Jewish: *Neuman.

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