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Stith Thompson

Motifs List




Garden of the gods. Hindu: Penzer I 66 n. 1, 68, 96, II 34, III 5, 24, 138, VI 82, VII 129, 148, VIII 73, 165, 170, IX 21, 87 n. 4; Irish myth: Cross; Babylonian: Ungnad Das Gilgamesch Epos IX 163, cf. 148, 163ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Gaster Thespis 171, Oldest S   F162.1. Garden in otherworld.tories 48.


Culture hero's (divinity's) expected return. Divinity or hero is expected to return at the proper time and rescue his people from their misfortunes. Often joined with A571. – *Norlind "Skattsägner". – Danish: Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXIX 74; Fb. "Holger Danske"; Norse: Olrik Ragnarok 108ff., 478 (Balder); Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: Mac Culloch Celtic 194 (Arthur); Eng., Scot.: Baughman; Finnish: Kalevala rune 50. – Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 339. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 274 n. 11a.; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 66.   A571. Culture hero asleep in mountain. B19.3. Horse born of egg. Mythical hero will come riding on such a horse. D1960.2. King asleep in mountain.


Heaven. A blissful upper world. — Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York 1923); Jeremias Hölle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig 1903); Gaster Thespis 286; Irish myth: Cross, Beal XXI 330; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 312; German: Grimm Nos. 3, 35, 81, 82, 112, 167, 175, 178; Egyptian: Müller 176; Persian: Carnoy 345; Hindu: Keith 99, 131, 201. — Japanese: Anesaki 237, 241. — Haida: Alexander N. Am. 263; Eskimo: ibid. 7; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 81; Maya: ibid. 138, 140; Isthmian tribes (Panama): ibid. 193.   A211. God of heaven. E481.4. Beautiful land of dead. E754.2. Saved soul goes to heaven. E755.1. Souls in heaven. F11. Journey to heaven (upperworld paradise). Q172. Reward: admission to heaven. Q565. Man admitted to neither heaven nor hell. V511.1. Visions of heaven. V520. Salvation.


Hell. Lower world of torment. — Jeremias Hölle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig 1903); Köhler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York 1923); *Landau Hölle und Fegfeuer in Volksglaube, Dichtung, und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); *Jātaka Index s. v. "hell". — Norse: De la Saussaye 256, 291, MacCulloch Eddic 303, Herrmann Saxo Gr. II 588, *Boberg; Greek: Fox 143; Egyptian: Müller 179; Babylonian: Spence 128; Persian: Carnoy 345; Hindu: Penzer X 169 s. v. "Hades", Keith 100, 160; India: Thompson-Balys. — Japanese: Anesaki 237. — Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 80; Maya: ibid. 138; Chaco: ibid. 324; Chibcha: ibid. 198; Eskimo: Alexander N. Am. 7.   A310. God of the world of the dead. B11.3.6. Dragons in hell. D191.1. Lucifer as serpent. D1738. Magic arts learned in hell. E480. Abode of the dead. E481.1. Land of dead in lower world. E755. Destination of the soul. F81. Descent to lower world of dead. Q560. Punishments in hell. Q565. Man admitted to neither heaven nor hell. V511.2. Visions of hell. V520. Salvation.


Ferryman on river in lower world (Charon). Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 142; Egyptian: Müller 176; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 45; Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch-Epos X, XI, 46ff., cf. 136ff.


Islands of the blest. Irish myth: Cross. — Greek: Fox 147, Grote I 62, Guntert Kalypso 81; Gaster Oldest Stories 50. — Oceanic: Kruyt Het Animisme 368ff.; Landman Kiwai Papuans 12; Lévy-Bruhl L'âme primitive 382ff.   A561. Divinity's departure for west. D936. Magic island. D981.1.1. Magic apple from Garden of the Hesperides. E480. Abode of the dead. E481.2. Land of dead across water. F111. Journey to earthly paradise. Land of happiness. F112. Journey to land of women. F116. Journey to land of the immortals. F129.7. Voyage to island of the dead. F134. Otherworld on island. F213. Fairyland on island. F730. Extraordinary islands.


Theft of sun. The sun, which is kept by a monster, is stolen and brought to earth. – BP III 288; Dh I 136ff., III 113ff. – Cf. Kaffir: Kidd 238 No. 7; Finnish: Kalevala runes 47, 49. – Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 483; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 60; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 683.   A758. Theft of the moon. A1411. Theft of light. A1415. Theft of fire.


Man in the moon. A man is said to be seen in the moon. Various explanations are given as to how he came to be there. – *Dh I 134; *Volksmann Am Urquell V 285, VI 75, 126, 199; *Cornelissen Ons Volksleven VI 168ff., 189ff.; *Köhler-Bolte III 597; *Robinson Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer (Boston 1933) 929; *Brown English Lyrics of the Thirteenth Century (Oxford 1932) 234ff.; *Hench JAFL XLVIII 384; *G. de Raille RTP III 129ff.; Basset RTP XXIII 220 and references to earlier volumes. – Breton: *Sébillot Incidents s. v. (hommeв); Estonian: *Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 7, Loorits Grundzüge I 427f.; Livonian: *Loorits FFC LXVI 81 No. 8; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 423; Armenian: Ananikian 52; Flemish: *De Meyer FFC XXXVII 82 No. 8; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 37, 214 No. 163, 221, 250. – Maori: Dixon 88; N. A. Indian (general): *Thompson Tales 291 n. 69, (Haida, Tlingit, Kwakiutl): Alexander N. Am. 257, (Loucheux): Barbeau JAFL XXVIII 255; Hottentot: Bleek 72 No. 33: Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 130 No. 17.


Causes of moon's phases. Irish: Beal XXI 323; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 183; Baltic: (Lithuanian and Lettish): Gray 320; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 422f.; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No 4; Hindu: Oldenberg Religion des Veda 171; Yakuts: Holmberg Siberian 424; India: *Thompson-Balys. – Maori: Dixon 88. – African: Werner African 227f. (Ekoi): Talbot 349, (Fang): Trilles 172.


Origin of the Great Bear (Ursa Major). *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 104; *Handwb. d. Aberglaubens IX Nachträge 681f.; *Basset RTP XXVIII 112 with references to earlier volumes. – Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 276; Greek: Fox 21 (Kallisto), 251; Jewish: Neuman; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No. 5; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 81 Nos. 10, 11; Egyptian: Müller 59; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 426; Hindu: Keith 102; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 12 No. 5. – N. A. Indian (Eskimo, Iroquois, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Mandan, Sioux): Alexander N. Am. 9, 26, 96, *278 n. 14; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 93.


Origin of the Pleiades. *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 106; Frazer Ovid III 197 n. 4; *Basset RTP XXIII 396 and references to earlier volumes; *Dh II 83; Frazer Golden Bough VII 307ff.; *Fb (syvstjР¶rneв); *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX N. 687f. – Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 29; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 336, 417, 427, 430. – India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 56. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 291 n. 71; (Blackfoot) Alexander N. Am. 96; (California) Gayton and Newman 65; – S. A. Indian (Tarahumare and Tepehuane): Alexander N. Am. 176; (Chaco, Pampean): Alexander Lat. Am. 323; (Amazon) ibid. 306. – Maori: Clark 106, 178. – Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 173. – Africa: Werner African 229.


Origin of the Milky Way. *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 109; *Basset RTP XXII 167 and references to earlier volumes; *Fb (mР¶lkevejв) II 642. – Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 100; Armenian: Ananikian 37; Bulgarian: ibid. 49. – Ekoi: Talbot 366; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 74; S. Am. Indian (Yuracari): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503f.


opographical features caused by experiences of primitive hero (demigod, deity). Footprints of the gods, thoroughfares of heroes, etc. – *Dh II 8, 68, 199; *Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens III 240 s.v. "Fussspur"; *Wehrhan Die Sage 65; *Basset and others RTP XXIV 299 and references to earlier volumes. – Irish myth: Cross; Breton: MacCulloch Celtic 135; Icel.: De la Saussaye 280; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 Nos. 22, 23; Finnish: Kalevala rune 1; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3008, Legends Nos. 12ff.; Greek: Fox 250. – Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 331; Japanese: Anesaki 248f.; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 291; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 31, 768, 957, 1211. – Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 18; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 70; Africa (Fang): Trilles 153. – Cf. A911, A920.1.2, A920.1.5, A924, A931, A932,A933, A941.1, A941.2, A951, A955, A964, A972, A982.1, A984.   A2271.5. Trees bear first buds to commemorate reign of primitive hero. F960.1. Extraordinary nature phenomena at birth (death) of hero (holy person). F979.11. Trees spring up to commemorate birth of primitive hero (demigod, deity).


Origin of mountain chain.


Origin of volcanoes. Maori: Clark 43.


Indentions on rocks from prints left by man (beast). (Cf. A901.) – *Fb (stenв) III 552b; *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 96; Dh II 8. – Irish: Thurneysen Irische Helden-u. Königssagen 189, Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Danish: Schmidt DF XXXIX 13ff.; French: Sébillot France I 369ff.; India: Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian: Krickeberg IndianermРґrchen aus Nordamerika 245, Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59; Aztec: Krickeberg MРґrchen der Azteken 60, 204, and passim; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.


Not in Motif-Index. One of the most common legends, known in the Old World, but a particular [p. 240] favorite of the American Indians, is that of a cliff which has served as a point from which lovers have leapt to their tragic death (A985). Sometimes, of course, this legend is merely a local story and makes no pretense of explaining the presence of a cliff.


Deluge. Inundation of whole world or section. – **Anderson Nordasiatische Flutsagen; **Andree Die Flutsagen (Braunschweig, 1891); **Diestel Die Sintflut und die Flutsagen des Altertums@2 (Berlin 1876); *Woods Encyc. Religion and Ethics s.v. (Delugeв); **Winternitz Die Flutsagen des Altertums (Wien 1901); **Fischer Weltwenden: Die grossen Fluten in Sage und Wirklichkeit (Leipzig 1925); **Gerland Der Mythus von der Sintflut (Bonn 1912); **Usener Die Sintflutsagen untersucht (Bonn 1899); Ley Eiszeit (Anhang: Eiszeit u. Sintflut) (Erfurt 1928); *Riem Die Sintflut in Sage und Wissenschaft (Hamburg 1925); *F. von Schwarz Sintflut und Vðlkerwanderung (Stuttgart 1894); **Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn (1915); *Maria Alice Moura Pessoa A Bibliographic Study of the Deluge Myth in the Americas (MA Thesis, Columbia University 1948). – Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 19, *Frazer Apollodorus I 55 n. 1, II 88 n. 2; Egyptian: Müller 75f.; Persian: Carnoy 270; Hindu: Keith 105, Charpentier Kleine BeitrРґge 34 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys; Indo-Chinese: Scott 267, 278ff.; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 16 No. 8; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 361ff. – Indonesian: Dixon 178ff., 256f.; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 189; Melanesian: Cole. 119f.; Polynesian: ibid. 38; Samoan: ibid. 17; Australian: ibid 280; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 307, 314. – N. A. Indian (general): *Thompson Tales 286 n. 57, Alexander N. Am. 299 f. n. 49, also 177, 180, 203, 205 (Pima, Walapai, Sia, Hopi); Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 347; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55; Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 637, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 452, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 48, (Northwest Canada): PР№titot Traditions 2; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 152f.; Mixtec: ibid. 87; S. Am. Indian (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 39, (Chibcha): ibid. 203, (Amazon tribes): ibid. 311, (Jivaro, Yugua): Steward-Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627, 736, (Cubeo): Goldman ibid. (3) 798, (Aymara): Tschopik ibid. (2) 571, (Zaparoans, Pebans): Steward ibid. (3) 532, (Bacairi): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 347, (Nambicuara): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 369, (Guaporé): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379, (Caingang): Métraux ibid. (1) 473, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie ibid. (1) 397. – African: *Wagener 13ff.


Deluge: escape in boat (ark). *Dh I 258ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324, Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Greek: Fox 19, Grote I 93; Hebrew: Genesis, ch. 6, 7, 8; Jewish: Moreno Esdras; Babylonian: Spence 173f.; Hindu: Keith 99; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1056; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 84; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 364. – Pelew Is. (Micronesia): Dixon 257; Maori: Beckwith Myth 316. – American Indian: *Thompson CColl II 452, (Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 637f., (Carrier): Jenness JAFL XLVII 141ff., (Chipewyan): Lowie PaAM X 195, (Coos): Frachtenberg CU I 45 – 49, (Kathlamet): Boas BBAE XXVI 23, (Nootka): Sapir JAFL XXXII 353ff., (Chimariko): Dixon UCal. V 304, (Salishan): Teit MAFLS XI 13, 132; (Crow): Lowie paAM XXV 16, (Cochiti): Benedict BBAE XCVIII 2ff., (White Mountain Apache): Goodwin MAFLS XXXIII 50ff., (Ojibwa): Radin JAFL XLI 70ff., (Choctaw): Bushnell AA n. s. XII 528f., (Shawnee): Spencer JAFL XXII 319, (Natchez): Swanton BBAE LXXXVIII 121, 214, (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 85f., (Arawak): ibid 273, (Carib): ibid. 39, (Mbaya): Müller Anthropos XXIX, (Mura): Nimuendajú BBAE CXLIII (3) 265, (Taulipang): Camara Cascudo Antologia de Folclore Brasileira 124ff. (These are only a selection of the American Indian references).


Pairs of animals in ark. Seed of all beings put into ark to escape destruction. – See references to (Sintflutsageв) in A1010; also Dh I 267ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis 6:19; Babylonian: Spence 175; Hindu: Keith 147. – Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85f.


Bird scouts sent out from ark. *Dh I 283. – Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis 8:7ff., Neuman; Babylonian: Spence 176.


Escape from deluge on mountain. Greek: Grote I 93; Hebrew: Genesis 8:4, Neuman; Hindu: Keith 99; India: Thompson-Balys. – Philippine: Dixon 179; Borneo: ibid. 180; West Caroline Is.: ibid. 257; Australian: ibid. 280; Polynesian: ibid 38 n. 118; Cook Group: ibid. 39 n. 121; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 215. – N. Am. Indian (Bella-Bella): Boas MAFLS XXV 1f., (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 232ff., (LuiseСЃo): Du Bois UCal VIII 157, (Shasta): Dixon JAFL XXIII 36, (Blackfoot): Wissler paAM II 19, (Chiricahua Apache): Opler MAFLS XXXVII 1f., (ZuСЃi): Benedict CU XXI 10ff.; S. Am. Indian (Araucanian): Alexander Lat. Am. 330, (Inca): ibid. 230, (Yunca, Peru): ibid. 230, (Caingang, Amazon): ibid. 312. (Only a selection of references for North and South America.).


Cave of winds. Winds originally confined in caves. – Roman: Virgil Aeneid I lines 52 ff.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 457. – Maori: Dixon 55; Western Mono: Gifford JAFL XXXVI 328 No. 9.


Winds caused by flapping wings. A giant bird causes the wind with his wings. The wings are cut by the culture hero so that the bird cannot flap so hard. – Gaster Thespis 158; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 276; Babylonian: Spence 117; India: Thompson-Balys. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 292 n. 74; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 39ff. No. 5.


Rain from tears. Jewish: Neuman; Ekoi: Talbot 344; Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 448; Maori: Clark 19.


Origin of cold in winter.


Devil's unsuccessful attempt to vivify his creations as God has done. Succeeds only in making animal. – Dh I 90ff., 156ff.; *Fb (menneskeв) II 578a. – Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 4, 39, 41, 149; Jewish: *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 61; Maidu: Dixon BAM XVII 39ff. No. 1.


Woman created from dog's tail. Eve. – *Dh I 114ff.; *Bolte Zs f. Vksk. XI 255 n. 3; PolРЅvka ibid. XVI 212. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VII 5 No. 11, XXXIII 52 No. 11; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 10; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 82 No. 17; Flemish: DeMeyer XXXVII 83 No. 11; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 36ff., 52, 65.


Man made from clay (earth). *Dh I 89-III passim; Barton JAOS XXXIX 287; *Frazer Old Testament I 3 – 29. – Irish myth: Cross; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 51 n. 5, Fox 10f., 13, 208; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Penzer III 59; Babylonian: Spence 86; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 373; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 114ff. – Polynesian (Maori, Hawaii, Tahiti, Society Is., Marquesas): Dixon 24 – 26; Indonesian: ibid. 172ff. n. 96 – 100, 104 – 106; Australian: ibid. 273; Marquesas: Handy 122f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 44ff.; Easter Is.: Métraux Ethnology 315. – Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 454; N. A. Indian: Krickeberg IndianermРґrchen 267, 307, 321f., (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 56; S. Am. Indian (Lengua): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Apapocuva-Guarani): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 136; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85; QuichÉ: ibid. 163.


Creation of first woman from man's rib. *Dh I 115ff.; *Frazer Old Testament I 9f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman. – Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 34, 36ff., 52, 65; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 379; Hawaiian: Dixon 24; cf. Central Caroline Is.: ibid. 251, Beckwith Myth 43, 46.


Man created by supernatural creature, not deity.


Origin of Adamв's apple. Forbidden fruit sticks in Adam's throat. – *Dh I 208ff.; *Fb "Adams' ble" IV 4. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 5 No. 16, XXXIII 52 No. 16; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 35 No. 10; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 34; U.S.: Baughman; Jewish: Neuman.


Paradise lost because of forbidden fruit (drink). (Cf. A1346). – *Dh I 208ff.; *Frazer Old Testament I 45ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 34. – Persian: Carnoy 297; India: Thompson-Balys; Burmese, Indo-Chinese: Scott 265, 289. – Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45; Quiché: Alexander Lat. Am. 171; Yuracare: ibid. 315; Biloxi: Dorsey and Swanton BBAE XLVII 32; African (Baluba): Einstein 199.


Confusion of tongues. Originally all men speak same language. Because of a sin they come to speak different languages. – *Frazer Old Testament I 384ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Irish myth: Cross. – India: Thompson-Balys; Chin (Indo-China): Scott 266f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 365. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 285 n. 53; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 132.


Origin of death. S. S. Cohon The Origin of Death (Journal of Jewish Lore and Philosophy [1919]); Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 377; Japanese: Anesaki 224, 233; Burmese: Scott IndoChinese 264. – Africa (Angola): Wagener Afrikanische Parallelen 9ff., Chatelain 249, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 60, (Congo): Weeks 217 No. 12, (Ekoi): Talbot 177, (Liberian): Bundy JAFL XXXII 407f., (Fang): Trilles 131. – Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 178; Maori: Dixon 54; Australian: ibid. 285; Melanesian: ibid. 117f. *n. 53; Micronesian: ibid. 252f.; Indonesian: ibid. 170 (Borneo), 174, *182; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43; Raratonga: ibid. 158; Banks Is.: ibid. 61. – N. A. Indian: R. Dangel Mythen vom Ursprung dies Todes bei den Indianern Nordamerikas (Mitt. der Anthrop. Gesellschaft in Wien LVIII [1928] 341 – 374); *Krappe Nieuw Theologisch Tijdschrift (1928) 242ff.; *Thompson Tales 284 n. 51; Chitimacha: Swanton JAFL XXX 476; Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 346; Tahltan: Teit *JAFL XXXII 206f.; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 64; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XX 486, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 48, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 173; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 171, (Cubeo): Goldman BBAE CXLIII (3) 798, (Yuracare): Métraux ibid. (3) 503, (Warrau): Kirchoff ibid. (3) 880.


Theft of light. Light originally absent is stolen by culture hero. – Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Keith 34. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 281 n. 42; Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 205, S. Am. Indian (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 178. Cf. Finnish: Kalevala rune 47. k – k


Theft of fire. Mankind is without fire. A culture hero steals it from the owner. – **Frazer Fire; *Dh I 142ff.; *Hdwb. d. MРґrch. II 109b n. 14 – 15. – Greek: Fox 13, *Frazer Apollodorus I 51 n. 6; Hindu: Keith 36; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 238. – Oceanic Dixon 47 n. 31 (Maori), 47 n. 34 (Polynesia – general), 48 n. 35, 36 (Melanesia), 49 (Maori, Chatham Is., Marquesas, Melanesia, Hawaii, Micronesia), 112 (Woodlark Is.), 114 (Motu and Massim of British New Guinea), 182ff. (Indonesia), 281 (Australia); Indonesian: Voorhoeve Overzicht 65; Marquesas: Handy 104; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 227; Tonga: Gifford 22; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 340; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 289 n. 63, Alexander N. Am. 256, 301f. n. 51; S. Am. Indian (Baikairi, Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 313; (Caingang): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473, (Botocudo): Métraux ibid. (1) 550, (Tucuna): NimuendajÚ ibid. (3) 724, (Tenethara): Wagley-Galvao ibid. (3) 147, (Guarani): Métraux ibid. (3) 93, (Guarporé): Lévi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379, (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao ibid. (3) 178, (Chamacoco): Métraux MAFLS XL 111, (Choco, Western Colombia): Métraux ibid. 112, (Apapocuvú-Guarani): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 138. – African: Frobenius Atlantis XII 80, (Bushongo): Torday 237, cf. Congo: Weeks 206. Cf. Finnish: Kalevala rune 47.


The various children of Eve. Eve has so many children that she is ashamed when God pays her a visit. She hides some of them and they fail to receive the blessing that God gives those in sight. Thus arises the differences in classes and peoples. – *BP III 308ff. (Gr. No. 180); *Dh I 247, II 98f. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 85 No. 41; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 87 No. 758.   A1861.1. Monkeys from children hidden by Eve when God visited her.




The devil's animals and God's. In the contest between God and the devil, certain animals are made by each. Dh. I 164 (with lists of the animals). Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3081, Legends Nos. 124 – 130; German: Grimm No. 148.


Creation of cat: sneezed from lion's nostrils. Devil as mouse gnaws hole in bottom of ark. Noah asks lion's help. Lion sneezes and cat comes from lion's nostril and eats mouse. *Dh I 271ff.


Monkeys from children hidden by Eve when God visited her. (Cf. A1650.1, A1710.) – BP III 320f.; Dh I 247.   Q220. Impiety punished.


Various birds from Pharaoh's drowned army. (Cf. A1715.1). – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 15 No. 82; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 48; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 45.


Creation of flea: to give women work. (Cf. A2051.1.) – Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 125a; cf. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 103.


Origin of flounder.


Rabbit laughs: cause of hare-lip. (Cf. A2216.3, A2234.4, A2342.1.) – *Type 47A; *BP III 75 n. 1. – Finnish: Aarne FFC XXV 144 No. 35; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 89 No. 71; India: Thompson-Balys.


Ant thrown from heaven: hence narrow waist. God decides dispute between ant and spider in spider‘s favor. (Cf. A2355.1.2.) – Finnish: Aarne FFC VII 22 No. 124, XXXIII 55 No. 124; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 66; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 124; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3200, Legends Nos 291 – 94; India: Thompson-Balys.


Unicorn thrown from ark and drowned: hence no longer exists. Dh I 287f.


Animal characteristics from burning or singeing. (Cf. A2378.8.4, A2411.1.2.5, A2411.1.3.2, A2411.1.4.1, A2411.1.6.5, A2411.2.1.1, A2411.2.1.4, A2411.2.1.7, A2411.2.1.11, A2411.2.5.2, A2411.2.5.1, A2411.2.1.15, A2411.2.6.8, A2411.4.3, A2411.5.3.) – Dh III 71ff; Chinese: Graham.


Animal has color spilled on him: cause of his color. (Cf. A2391.1, A2411.1.2.4, A2411.1.3.1, A2411.2.1.1, A2411.1.4.2, A2411.1.6.3, A2411.2.1.4, A2411.2.4.1, A2411.2.6.1, A2411.2.6.5, A2411.2.6.6, A2411.2.6.11, A2411.4.1.) – Dh III 64ff. – India: Thompson-Balys; Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 366 No. 17; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.


Animals blessed for good services at crucifixion. (Cf. A2231.2.)


Animal characteristics: punishment for impiety. (Cf. A2221, A2311.8, A2422.2, A2302.2, A2355.1.2, A2542.1.) – Dh II 252f. (fish). – Spanish Exempla: Keller; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 97, XXXIII 54 No. 97 (hazelcock).


Animal characteristics: punishment for immoderate request. Dissatisfied animal finds that when his request is granted he is worse off than before. – *Dh III 176ff.


Griffin disdains to go on ark; drowned: hence extinct. Dh I 288.


Animal characteristics: punishment for laziness. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS 79.


Animal characteristics: borrowing and not returning. Animal borrows a member (or quality) from another and refuses to return it. (Cf. A2242, A2313.3, A2345.1, A2351.3, A2375.2.1, A2421.4, A2435.4.1.) – *Dh III 130 ff. – Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 268ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.


Shepherd transformed to bird still calls sheep: explanation of bird cries. Usually told of hoopoe and bittern. (Cf. A1952, A1965.2, A2275.3, A2425, A2426.2.3, A2426.2.4.) – *Dh III 392 – 396; BP III 285 (Gr. No. 173). – Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 123 No. 83, 127.


Creation of hog incomplete since God has to go to a fire: cause of hog's round snout. (Cf.A2335.4.2.) – Dh III 24, 493. – Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 12 No. 65.


Dragon. **Smith Dragon; *Fb Drager, lindorme, slanger i folkets tro (Særtryk af Naturen og Mennesket, 1894, pp. 164 – 196); *Nyrop Dania II 341ff.; *Róheim Drachen und Drachenkämpfer; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 364 ff.; Meyer Germanische Mythologie (1891) 95ff.; **Du Bose The Dragon, Image and Demon (London, 1886); Norlind Skattsägner 44f., 77f., Solheim Register 17; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 133ff., 176ff., (1928) 119ff. – *Type 300; *BP I 547. – Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 216; Celtic: *Henderson Celtic Dragon Myth (Edinburgh, 1911), *Cross; Lettish: Auning Ueber den lettischen Drachenmythus; Armenian: Ananikian 76ff; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Ferguson 101; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 169, No. 73.   A139.3. Dragon god. A162.2. Combat between god of light and dragon of ocean. A1072.4. Fettered monster as dragon. A1142.2. Thunder from flying dragon. A1265. Men created from sown dragon's teeth. A2001. Insects from body of slain monster. B91.3. Horned snake. B163.1. Animal languages learned from eating dragon's heart. B498. Helpful dragon. C92.2. Tabu: killing sacred dragon. D199.2. Transformation: man to dragon. D419.1.1. Transformation: sea dragon to serpent. D429.1.1. Transformation: dragon king to gust of wind. D659.4.2. Sea dragon in serpent form to accompany hero. D812.7. Magic object received from dragon king. D1846.4. Invulnerability through bathing in dragon's blood. E263. Adulteress returns from dead as devastating dragon. E738.1. Soul in form of dragon. H1024.5. Task: sowing dragon's teeth. H1274. Quest in hell for three dragon feathers.


Dragon guards treasure. *Norlind Skattsägner 77f.; Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX (1917) 170 No. 4; Penzer III 133; Smith Dragon 157 – 165; Finnish-Swedish; Wessman 76, 78 Nos. 632, 657; Icel.: Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 133ff., (1928) 119ff., III (1895) 454ff., (1931) 311ff.; Greek: *Grote I 219; U.S.: Baughman; Wienert FFC LVI 37; Phaedrus IV 21; Chinese: Werner 209.   B11.1.3. Dragon from transformed man lying on his treasures. B576.2. Animal guards treasure. D950.0.1. Magic tree guarded by serpent (dragon). H335.7. Suitor task: to kill treasure-guarding snake lying around the princess' chamber. N511.4. Treasure found in snake hole. N557. Serpent guards treasure. N570. Guardian of treasure.


Harpy. Bird with arms and breasts of woman. – Greek: Fox 111, *Grote I 216f.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 564.


Siren. Bird with woman's head. – *Encyclopaedia Britannica s.v. "sirens"; Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 310 n. 1 (here considered as half fish, half woman); Roscher Lexikon s.v. "Seirenen"; Penzer VI 282 n. 6; *Frazer Apollodorus I 21, II 291 n. 2; *Weicker Der Seelenvogel in d. alten Literatur und Kunst. – Slavic: Machal 260; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 41 No. 26. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "sirène"; Gascon: Bladé II 342 No. 10; Jewish: Neuman.


Mermaid. Woman with tail of fish. Lives in sea. – BP III 324; *Fb "havfrue" I, 569, IV 204a; Thien Motive in König Rother 42; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 98. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "poisson". Icel.: *Boberg; Estonian: Hartland Science of Fairy Tales 201; Irish myth: Cross; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 41 No. 26; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 Nos. 58 – 63; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 636; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.   B53.0.1. Siren in mermaid form. D361.1. Swan maiden. D1410.4. Possession of mermaid's belt gives power over her. D1719.7. Magic power of mermaid. D1812.5.1.9. Sight of mermaid bad omen. F423. Sea-spirits. F611.2.2. Strong hero suckled by mermaid. R137. Mermaid rescues heroine, who has been thrown overboard. S214. Child promised to mermaid.


Merman. Fb "havmand" IV 205a; *Chauvin V 7 No. 3. – Arabian: Burton V 215, VII 254, 264, 270, IX 169 n., 179, 182ff.; Icelandic: Hálfs saga ok Hálfsrekka (ed. Andrews) 82; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 723; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.   D131.1. Transformation: merman to horse. D1639.3. Images at church turn backs as mark of disfavor. Done when abandoned woman or merman enters.


Animals with Magic Wisdom


Wisdom from eating serpent. (Cf. B176.) – *Scott Thumb 173; Fb "hugormekonge"; Chauvin V 255ff. No. 152. – Scotch: Campbell II 377. – Cf. Dieguefio: Du Bois AA n.s. VII 628. ANIMALS WITH MAGIC WISDOM D1793. Magic results from eating or drinking. D1811.1. Magic wisdom from eating or drinking.


Magic fish. (Cf. B107.1, B124, B144.) Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 82; Irish myth: Cross.   B243. King of fishes. B470. Helpful fish. D1318.2.1. Laughing fish reveals unjust judgment. D1613.1. Magic fish talk so that ogre thinks hero has many brothers with him. F989.18. Stranded fish do not decay for a year.


Speaking animals. India: Thompson-Balys. ANIMALS WITH MAGIC WISDOM D1610. Magic speaking objects.


Animal uses human speech. *Chauvin VIII 126 No. 113; *BP I 331. – Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Hindu: Tawney II 599; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 40 No. 28. See also references given under B200. ANIMALS WITH MAGIC WISDOM B11.4.5. Talking dragon. N451. Secrets overheard from animal conversation.


Speaking bird. Type 516; *Cox 527 – 9; Penzer I 48; Dickson Valentine and Orson 51 n. 60; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 53; *Fb "fugl"; Krappe Hispanic Review I (1933) 67ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oiseau". – Arabian: Burton III 126n, 129ff., SV 300; Bloomfield On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction (Festschrift für Ernst Windisch) 349ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Missouri-French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman; Africa: Bouveignes 109, (Upoto): Einstein 137, (Duala): Lederbogen V 139. – Cf. Type 720 (BP I 412).   A1904. Oldest bird. B122.2. Birds as reporters of sights and sounds. B131. Bird of truth. B172. Magic bird. B251.3. Birds in otherworld sing religious songs. B450. Helpful bird. D2006.1.3. Forgotten fiancée reawakens husband's memory by having doves converse. H1331.1.4. Quest for speaking bird.


Animal kingdom (or community). Wienert FFC LVI 47 (classic fables). – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "ville". – India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 348 n. 253a.   A2546. Animal granted patent of nobility. B240. King of animals. F127. Journey to underground animal kingdom. F531.6.2. Haunts of giants. F700. Extraordinary places.


Parliament of animals. E. Voigt "Odo de Ciringtonis und seine Quellen" Zs. f. d. Alterthum XXIII (N.F. XI) 283; Africa: Stanley 222, (Fang): Trilles 176, Tessman 54, (Wute): Sieber 205, (Duala): Ebding 142, (Wakweli): Bender 62; India: Thompson-Balys.


King of animals. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "roi", "bêtes"; Fb "konge" II 265a; Jātaka Index s.v. "king"; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.   A2547. Why certain animal is king. B220. Animal kingdom. B236. Animal parliament elects king. P11. Choice of kings.


Animals speak to one another at Christmas. DeCock Volkskunde XXI 52ff.; Luzel Légendes Chretiennes de la Basse Bretagne II 333; Tille Die Geschichte der deutschen Weinacht 66f.; Wossidlo Mecklenbürgische Volksüberlieferung II (1) 59, 369; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *748; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 47 No. 237; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 637.


Animal warfare. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 64 – 68).


Animals in legal relations. **Cabanès Les animaux en justice (L'indiscretions de l'histoire, 5e serie, procedures singulières, Paris, 1920), **Lossouarn Les animaux en justice aux temps jadis (Bordeaux, 1905). – Spanish Exempla: Keller; Bødker Exempler 289 No. 40, 294 No. 55.; Jewish: Neuman.   J1172.3. Ungrateful animal returned to captivity. J1852. Goods sold to animals. P510. Law courts.


Animal tried for crime. *Evans (E.P.) The criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals (New York 1926), von Amira (K), Tierstrafen und Tierprozesse (Innsbruck, 1891); *Mittheilungen d. Instituts f. öster. Geschichtsforsch. XII (1891) 545; *H. A. Berkenhoff Tierstrafe, Tierbannung und rechtsrituelle Tiertötung im Mittelalter (Strassburg 1937, diss.); Fb "stævne".


Animal executed for crime. *Frazer Old Testament III 415 – 445; *Wesselski Märchen 231; **Evans The Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals (New York, 1906); Grimm Rechtsaltertümer II 235; Sébillot France III 27; Wilken Verspreide Geschriften IV 181ff.; Jewish: Neuman.   Q411. Death as punishment.


Animal weddings. RTP V 16, VIII 552, JAFL XXXV 392ff. – Japanese: Anesaki 334f.; India: Thompson-Balys.   Z28.1. Louse and flea wish to marry.


Helpful animal killed through misunderstanding.


Llewellyn and his dog. Dog has saved child from serpent. Father sees bloody mouth, thinks the dog has eaten the child, and kills the dog. – *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 257; Köhler-Bolte I 534; *BP I 425 n. 1; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 170; *Penzer V 138 n. 1; *Campbell Sages lxxviii ff.; Benfey Panchatantra I 479ff.; Bødker Exempler 299 No. 64; *Chauvin II 100 No. 59, VIII 67 No. 31; Clouston Tales II 167; *Kittredge Arthur and Gorlagon 223 n. 1; *Frazer Pausanias V 421 . – Spanish Exempla: Keller; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; U.S.: Baughman.


Llewellyn and his dog. Dog has saved child from serpent. Father sees bloody mouth, thinks the dog has eaten the child, and kills the dog. – *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 257; Köhler-Bolte I 534; *BP I 425 n. 1; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 170; *Penzer V 138 n. 1; *Campbell Sages lxxviii ff.; Benfey Panchatantra I 479ff.; Bødker Exempler 299 No. 64; *Chauvin II 100 No. 59, VIII 67 No. 31; Clouston Tales II 167; *Kittredge Arthur and Gorlagon 223 n. 1; *Frazer Pausanias V 421 . – Spanish Exempla: Keller; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; U.S.: Baughman.   B524.1.4.1. Dog defends master's child against animal assailant. J571.1. When in anger say the alphabet. N343. Lover kills self believing his mistress dead. (Pyramus and Thisbe).


Cat leaves house when report is made of death of one of his companions. His master has been told to say "Robert is dead". As soon as this is said, the cat leaves. – *Boberg Sagnet om den store Pans Død, København 1934. – Irish: Beal III 66. – U.S.: Baughman; Taylor Washington University Studies X (Hum. Ser.) 60ff.   F405.7. Spirit leaves when report is made of the death of one of its kind.


Spider-web over hole saves fugitive. (Cf. A2221.5.) – Type 967*; *Dh II 66f. – *Wesselski Theorie 42. – Jewish: Neuman, Bin Gorion Born Judas2 III 115ff., Grünbaum Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde 195; Lappish: Qvigstad Lappiske Eventyr I No. 32, II No. 68. – India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Fang): Trilles 139.


Animal nurse. Animal nourishes abandoned child. – *Frazer Fasti II 369ff., especially 369 n. 3, 375; Dickson Valentine and Orson 36, 103, 107, 112, 169; *Liebrecht Zur Volkskunde 17ff.; *Nutt FLR IV 1ff.; Penzer II 294; *Fb ”ulv“ III 971 a (Wolf); *BP II 317, III 60ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 22 (doe), 56 (bear), 118, 155 (goat, crow, sow), 280, Frazer Apollodorus I 397, II 47 n. 2, Roscher s.v. ”Achilleus“; Roman: Fox 307 (Romulus and Remus) (wolf); Persian: Carnoy 330; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”chien“ (dog); Missouri-French: Carrière; McCartney Papers of Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters IV (1924) 15 – 42; Wesselski Theorie 19; Icel.: Þiðriks saga I 302 – 03 (hind), Boberg; English: Wells 118 (Octovian) (lion); Chinese: Ferguson 41. – N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 387 (Mt. 707), Thompson Tales 316 n. 146b; S. A. Indian (Brazil): Ehrenreich International Congress of Americanists XIV 662. – Indonesian: De Vries Volksverhalen I Nos. 22, 89; India: *Thompson-Balys; – Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 104 No. 15, 190 No. 28, (Wakweli): Bender 49f.


Man carried by bird. See all references in B542.1. and B542.1.1. – Chauvin V 230 No. 130, VII 12; *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 433 nn. 24, 26. – Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 37 n. 4 (Ganymede); Jewish: Neuman*, Bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 228; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”nid“; Irish myth: Cross, Saints’ legend (Irish): Plummer cxlvi. – Missouri-French: Carrière. – German New Guinea: Dixon 141f. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 38f.; Africa: Stanley 83, (Boloki): Weeks 202f., (Upoto): Einstein 138, (Pangwe): Tessman 370, (Fang): ibid. 160.


Fanciful traits of animals


Neighing of stallion in Assyria impregnates mares in Egypt. – *De Vries FFC LXXIII 375.


Fanciful habits of animals.


Noah's curse admits devil to ark. Devil persuades Noah's wife to stay out of ark till Noah shall call devil in. Noah at last loses patience and calls out, "The devil! Come in!" The devil comes in and turns himself into a mouse. – Dh. I 258ff.   G303.23. The devil and the ark. K485. The devil gets into the ark. K2213.4.2. Noah's secret betrayed by his wife.


Tabu: offending supernatural wife. Upon slight offence the wife leaves for her old home. – *Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 120 n. 4; Irish myth: Cross; English: Child I 21, 485a, II 496b, 509a, IV 440b; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 340 n. 223a; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas VAM XV 180; Maori: Dixon 58, 72.   C435.1. Tabu: uttering name of supernatural wife. C932. Loss of wife for breaking tabu. C942. Loss of strength from broken tabu. C952. Immediate return to other world for broken tabu. F302.3.3.1. Fairy avenges herself on inconstant lover. F302.6. Fairy mistress leaves man when he breaks tabu. P210. Husband and wife. T111. Marriage of mortal and supernatural being.


Mermaid marries man. D361.1. Swan maiden. F302.2. Man marries fairy and takes her to his home. G245.1. Witch transforms self into snake when she bathes.


Not in Motif-Index. One prominent historical tradition, that of Lady Godiva and Peeping Tom, does rest upon the enormity of violating an express prohibition (C312.1.2). This legend, it will be remembered, is attached to the city of Coventry in late Anglo-Saxon times. In order to free the townspeople of a grievous tax, Lady Godiva agrees to ride the full length of the city nude, and clothed only in her long hair (F555.3.1). The citizens are all commanded to shut their windows and stay indoors and all obey except one. Peeping Tom is stricken with blindness because of his disobedience (C943).


Forsaken merman. Tabu: association of fairy's (merman's, etc.) human wife (husband) with human relatives.   B82.1. Merman marries maiden. T294. Wife of supernatural being longs for old home and visits relatives.


Tabu: building too high a tower. (Tower of Babel.) Hebrew: Genesis II 3ff.; Frazer Testament I 362ff.; Jewish: *Neuman; Hartland Science 221. – Esthonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 453 f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 266f. – Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 132; Aztec: ibid. 96. – African (Kaffir): Kidd 237 No. 6; (Ashanti): Werner African Myth 124.   A1333. Confusion of tongues. C931. Building falls because of breaking of tabu. C966. Change of language for breaking tabu. F50. Access to upper world. F772.1. Tower of Babel: remarkably tall tower designed to reach sky.


Loss of sight for breaking tabu. (Cf. C51.2.) – See C312.1.1, C312.1.2 for references. – *Fb "öje" III 1166b; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Tahiti: Henry 143; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 241.   C311.1.2. Tabu: looking at fairies. C312.1.2. Tabu: looking at nude woman riding through town. D1331.2. Magic object blinds. D2062.2. Blinding by magic. F362.1. Fairies cause blindness. Q451.7. Blinding as punishment.


Transformation to pillar of salt for breaking tabu. (Cf. C331.) – *Fb "se" III 173b, "sten" III 553b; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Hebrew: Genesis 19: 26; Jewish: Neuman.   F531.6.12.3. Slain giant turns to salt stone.


Werwolf. A man changes periodically into the form of a wolf. He is usually malevolent when in wolf form. **R. Andree Globus XXVII (1875); *C. T. Stewart Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 30ff.; Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 227ff.; (1928) 148ff.; Lid Saga och Sed 1937, 3ff.; Odstedt Varulven i svensk folktradition (Uppsala 1944); **K. E. Smith An Historical Study of the Werwolf in Literature (PMLA IX, 1894); **E. O‘Donnell Werewolves (Boston 1914); Summers The Werwolf (London, 1933); *O. Clemen Zs. f. Vksk. XXX – XXXII 141; *Kittredge Witchcraft 175 nn. 5 – 7; ibid. Arthur 169 n. 1; **Baring-Gould The Book of Werewolves (London, 1865); *v. Sydow Feilberg Festskrift 594ff.; **Jijena Sanchez; *Lévy-Bruhl La mentalité primitive 279ff.; *Frazer Ovid II 318ff.; *Fb “varulv”. – Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 291; Icelandic: *Boberg, Hrolfs saga Kraka 50, Volsungasaga 15, Sveinnson FFC LXXXIII p. liv; Norwegian: Solheïm Register 16; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46; German: Wuttke Volksaberglaube 277; Dutch: Schrijnen Volkskunde I 97; English: Philippson Germanisches Heidentum bei den Angelsachsen 53, Child III 498a s.v. “werewolves”, Wells 19 (William of Palerne); Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 109, 325, No. 9; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “loupgarou”; Gascon: Bladé Contes pop. de Gascogne II 360 No. 4; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 131f. Nos. 74 – 77, Eisen Esthnische Mythologie 31ff, Loorits Grundzüge I 311 – 320; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 63 Nos. 160 – 178; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3671; Slavic: Máchal 228f.; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Okanagon): Gould MAFLS XI 98 No. 2; S. A. Indian (Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 301. – Africa: Frobenius Atlantis V 153, 165, VII 31ff, 56, XI 263, *Werner African 344; (Basuto) Jacottet 238 No. 35.


Transformation to swans by taking chains off neck. (Cf. D161.) – **O. Rank Die Lohengrinsage (1911) 65f.; *Wehrhan 50; *Wesselski Märchen 255 No. 64; *Chauvin VIII 206 No. 248; *G. Huet Romania XXXIV (1905) 206ff.; H. A. Todd MLN VI 2. – Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 263; English Romance: Wells 97 (Chevalere Assigne).


Transformation flight. Fugitives transforms themselves in order to escape detection by the pursuer. – *Types 313, 325, 327; **Aarne Die magische Flucht (FFC XCII); *Fb “and” IV 12b, “rose” III 80a. – Irish myth: *Cross; English: Child V 499 s.v. “transformations”; Greek: Grote I 182; Jewish: Neuman; Arabian: Burton Nights V 353; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 75, 17 n. 1; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 327, 367, III 124, Rink 195, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 182; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 334 n. 205b; S. A. Indian (Sharanti, Comacan, Mashacalí): Horton BBAE CXLIII 3 294, (Mundurucu): Horton ibid. 3 281; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 274 No. 86. – Africa (Kaffir): Theal 98, (Zulu): Callaway 21, (Basuto): Jacottet 206 No. 30, Casalis Les Bassoutos (Paris 1859) 349.


Obstacle flight. Fugitives throw objects behind them which magically become obstacles in pursuer’s path. – *Types 313, 314, 325, 327, 502; **Aarne Die Magische Flucht (FFC XCII); **BP II 140; Fb “hår” I 771b, “flaske” I 309a, “hvidtorn” I 703a; *Wesselski Theorie 31; *Hdwb. d. Märch. I 151a; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1655; Cosquin Études 166, 193ff. – England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “objets”; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 304 No. 30; Icelandic: Boberg; Hungarian: Solymossy Hongaarsche Sagen (Zutphen, 1929) 403; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 11; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer II 21, III 227 n. 1, 236ff., IX 151; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 234f.; Korean: Zong in-Sob 173f.; Japanese: Ikeda: Indonesian: Dixon 236 nn. 48, 49, DeVries Volksverhalen Nos. 16, 17, 63, 116; Philippine (Tinguian): *Cole 75, 17 n. 1; Marquesas: Handy 117; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 333 n. 205, (Yuchi): Speck UPa I 141 n. 5, Hatt Asiatic Influences 92ff.; S. A. Indian (Mundurucú, Carajá): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55, (Amuesha): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 149; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 79, (Greenland): Rasmussen I 106; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 274 No. 86; Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Märchen 145, (Basuto): Jacottet 4 No. 1, 220 No. 32, (Mpongwe): Nassau 74 No. 15, (Kaffir): Theal 87; Frobenius Atlantis IV 220, V 308. Cf. Ceiuci: Alexander Lat. Am. 304.


Magic: Disenchantment


Cat‘s paw cut off: woman’s hand missing. A man spends a night in a haunted mill, where he cuts off a cat‘s paw. In the morning the miller’s wife has lost her hand. (Cf. D142, D621.1.1.) – *Taylor MPh XVII 59 n. 8; Tobler 43; Eng., Ire., U.S.: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Loathly Lady. Man disenchants loathsome woman by embracing her. – Maynadier The Wife of Bath’s Tale; Taylor Washington Univ. Studies IV (2) (1917) 177 n. 9; Vogt MLN XXXVII 339; Coomaraswamy On the Loathly Bride (Speculum 1945, 391ff.); Krappe Philological Quarterly XXVI 352ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg. – Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 404 No. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.


Hairy anchorite. Beast-like man seduced by beautiful woman becomes human and handsome. – *C. A. Williams Oriental Affinities of the Legend of the Hairy Anchorite (U. of Illinois, 1925) 15; Gaster Oldest Stories 43.


Three redeeming kisses. (Die weisse Frau.) A woman can be disenchanted from animal form if man will kiss her three times, each time when she is in the form of a different terrifying animal. – Tobler 69; **M. Waehler Die weisse Frau (Erfurt 1931); *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 928. – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 3, 307 No. 24, 314 No. 103, 322 No. 93, 325 No. 3, 329 No. 32; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3592.


Disenchantment by taking key from serpent’s mouth at midnight. The disenchanter is to take the key (three keys) from the mouth of the woman in serpent form with his own mouth. – Hartland Science 240; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 74.


Disenchantment possible under unique conditions. Only one combination of time place and person will serve. – For many of these combinations see Hartland Science 240, 244, 248. – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3593.


Disenchantment when superhuman task is finished. Enchanted person appears every seven years in human form and puts one stitch in a smock. When it is finished, she will be delivered. Hartland Science 240.


The deliverer in the cradle. Enchanted person can be delivered by child rocked in a cradle made from an oak sapling after it has grown great. **Ranke Der Erlöser in der Wiege; Hartland Science 244f; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 80.


Magic speaking reed (tree) betrays secret. King has whispered secret to hole in the ground. Reed growing from this hole tells the secret. – *Köhler-Bolte I 383 n. 1, 511, 587; Sébillot RTP I 327, VII 356; *Zs. d. deutschen morgenland. Gesel. XL 549; Crooke FL XXII 183; *BP IV 147 n. 7 (Celtic): *Basset 1001 Contes II 258; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.


Land of youth. Land which keeps off old age. – Fb “ungdom” III 979b; Hartland Science 196f. – Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 181, *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.


Plant of immortality. (Cf. D965.) – Babylonian: Spence 158, 160, 178; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 215.


Lotus causes forgetfulness. (Cf. D965.6, D2004.3.) Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus II 280 n. 2.


Magic pipe compels one to follow. Pied Piper of Hamelin. (Cf. D1224.) *Fb “rotte” III 83a; *Chauvin VIII 155 No. 157; *Wehrhan Die Sage 51; *Dickson Studies in Philology XXIII (1926) 327f.; Zs. f. Vksk. XXIV 78; Solymossy Hongaarsche Sagen (Zutphen, 1929) 32, 375 No. 11; England, U.S.: *Baughman.


Magic healing plant. (Cf. D965.) *Fb “blad” IV 44a; Type 612; Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “herbe”; Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.


Seven-league boots. Boots with miraculous speed. (Cf. D1065.1.) *Type 328; *Saintyves Perrault 283, 286; *Fb “sko” III 288a, “støvle” III 642a. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “bottes”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 10; England: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 253; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 177.


Summer and winter garden. Garden which blooms in winter. (Cf. D961.) *BP II 232; Köhler-Bolte I 215f. – N. A. Indian (Tsimshian): Boas RBAE XXXI 182.


D1700–D1799: Possession and means of employment of magic powers. D1800–D1949: Lasting magic qualities. D1950–D2049: Temporary magic characteristics. D2050–D2099: Destructive magic powers. D2100–D2149: Other manifestations of magic power. D2150–D2199: Miscellaneous magical manifestations.


Biblical worthy as magician.


Virgil as magician. **D. Comparetti Virgilio nel medio evo@2 (Florence, 1896) (Eng. trans. by E. F. M. Benecke, London, 1895); *Chauvin VIII 188ff. No. 228; *Penzer I 24 n. 1; *C. G. Leland Unpublished Legends of Virgil (London, 1899); *Otto Söhring Romanische Forschungen XII (1900) 580ff.; *Hertel Verzauberte Oertlichkeiten; J. D. Bruce MPh X (1913) 511ff.; **John W. Spargo Virgil the Necromancer (Cambridge, Mass., 1934).


Thumb of knowledge. Man cooks magic animal and burns thumb. When he puts thumb in mouth he has magic knowledge. (Cf. D1810.3.) **Scott Thumb; Irish myth: *Cross.


Magic sight by putting ointment into eye. (Cf. D1244.) England: Lang English Fairy Tales 220.


Magic strength resides in hair. (Cf. D991.) *Frazer Old Testament II 482ff., Jewish: *Neuman; *Frazer Golden Bough I 102, XI 158ff.; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 1258; *Wilken Verspreide Geschriften III 551ff.; *Fb “styrke” III 630a, “hår” IV 241b; Krappe “Samson” Revue Archéologique (1933) 195 – 211. – Greek: Fox 69 (Nisos), 77 (Pterelaos); Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 67 No. 508A*, Keller; N. A. Indian (Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII 113 No. 31; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 466.


Seven sleepers. (Rip Van Winkle.) Magic sleep extending over many years. **Huber Die Wanderlegende von den Siebenschläfern; Type 763*; *Chauvin VII 102 No. 376; *Hartland Science 173ff.; *Frazer Pausanias II 121; Alphabet No. 283; *Loomis White Magic 115. – Irish myth: *Cross; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 18 No. 163; Jewish: Neuman; N. A. Indian: cf. Thompson Tales 314 No. 143.


Kyffhäuser. King asleep in mountain (Barbarossa, King Marko, Holger Danske, etc.) will awake one day to succor his people. *BP III 460; *Feilberg Danske Studier (1920) 97ff.; **Weltig Der Sagenkreis des Kyffhäusers (Bremen, 1891); *Wehrhan Die Sage 47ff.; *Hartland Science 170ff.; *Krappe “Die Sage vom König im Berge” (Mitt. d. schles. Gesell. f. Volkskunde XXX (1935) 76 – 102). – Celtic: MacCulloch Celtic 15, 180; England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3595; Armenian: Ananikian 34; Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 327; India: Thompson-Balys, Keith 173.


Three-fold magic sleep. Husband (lover) put to sleep by false bride. Only on the third night (the last chance) he wakes. *Types 303, 313; BP II 51, 273; Cox Cinderella 481. – Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61 No 445A.


Hero wakened from magic sleep by wife who has purchased place in his bed from false bride. (Cf. D1971.) Cox Cinderella 481; Type 313; BP II 51, 273; Indonesia: DeVries’ list No. 176.


Tormenting by sympathetic magic. Person (usually witch) tormented by abusing an animal or object. The usual methods of abuse are burning or sticking with pins. *Kittredge Witchcraft 97ff., 429ff. nn. 173 – 239 passim; England, U.S.: *Baughman; Feilberg DF X 165ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg.


Elfshot. (F360.) Magic shooting of small objects into a person‘s (or animal’s) body. Kittredge Witchcraft 133, 453ff. nn. 62 – 82 passim; *Fb “skud” III 333b, “ellefolk” I 241b. – Irish myth: Cross; England, Ireland: *Baughman.


Evil Eye. Bewitching by means of a glance. *Krappe Balor 9ff.; *Chauvin V 161 No. 84, VIII 143 No. 144 n. 1; *Fb “öje” III 1167ab, 1168a; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 686; Elworthy The Evil Eye (London, 1895); Jahn Über den Aberglauben des bösen Blicks bei den Alten; Pitre Le jettatura ed il mal occhio in Sicilia (Kolozsvár, 1884); Seligman Der böse Blick und Verwandtes (Berlin, 1910); Maclagen, R. C. The Evil Eye in the Western Highlands (London, 1902); Penzer II 298; *Hertz Abhandlungen 181ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.


Witches make cows give bloody milk. *Kittredge Witchcraft 166, 484 n. 28; U.S.: Baughman.


Journey with magic speed. *Loomis White Magic 93; Penzer II 223 n. 1, VI 213, 279, VII 24, 225 n. 1, VIII 57 n. 2. – Irish: Plummer clxxxvi, *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “transport”; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 195; Korean: Zong in-Sob 65, 73; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 24; Africa (Vai): Ellis 207 No. 24, (Benga): Nassau No. 24 (version 2).


Rocks moved by magic. Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 201 (rocks of Stonehenge), cf. Chaucer‘s Franklin’s Tale; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 17 (Orpheus); Jewish: *Neuman; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 192 No. 37, 310 No. 58; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 258.


Swan Maiden. A swan transforms herself at will into a maiden. She resumes her swan form by putting on her swan coat. (It is difficult to tell in most Swan Maiden tales whether the primary form is swan or maiden: the incident may belong at D161.) – *Type 313, 400, 465A; *BP III 406; **H. Holmström Studier över svanjungfrumotivet i Volundarkvida och annorstädes (Malmö 1919); Cosquin Indiens 348, 387, 391ff.; *Köhler-Bolte I 444; G. de Raille RTP IV 312; *Penzer VIII 213; Fb “jomfru” II 43, “svane” III 664a. – Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: *Boggs FFC XC No. 400A; Germanic: Grimm Deutsche Mythologie I 354, Krappe Mod. Lang. Review. XXI 66, MacCulloch Eddic 258ff.; Boberg; French: Sébillot France II 198, III 207; U.S.: *Baughman. – Arabian: Burton Nights V 345ff., VIII 31 n.; Persian: Bricteaux Contes Persans 97; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 258. – Indonesian: *DeVries’s list Nos. 151 – 153, Dixon 64, 138 nn. 13 – 18, 207ff.; Polynesian, Melanesian: ibid. 64, 138 nn. 13 – 18; Australian: ibid. 294f. – N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 356 n. 284; *Hatt Asiatic Influences 94ff.; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 364, II 12, III 74, 199, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 615, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 170, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 179, (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 95.


Magic Objects


The Dead


Resuscitation by decapitation. *Type 531; *BP III 18ff.


Resuscitation by burning. *Type 753; *BP III 193ff.; DeCock Studien 14; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “cadavre”; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 68; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 n. 260; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 132 No. 18, 136 No. 19.


Resuscitation by removal of poisoned apple. By shaking loose the apple from the throat of the poisoned girl the prince brings her to life. *Type 709; *BP I 450ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens s.v. “Apfel” n. 8; India: Thompson-Balys.


Resuscitation by arrangement of members. Parts of a dismembered corpse are brought together and resuscitation follows. (Sometimes combined with other methods.) *Type 720; *BP I 422f.; Köhler-Bolte I 140, 555; Gaster Thespis 300. – Finnish: Kalevala rune 15; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “os”; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 2; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 315 No. 119, 329 No. 38; Egyptian: Müller 114 (Osiris); Greek: Fox 22 (Arkas); Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 494; India: *Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 104; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1117); Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 276; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 308 n. 114, (California): Gayton and Newman 71, Hatt Asiatic Influences 69f.; S. A. Indian (Yuracare): Alexander Lat. Am. 315, Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503. – Africa (Fjort): Dennett 64 No. 12, (Angola): Chatelain 95 No. 5, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 33, 137, (Ibo of Nigeria): Thomas 160, (Basuto): Jacottet 132 No. 18, 168 No. 24, (Thonga): Junod 242, (Zulu): Callaway 51, 230; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 141.


Resuscitated eaten animal. (Cf. E171.) An animal is eaten. When his bones are reassembled he revives. *Von Sydow Tors Färd til Utgård (Danske Studier [1910] 65); Type 870B (FFC LXXXIII); Krohn Skandinavisk Mythologi 207ff.; BP I 422f.; Karjalainen FFC LXIII 14; Alphabet No. 370; MacCulloch Childhood 101; Clouston Tales II 395; Günter 83 nn. 94 – 96; *Loomis White Magic 68, 84f.; Archiv. f. slavische Philologie XIX 255. – Irish: Plummer cxliii, *Cross, O’Suilleabhain 66, Beal XXI 325; English: Child I 505b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 306 No. 8, 313 No. 93; Jewish: bin Gorion III 19, *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buin: Wheeler No. 15; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 308 n. 114a; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 272, (Thonga): Junod 229, (Basuto): Jacottet 124 No. 17.


Resuscitation with missing member. In reassembling the members, one has been inadvertently omitted. The resuscitated person or animal lacks this member. *Type 313; MacCulloch Childhood 97ff.; Von Sydow Danske Studier (1910) 65ff., 145ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 259, 273 n. 1, *586. – Greek: Fox 119 (Pelops); India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 99, Rasmussen I 218, III 79, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 501, (N. W. Canada): Petitot 84, 226, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 170; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 308 n. 114b; S. A. Indian (Yuracare): Alexander Lat. Am. 314.


Water of Life. Resuscitation by water. Types 550, 551; *BP I 513, II 400; **Wünsche Lebensbaum; Chauvin VI 73f.; Hertz Abhandlungen 47ff.; *Fb “vand” III 1001b, “livets vand” II 439b, “flaske” I 309a; Dawkins Alexander and the Water of Life (Medium Aevum IX 173 – 192); Jacobs’ list s.v. “Water of Life”; Köhler-Bolte I 186, 562. – Icelandic: Hrólfssaga Gautrekssonar (ed. Detter) 46, 64; Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales (London 1873) 231ff.; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Babylonian: Spence 130 (Ishtar); India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer X 210 s.v. “Life, water of”; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 347; Arabian: Burton Nights S VI 213ff., 221; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 494; Indonesian: DeVries Volksverhalen II 359 No. 104; Pelew Islands: Dixon 252; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 74, 121, 153, 264; Fiji: ibid. 76; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 355 n. 279a; (Calif. Indian): Gayton and Newman 64; Africa (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 27, 67, 137.


Resuscitation by magic liquid. (Cf. D1242.) *Krappe Balor 132ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61 No. 445A; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 47.


Resuscitation by herbs (leaves). Type 612; BP I 126ff., *128; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 354 n. 2; *Kittredge Gawain 153 n. 4; *Wesselski Märchen 239f. No. 50; Jacobs’ list s.v. “Life-restoring herb”; Penzer VI 18 n. 1. – Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 312 n. 2; Jewish: Neuman; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7, V No. 7, Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 135; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 7, (Thonga): Junod 56.


Resuscitation by magic apple. *Type 590; BP III 1; Fb “æble” IV 1135b; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 90b s.v. “Apfel” n. 2.


Resuscitation by blood. Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 143; *BP I 46ff.; *Fb “blod” IV 46b, 47a; Jacobs‘ list s.v. “Blood resuscitates”. – Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 16 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 9; India: *Thompson-Balys. – Tonga: Gifford 185; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G 3/912); N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 96 No. 7; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 165.


Slain warriors revive nightly. Continue fighting the next day. *Krappe Balor 132ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 546; Irish myth: *Cross, Beal IV 342, 454, V 210; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 176, Fb “kamp”, Panzer Hilde-Gudrun 327ff., Herrmann Saxo II 364, *Boberg; Hindu: Tawney I 476.


The Dead Rider (Lenore). Dead lover returns and takes sweetheart with him on horseback. She is sometimes saved at the grave by the crowing of the cock, though the experience is usually fatal. *Type 365; *Fb “død” I 228a, “ride” III 53a, “spøgelse” III 520ab; Krumbacher Zs. f. vgl. Litt. N. F. I (1887) 214 – 220; Wlislocki ibid. N.F. XI (1897) 467; Borker Germania XXXI 117; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147; – England: Child V 60ff., 303; England, U.S.: *Baughman; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 28.


Dead spouse’s malevolent return. Usually to protest with survivor because of evil ways. English: Child II 281 No. 86; Danish: Grundtvig Danmarks Gamle Folkeviser No. 89b; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3526; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 6; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 6 No. 47; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245; West Indies: Flowers 428.


Return from dead to punish indignities to corpse, or ghost. Ireland: Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3532; India: Thompson-Balys.


Dinner with the dead. Dead man is invited to dinner. Takes his host to other world. *Type 470; **MacKay; Hartland Science 192f.; U.S.: Baughman; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “repas”; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 470A*; Estonian: Aarne in FFC XX No. 472*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC No. 835*. Cf. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 79.


Wandering ghost makes attack. Unprovoked and usually unmotivated. Irish: Jacobs Celtic 200, Kennedy 180, O‘Suilleabhain 30, 99, Beal XXI 309, 331; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 246; Icelandic: *Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3542, Legends No. 712; Russian: Ralston 271, 274, 313; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 27 Nos. 229 – 240; cf. 2 Nos. 15 – 17; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 11; N. A. Indian (Kathlamet): Boas BBAE XXVI 182, 184 (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 225.


E282. Ghosts haunt castle. (Cf. F771.4.5.) Type 1160. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “château”.   E283. Ghosts haunt church. *Type 326. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “église”, “chapelle”; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 7.   E284. Ghost haunts cloister. Herbert III 83 (Étienne de Bourbon).


Dead mother‘s friendly return. *Jellinek Zs f. Vksk. XIV 323f.; *Fb “moder” II 600b, “spøgelse” III 520a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mère”; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3527; Jewish: *Neuman.


Dead child’s friendly return to parents. Frequently to stop weeping. (Cf. P230.) *BP II 485; *Fb “hånd” I 765a; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 41, Beal XXI 315; English: Child II 238f., III 244f., 247, V 241, Baughman; U.S.: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3525; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Chinese: Werner 314; N. A. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories (New York, 1889) 145; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 161.


The grateful dead. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 313; Icelandic: Boberg.


Dead returns to repay money debt. Herbert III 96 No. 38; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 327 No. 23; cf. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 53, 97, Beal XXI 319, 331; Scotland: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.


Dead returns to restore stolen goods. *BP III 235; Tobler 65; Fb “gjenganger” I 443b. – Irish: O’Suilleabhain 98, Beal XXI 331; England: *Baughman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 80, 327 No. 23.


Return from the dead to stop weeping. *BP II 485; Wimberly 110, 230ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 433a s.v. “Eddamärchen”; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 831; Legenda Aurea (ed. Grässe) 132; *Fb “hånd” I 765a, “tåre” III 947a, “græde” IV 187b; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147. – Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Child II 234ff., 512., III 513, V 62, 294; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 18; Persian: Carnoy 345.


The unquiet grave. (Cf. D2151.1.2.3.) Dead unable to rest in peace. Aside from the references given in the numbers immediately following, see E200 – E399 passim. Jewish: *Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 48.


Murdered person cannot rest in grave. (See all references to E231, E334, E337.1.1, E337.3.) *Fb “spøgelse” III 521a, “gjenganger” I 443b; Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323; Tobler 47; England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 5 Nos. 37 – 38; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 102ff., 334ff., (1934) 78ff., 252ff.


Drowned person cannot rest in peace. (Cf. E334.4.) Fb “spøgelse” III 521b; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 90ff., 359ff., (1934) 70ff., 265ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 5 No. 40.


Ghost visible to one person alone. Spanish Exempla: Keller; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 64; N. A. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 148.


Ghost visible to horses alone. *Fb “hest” I 600a, IV 212a; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 26 No. 227; England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678.


Ghost visible to horses alone. *Fb “hest” I 600a, IV 212a; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 26 No. 227; England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678.


Ghost visible to dogs alone. England: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681; India: Thompson-Balys.


The living corpse. Revenant is not a specter but has the attributes of a living person. He wanders about till his “second death”, complete disintegration in the grave. (Cf. E261.1.3, E268, E461.) *Naumann Primitive Gemeinschaftskultur (Jena, 1921) 18ff.; *Wimberly 229, 239, 256ff.; *Klare Acta Philologica Scandinavica VIII 1 – 56; *Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 167; *Fb “spøgelse” III 519b; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 70 – 152; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3590, Ghosts; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 21 No. 199; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 3f.; Irish: *Cross, Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 239f., 243; West Indies: Flowers 430; Africa: Werner African 180f., (Ekoi): Talbot 7 (dies a second time and becomes more dead).


Headless revenant. *Fb “hoved” I 655b, “hovedløs” IV 223a; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 300 No. 6, 301 No. 18, 311 No. 46; India: *Thompson-Balys; England, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 680, 683, 693.


Revenant with chip of resin between teeth. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 116 No. 18; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 40 No. 18.


Revenant in animal form. *Rosén Om Själavandringstro; *Fb “spøgelse” III 521a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mort”; Scotland, England, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.


Defense against ghosts and the dead. Frazer The Fear of the Dead (London, 1933 – 36); Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s.v. “Geister”; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 309; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 251.


Walking ghost “laid”. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 324; *v. Negelein ibid. XIV 20ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 332; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 53 No. 400A*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 6.


Land of dead in lower world. *Krappe Etude 45ff.; **M. Landau Hölle und Fegefeuer in Volksglauben, Dichtung, und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); Krappe Revue Celtique XLIX (1932) 96 – 102; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 146, Grote I 62; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 72; Jewish: *Neuman, Gaster Thespis 183, 187f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 485; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 199f.; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 200f.; Tonga: Gifford 183; Melanesia: Wheeler 33, 47; Papua: Ker 81; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 146, 155; N. A. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 274 n. 10; S. A. Indian (Metaco): Métraux MAFLS XL 24.


Beautiful land of dead. (Rosengarten). Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 79f.


Avalon. (Cf. F323.) Happy otherworld where dead are healed. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 31 (Geoffrey of Monmouth), 33 (Layamon‘s Brut), 50 (Le Morte Arthure); Hartland Science 204 (Olger the Dane).


Procession of the dead. *BP III 472 n. 1; Fb “gjenganger” I 443b, “Nytårsaften” II 707b; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 204; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 Nos. 100, 105, 326 Nos. 15, 17; *Geiger Archives suisses des Traditions Populaires XLVII 71 – 76; West Indies: Flowers 431; Pochulata: Boas JAFL XXV 226; Spanish: Boas ibid. 251; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Mass (church service) of the dead. Held at midnight. *BP III 472, 545; Krappe Balor 116ff., 121 n. 11, JAFL LX 159ff.; *Fb “død” I 228a, “kirke” II 125b; *Grunwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXX – XXXI 316; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1895) 280ff., (1928) 176ff.; Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3558; Jewish: *Neuman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 242.


Dead men dance. *Fb “spøgelse” III 520a, “danse” IV 93a, “sjæl” III 214b, “kirkegaard” II 128b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335 s.v. “Geister”; England, U.S.: *Baughman; N. A. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell 192, (Hupa): Goddard UCal I 239 No. 25, (Luiseño): DuBois UCal VIII 154, (Zuñi): Cushing 48 No. 2, (Cherokee): Mooney RBAE XIX 252 No. 5, 331 No. 78, (Kwakiutl): Boas and Hunt JE III 106; Africa: Werner African 188f.


The Wild Hunt. (Cf. F282.) (Die Wilde Jagd, Das Wütende Heer, Odinsjæger, Chasse Fantastique.) A ghostly hunter and his rout continue the chase. **Plischke (bibliography); **Schweda; *Wahner Der Wilde Jäger in Schlesien; Lorentzen; Brunk Der wilde Jäger im Glauben des pommerschen Volkes (Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 179); *Zingerle 589f. (bibliography): Jacobsen Harlekin og den vilde Jæger (Dania IX 1); Heilberg Theodorich som den vilde Jæger (Dania IX 239); Olrik Odinsjægeren i Jylland (Dania VIII 139); *Fb “Odinsjæger” III 730ff.; RTP II 156, VI 291, VII 175, 328, VIII 566, IX 91, 411, XIII 186, 695f.; XIV 83, XVI 453, 531, XVII 504f.; Hartland Science 234ff.; Wehrhan 84; Walhouse FL VIII (1897) 196; *O. Höfler Kultische Geheimbünde der Germanen Bd. I: Das germanische Totenheer (Frankfurt a. M., 1934); Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 234. Musical treatments: Raff Symphony No. 3 (1869); J. Triebensee “Die wilde Jagd” (opera, Budapest, 1824); H. Payer “Der wilde Jäger” (opera, Vienna, 1806); V. E. Nessler “Der wilde Jäger” (opera, Leipzig, 1881); M. J. Beer “Der wilde Jäger” (cantata, Olmütz, 1888); A. Schultz “Der wilde Jäger” (opera, Brunswick, 1887); Müller-Reuter “Hackelberends Begräbnis” (choral ballad, 1902); C. Franck “Le Chasseur Maudit” (symphonic poem, 1883). For classical parallels see H. Hepding Attis 124; Gruppe Griechische Religionsgeschichte (1907) 1290 n. 2; Samter Geburt, Hochzeit, Tod 206 n. 5. – Irish: *Cross; Beal XXI 322; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3518; Norwegian: *Solheim Register 17.


The Sleeping Army. Soldiers killed in battle come forth on occasions from their resting place (hill, grave, grotto) and march about or send their leader to do so. – *Schweda 59ff.; *Hartland Science 216ff.; Howey 9; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.


The Flying Dutchman. A sea captain because of his wickedness sails his phantom ship eternally without coming to harbor. **G. Kalff De Sage van den Vliegenden Hollander (Zupthen, 1923); **Engert Die Sage vom Fliegenden Holländer; **W. Söderhjelm Flygande holländeren (Helsingfors, 1890); *Andraea Anglia Beiblatt XIII (1902) 47; Golther Zur deutschen Sage und Dichtung 7; Fb “skib” III 243a; England, U.S.: *Baughman.


Bones of dead collected and buried. Return in another form directly from grave. *Type 720; S. A. Indian (Warrau): Alexander Lat. Am. 272.


Person transforms self, is swallowed and reborn in new form. (Cf. D605.7, D610.) Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 110; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 282 n. 44.


Reincarnation: boy to bird to boy. Boy returns as bird, who later becomes the boy. *Type 720; *BP I 422.


Reincarnation as cow. (Cf. D133.1.) *Type 510, 511; BP *I 187, III 61ff.; Wesselski Deutsche Märchen vor Grimm (1938) vii ff.; *MacCulloch Childhood 108; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Reincarnation in plant (tree) growing from grave. (Cf. E632, D1610.2.) Type 510; BP I 187; *Cox 477 n. 7; *Fb “sjæl” III 214b, “blod” IV 49a, “juletræ” II 57a; Saintyves Contes de Perrault (Paris, 1923) 36ff., 141ff. – English: *Child V 481. s.v. “grave”, V 491 s.v. “plants”; Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “arbres”, “cadavre”, “tombeau”; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 7, 311 No 41; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 92 No. 780B*; Greek: Fox 198 (Adonis), 201 (Pyramus and Thisbe); Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 Nos. 12, 13; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Dixon 238, De Vries Volksverhalen I 300; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 50f.; Papua: Ker 131; N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Cushing 183, (Kato): Goddard UCal V 219 n. 1; Amazon: Alexander Lat. Am. 294; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 147, (Ekoi): Talbot 133.


Twining branches grow from graves of lovers. (Cf. E419.6.) *Gaidoz Mélusine IV No. 4; Type 966*; *Fb “rose” III 80a, “lilie” II 427b, “træ” III 867a; Chauvin V 107 No. 37; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 264f.; Japanese: Anesaki 253, 346f.


Reincarnation as musical instrument. The Singing Bone. A musical instrument made from the bones of a murdered person, or from a tree growing from the grave, speaks and tells of the crime. *Type 780; **Mackensen FFC XLIX; BP I 260, II 532; *Fb “streng” III 603a, “harpe” I 559b, IV 201b, “ben” IV 32b; Child I 121 – 135, 494, IV 449; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “os”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Repeated reincarnation. Irish myth: *Cross; Gaster Exempla 248 No. 349; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 9; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 421, II 518, 1117; India: *Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 106; S. A. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 142.


External soul. A person (often a giant or ogre) keeps his soul or life separate from the rest of his body. *Type 302; *BP III 440; *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; *MacCulloch Childhood 118ff.; *Chauvin V 176 No. 100, II 193 No. 12; Fb “hjærte” IV 318b; Mélusine XI 263; *Penzer X 143 s.v. “External Soul”; Clouston Tales I 347; Köhler-Bolte I 161, 515; Gittée RTP II 283; Krappe Revue Archéologique (May-June 1933) 195 – 211. – Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “corps”, “âme”; Icelandic: Fripjofssaga (Wenz ed., Halle 1914) 16; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 11; Greek: Grote I 136f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 178; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 346 n. 246a, *Hultkrantz 330 – 341; Africa (Swahili): Steere 3ff.


Soul in form of mouse. Tobler 13ff.; *Fb “heks” I 581a, “høle” I 747a, “mus” II 631b; Sébillot RTP XX 189, 489; J. Grimm Kleinere Schriften VI 192ff.; Germanic: De la Saussaye 296, E. H. Meyer Germanische 64; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Indonesia: Kruyt 176f.


Soul in form of bird. (Cf. G251.1.1.) **Weicker Der Seelenvogel in der alten Literatur und Kunst; *Dh III 482; *Fb “fugl” I 380b, “sjæl” III 214a; *Patch PMLA XXXIII 626 n. 88; De Gubernatis Die Thiere in der indogermanischen Mythologie (Leipzig, 1874) 469ff.; Meyer Germanische 64; *Krappe Balor 95ff., Romanic Review XV 94ff.; *Penzer VI 283; *BP II 394 (Type 707); Tobler 30f.; Wimberly 44; Kruyt 175f.; J. E. Harrison Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion 199ff.; Irish myth: *Cross, Beal XXI 322, O‘Suilleabhain 99; Icelandic: *Boberg; Slavic: Máchal 229f.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 398, 473; Egyptian: Müller 174; Jewish: *Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda; Marquesas: Handy 36; N. A. Indian: Hultkrantz 266f., 363; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 60 No. 9.


Shooting star signifies that someone is dying. One star for each person. At his death it falls. *BP III 235; *G. Bellucci Le stelle cadenti e le lore leggende (Perugia, 1895); *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX n. 770f.; Fb “lys” II 483a, “stjerne” III 577b. – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3906; Slavic: Máchal 273; India: Thompson-Balys.


Souls in purgatory. **Landau Hölle und Fegefeuer in Volksglaube, Dichtung und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 464, 467, 469, Crane Liber de Miraculis 86 No. 10; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Fegefeuer”; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 440ff.; Herbert ibid. III 330; Alphabet Nos. 504, 661. – Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 330 – 333, O‘Suilleabhain 95, 100, 102f.


Devils and angels contest for man’s soul. *Wesselski Märchen 199; *Fb “djævel” IV 99b; *Crane Miraculis 87 No. 11; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. 808*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *808; Estonian: Aarne in FFC XXV No. 808*; Jewish: *Neuman.


Life token: beer foams. (Cf. D1045.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 69 n. 5.


Ladder to upper world. *Frazer Old Testament II 52ff.; *Toldo IV 59; Gaster Thespis 400. – Irish myth: Cross; Egyptian: Müller 176; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 126; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 333 n. 204; Hatt Asiatic Influences 48ff.; S. A. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109; Africa: Werner African 136, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 11 n. 2.


Bird carries person to or from upper world.


Descent to lower world of dead (Hell, Hades). Andrejev FFC LXIX 71f., *231n.; *MacCulloch Encyc. Rel. Ethics IV 648ff.; Oertel Studien zur vgl. Literaturgeschichte VIII 123; Aarne FFC XXIII 115ff., 129ff.; BP III 465; Köhler-Bolte I 133; Zemmrich Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie IV 217; Hull FL XVIII 121; *Fb “helvede” I 589a, “gjedebuk” I 440b, “Cyprianus” I 166b. – Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 320, 324, O’Suilleabhain 53, 63; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “visite”, “enfer”; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 17, 313 No. 79; Finnish: Kalevala rune 16; Greek: Roscher Lexikon I 22 s.v. “Archilleus”, Fox 105, 137, 145, Frazer Apollodorus I 234 nn. 1, 2, 332 n. 2; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; New Guinea: Ker 81; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 33; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 464; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 165, 180, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 489; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 337 n. 216; Araucanian: Alexander Lat Am. 330f.; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 225 No. 40, 249 No. 50, (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 34, 46, 56, 63, 99, 233, 238, 280, (Yoruba): Ellis 244 No. 1, (Bantu): Einstein 194f.


Orpheus. Journey to land of dead to bring back person from the dead. **E. Maass Orpheus (München, 1895); Frazer Pausanias V 154; Cosquin Études 188ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; England: Child I 215ff., Wells 128 (Sir Orfeo); Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 130; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 17 n. 7, von den Steinen Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 260; Babylonian: Spence 125ff. (Ishtar); Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 491; India: Thompson-Balys, Keith 161 (Savitri); Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 198f., Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 223; Indonesia: De Vries‘s list No. 160; Oceanic (New Zealand, Mangaia, Hawaii, Samoa, New Hebrides, Bankes Island, German New Guinea): Dixon 72 – 78; Maori: Clark III; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 269, 298, Rasmussen III 59, 167; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 337 n. 215, Hatt Asiatic Influences 65ff., **Gayton The Orpheus Myth in North America (JAFL XLVIII 263 – 293), E. W. Voegelin JAFL LX 52 – 58, (California): Gayton and Newman 99; Surinam: Alexander Lat. Am. 275; Africa: Werner African *138ff., 196.


Ishtar unveiled. Goddess going to lower world passes through seven gates, at each of which she is divested of a garment till she is entirely unclothed. Babylonian: Spence 130.


Stair to lower world. *Siuts 54.


Rope to lower world. *Type 301; *BP II 300ff. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 147.


Journey to earthly paradise. Land of happiness. (Cf. F132.1.) **Nutt in Meyer Voyage of Bran I 105ff.; Patch *Other World 381 s.v. “paradise”; *Graf La leggenda del paradiso terrestre (Torino, 1878); *BP IV 269 n. 1; Gaster Oldest Stories 48; Norlind Skattsägner 88ff.; Hartland Science 194, 199, 202; *Loomis White Magic 116. – Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 145 (Parthenope of Blois); *Celtic: K. Zimmer Brendans Meerfahrt (Zeitschrift für deutsche Altertum XXXIII [1889] 129 – 220, 257 – 338); Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Tawney I 525; Chinese: Giles 8ff., 397ff.


Journey to Land of Women. Island of women, land of maidens, country of the Amazons, etc. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 624 n. 81, Other World *381 s.v. “maidenland”; Hartland Science 202. – Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Fox 109, 111; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 390f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth XXXVI; Marquesas: Handy 56, Beckwith Myth 472, 502; West Indies: Flowers 432.


Submarine otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 627 n. 92, Other World *380 s.v. “Land-beneath-the-waves”; Wimberly 134; Ward II 525; Chauvin V 151 No. 73; Penzer VI 280; Smith Dragon 109. – Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Campbell Tales III 420; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 112f.; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 636; Breton: *Le Braz Légende de la Mort II 37ff.; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Slavic: Máchal 270; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 69; Maori: Clark III; N. A. Indian (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 7; Africa: Werner African 188, 206, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 39 No. 4, (Basuto): Jacottet 122 No. 17, 204 No. 30, 224 No. 33.


Perilous river as barrier to otherworld. (Cf. F767.1.) *Patch PMLA XXXIII 630, 638ff.; Alphabet No. 603. – Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 78, III 165; N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 140; Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 245 No. 1.


Bridge to otherworld guarded by animals. Patch PMLA XXXIII 635ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.


Rainbow bridge to otherworld. Fb “regnbue” III 32a; RTP VI 361, X 596; Mélusine II 16; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 329; Celebes: Dixon 156; Hawaii, Indonesia: ibid. 67, Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 38, 321; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 333 n. 204a.


Fairies and elves. Fairies and mortals.


Fairyland. *Hartland Science 135ff. – Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.


Origin of fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.


Underworld people from children which Eve hid from God. *Fb “underjordiske” III 975b; Wales: Baughman; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 30 No. 261; German: Grimm No. 180.


Fairies dance. *Type 503; *BP III 324ff., 329; *Fb “danse” IV 93a; Hartland Science 162. – Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 127, 163; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 24ff., (1928) 16ff.; Slavic: Máchal 259; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “dance”; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Fairies skillful as smiths. *Fb “smed” III 402a; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Ireland: Baughman, Boberg DF XLVI 83.


Changeling. Fairy steals child from cradle and leaves fairy substitute. Changeling is usually mature and only seems to be a child. *BP I 368; **G. Piaschewski Der Wechselbalg (Breslau, 1935); Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 835 – 864; **E. Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen in den Sagen und Märchen der skandinavischen Völker (Stuttgart, 1936) 76ff.; *Hartland Science 105 – 122, 134, 145; *Fb “skifting” III 252b. – Irish myth: Cross; England, Ireland, Wales: Baughman; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 7, 117, 143ff., 149, 155ff., 267, Campbell Tales II 57; Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 10ff., (1928) 11ff.; Norwegian: *Solheim Register 18; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 43 No. 36; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 58 No. 91; Slavic: Polívka Slavische Sagen vom Wechselbalg (Archiv f. Religionswissenschaft VI 151ff.), Máchal Slavic Myth. 260, 264; Armenian: Ananikian 78 (left by dragon); India: Penzer VIII 87 n. 1.


Fairy gold. Fairies give coals (wood, earth) that turns to gold. *Type 503; BP I 366, III 324ff.; Hartland Science 57; Fb “kul” II 326b, “guld” I 512, “hövlspån” I 762, “jord” II 45b. – England: Baughman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 2; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 47 No. 388; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 434, Index No. *771, 3648; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Fairies remove hunchback‘s hump (or replace it). *Type 503; BP III 324ff.; RTP I 129, 186, III 582, V 690, VIII 549, IX 285, X 124, XX 389, XXII 79, XXVII 490; Clouston Tales I 352; FL XIX 324ff. – Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 205ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “bossu”; cf. Japanese: Mitford 191ff., Ikeda.


Fairies take human midwife to attend fairy woman. (Cf. F333.) *Hartland Science 37 – 92; *Fb “jordemoder”; *BP I 367; Wentz Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries (London, 1911) 49f., 54, 131, 140, 175, 182; Tobler 76. – English: Child I 358ff. No. 40, II 505f., III 505f., IV 459a, V 215b, 290b; Scottish: J. G. Campbell Superstitions 147; England, Scotland, Ireland, U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: Göngu Hrólfs saga 275ff.; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 44 No. 41; Danish: Feilberg DF V 69ff., Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 330ff., (1928) 210ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “sage-femme”, “fées”; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Spirit leaves when report is made of the death of one of his kind. *Taylor Washington University Studies X (Humanistic Series) 23 – 60; **Boberg Sagnet om den Store Pans Død (København, 1934). – Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 45 No. 374; Scandinavian: Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen (Stuttgart, 1936) 73; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 58 No. 101.


Water-spirits.1 *Wehrhan Die Sage 74; *Meyer 101f.; W. Gregor Guardian Spirits of Wells and Locks (FL III 67 – 73); Roberts 121; Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 210; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 142ff., (1928) 100ff., FochF XI 37; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 45f. Nos. 55 – 65; Finnish: *Holmberg Finno-Ugric 191ff.; Finnish-Swedish: *Wessman 52ff.; Swedish: Hartmann 27; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 52; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40ff. Nos. 23 – 32; Slavic: Máchal 270ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 298; India: Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff RBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 50. See also F200 – F399 (fairies and elves), F451 (dwarfs) and F460 (mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.


Wood-spirit. *Type 667*; *Hdwb. d. Märchen I 198a; *Mannhardt I 87ff., 311ff. – Irish myth: Cross; U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 204f., 226; Swedish: G. Granberg Skogsrået (Stockholm, 1934); Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 177, 185; Estonian: *Loorits Grundzüge I 521f., 546f., 559ff.; Germanic: Meyer Altgermanische 94; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 22; Slavic: Máchal 261ff.; Persian: Carnoy 298; S. A. Indian (Warrau): *Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Tapirapé): Wagley-Baldao ibid. (3) 178, (Pilcomayo, Chaco): Belaieff ibid. (1) 379; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 247, 251. See also F200 – F399 (Fairies and Elves), F420 (Water-spirits), F461 (Dwarfs) and F460 (Mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.


Dwarf.1 (Underground spirit.) The dwarf, especially in Northern Europe, is considered an underground spirit. He is to be distinguished from the other conception of dwarf, viz., a very small person, pigmy, or thumbling (F535). Types 480, 403B; *Roberts 123; **Lutjens Der Zwerg in der deutschen Heldendichtung des Mittelalters (Breslau, 1911); *Wehrhan 67; *Thien 42; *Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 190; *De Boor Der Zwerg in Skandinavien (Mogk Festschrift 536); *Ritchie Zwerge in Geschichte u. Überlieferung (Globus LXXXII 101); *Tegethoff Schweiz. Archiv f. Vksk. XXIV 147; Jensen Zs. f. Vksk. II 407; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 1008 – 1120. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 264ff., 287; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892, new series 1928); Norwegian: Solheim Register 18; French: F. Wolgemuth Riesen u. Zwerge in der altfranzösischen erzählenden Dichtung (Tübingen, 1906); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 326; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 356 n. 287a. See also F200 – F399 (Fairies and Elves), F420 (Water-spirits), and F460 (Mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.


Dwarfs as smiths. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 23ff., (1928) 26ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 66, 266ff., *Boberg; German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54, Karstens-Goslar 135.


Trolls. Sometimes underground spirits, sometimes also thought of as mountain-spirits. In many tales trolls are ogres. (Cf. G100, G400 – G599.) *Fb “trold” III 852a; Scandinavian: **E. Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen in den Sagen und Märchen der skandinavischen Völker (Stuttgart, 1936); Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 285ff., Boberg; Norwegian: Solheim Register 18, 21; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 60ff.


Rübezahl. A mountain and storm spirit. *Wehrhan 68; **Jungbauer Die Rübezahlsage (Reichenberg, 1923); Koch **Rübezahl (Breslau, n.d.); Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXV – XXXVI 68; *Loewe Zs. f. Vksk. XVIII 1, 151, XXI 31, 126.


Nightmare (Alp). Presses person in dream. **E. Jones Der Alptraum (Leipzig-Wien, 1912); *Tegethoff Amor und Psyche 87ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. 1 282 s.v. “Alp”; Laistner Rätsel I 41ff., II 1ff.; Wehrhan 62; Hdwb. d. March. s.v. “Alp”; *Meyer Germanen 129ff.; Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 322; *Fb “mare” II 551f.; *Kittredge Witchcraft 218, 525f. nn. 54 – 62. – Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 288ff., De la Saussaye 293f., *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 241ff., (1928) 154ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 88 Nos. 748 – 770; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 63 No. 171; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 60; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 127 No. 60; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Penzer III 131 n. 3.


Incubus. A male demon who comes in sleep and has sexual intercourse with a woman. *Kittredge Witchcraft 116, 444ff. nn. 103 – 155 passim; *Loomis White Magic 77; Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: ibid.; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 59; Germanic: De la Saussaye 293f.; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 126 No. 59; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3682; S. A. Indian (Araucanian): Alexander Lat. Am. 328; Africa (Fang): Einstein 175.


Huckauf. A goblin which jumps on one‘s back. *Kittredge Witchcraft 220f., 528f. nn. 78 – 79; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 68 No. 291; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3425, Legends Nos. 827 – 832.


Cobold. A house-spirit. **Feilberg Der Kobold in nordischer Überlieferung (Zs. f. Vksk. VIII 1, 130, 264); *Kittredge Witchcraft 215f., 523f. nn. 23, 25. – Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 41ff., (1928) 29ff.; Estonian: L. v. Schroeder Germanische Elben und Götter beim Estenvolke (Wien 1906), Loorits Grundzüge I 266 – 281, 295 – 304.


Brownie (nisse). **Feilberg Nissens Historie; *Fb “nisse” II 688; Norwegian: *Solheim Register 19; *Hartmann 28.


Person with ass‘s (horse’s) ears. Midas. Köhler-Bolte I 383 n. 1, 511, 587; RTP I 327, VII 356; *Zs. d. deutschen morgenländ. Gesel. XL 549; Crooke FL XXII 183; *BP IV 147 n. 7 (Celtic); *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 397; Huet 45; Penzer III 188 n., VII n. 1, VI 26 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross, *Porter Proc. Royal Irish Academy (1932) 142.


Giant with one eye in middle of forehead. (Cf. F512.1.1.) Broderius § 37; *BP III 375; *Höttges FFC CXXII 191; Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 191; Icelandic: Boberg; Faröe: Zs. f. Vksk. II 6; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 67 No. 573; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) No. 2; Greek: Fox 6, Grote I 5, 287; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 10.


Giant‘s toy. A young giantess picks up a man plowing. Wants him as a toy. Her mother says, ”Take him back. He will drive us away.“ (Cf. F531.5.1.) **V. Höttges Die Sage vom Riesenspielzeug (Jena, 1931); Höttges FFC CXXII 172; Broderius § 29; Type 701*; *Fb ”kjæmpe“ II 149a; ”plove“ II 848; *Tegethoff Schweiz. Archiv f. Vksk. XXIV 139 n. 14. – Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 67 No. 575; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 47 No. 73; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3712; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 73 No. 225; Flemish: Meyer FFC XXXVII No. 701*; Missouri French: Carrière.


War of pygmies and cranes. Greek: *Frazer Pausanias II 107; *Fb ”trane“ III 835b.


Beard grows through table. (Usually told of king asleep in mountain.) Hartland Science 217; *BP III 460; Fb ”sten“ III 554a.


Nude woman clothed in own hair (Godiva). *Fb ”hår“ I 771b; Type 710; *BP I 21; England: Baughman.


Extraordinary companions. A group of men with extraordinary powers travel together. *Types 301B, 513, 514, 571; *BP II 79, 95; *Benfey *Kleinere Schriften III 94; *Köhler-Bolte I 601 s.v. ”Gefährten“; *Cosquin Contes indiens 431ff.; *Kittredge Arthur and Garlagon 226 n. 3; Jacobs‘s list s.v. ”Extraordinary Companions“; Alphabet No. 693; *Chauvin VII 125 No. 392. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5, Rotunda; Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 428; Koryak, Mongol-Turk: Jochelson JE VI 363; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries Nederlandsche Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde (1924) 97ff.; Korean: Zong in-Sob 163f.; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 27, 114, 128, 433; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 334ff., 345ff.


Remarkably strong man. (Strong John). (Cf. X940, X959.1.) *Panzer Beowulf; *Types 301, 650*, 650**, 650, 1003 – 1013; *BP II 285ff., 300ff.; *Fb ”styrke“, ”stærk“, ”Svend Felding“. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 86, 153 (Heimdall), *Boberg; French: Cosquin Lorraine Nos. 14, 46, 52, 69 and notes; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 8; Greek: Fox 75 (Herakles), Frazer Apollodorus I 259 n. 3; Jewish: Frazer Old Testament II 480ff. (Samson), *Neuman; Armenian: Ananikian 86; Hindu: Keith 172; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: *De Vries Nederlandsch Tijdschrift v. Volkskunde XXX 97ff.; Chinese: Graham; Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 428; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 334ff. incident A 2; West Indies: Flowers 435.


Strong hero born from egg. *Type 650; Christiansen 92.


Strong hero’s long nursing. *Type 650; *BP II 293; Panzer Beowulf 20f.


Marvelous sensitiveness. *Penzer VI 219, 288, VII 204ff.; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 265ff., *Boberg.


F700–F799: Extraordinary places and things F800–F899: Extraordinary rocks and stones F900–F1099: Extraordinary occurrences


Extraordinary river. (Cf. D915.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.


Extraordinary castle (house, palace). Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.


Windows and doors for every day in year. 365 windows and doors in castle or church. Fb ”år“ III 1195b; Scotch: Campbell II 426 No. 51. According to Baedeker’s Guidebook to Great Britain, said to be true of Salisbury Cathedral.


Tree with leaves of jewels. Penzer IV 128; Patch PMLA XXXIII 625 n. 83; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 242.


F900–F1099: Extraordinary occurrences


Jonah. Fish (or water monster) swallows a man. *Frazer Old Testament III 82; *H. Schmidt Jona 127f.; *Wesselski Märchen 213 No. 18; Clouston Tales I 403ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 11; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 8, Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas@2 IV 27, 275, *Neuman; Babylonian: Spence 87; India: *Thompson-Balys, *Penzer II 193, VI 154 n. 3, Keith 173; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 261; Oceanic (Cook Group, Melanesia, Indonesia): Dixon 69, De Vries‘s list No. 211; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 443; Marquesas: Handy 137; S. A. Indian (Bakairi): Alexander Lat. Am. 313.


Church sinks underground.


City sinks in the sea. Schmersel Die Sage von der versunkenen Stadt; Schütte Danske Studier (1925) 117; Le Braz Légende de la Mort (Paris, 1902); **Smyser Harward Studies and Notes Phil. and Lit. XV (1933) 49ff.; England: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3610.


Dry rod blossoms. *Type 756 ABC, 757; BP III 463, 465, 471 n. 1; *Dh II 265ff.; Fb ”nåde“ II 726b, ”stav“ III 541b; RTP IX 504, XIII 505, XV 61, XIX 66, 336, 532, XXI 123, XXV 141; **Andrejev FFC LIV 34, LXIX 126, 129ff., 241ff.; Saintyves Essais de folklore biblique 61ff.; Zs. f. Vksk. X 196f., XIII 72, XV 393; Alphabet No. 568; *Loomis White Magic 94, 114; Goebel Jüdische Motive im märchenhafte Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 34ff.; Irish: Plummer cliv, *Cross, O’Suilleabhain 108, Beal XXI 318, 334; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 186; Jewish: *Neuman; West Indies: Flowers 438.


Apples at Christmas. Tree bears apples only at Christmas. Blossoms at midnight and is full of apples by morning. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 559.


Sunken bell sounds. *Sartori Zs. f. Vksk. VII 113, 270, VIII 29; England: Baughman; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 72 No. 610; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3610.


Three witch sisters. Sometimes simply three hags. *BP I 114; *R. Drinkuth Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXXII 109 – 154, XXXIII 1 – 77; *Von Sydow Två Spinnsagor 68ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 245; India: Thompson-Balys.


Witch in animal form. Kittredge Witchcraft 174 nn. 1 – 3.


Seven-headed witch. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 268 Nos. 79, 80.


Witch with goose feet. *Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 117f.


Witch with iron members. *Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 118 nn. 7 – 9.


Witch (troll-woman) with beard. Fb ”mus“ II 631b.


Witch‘s charm opposite of Christian. Must be ”Without God and Holy Mary“ instead of ”With God, etc.“ (Cf. G224.5.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 84 No. *746, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 151, 153, 154; England, Ireland, Wales, U.S.: Baughman; West Indies: Flowers 441.


Witch‘s familiar spirit. Argentina: *Jijena Sanchez 73 – 114.


Witch rides on unusual animal.


Witch flies through air on broomstick. Kittredge Witchcraft 243, 547 n. 33; Fb ”lime“ II 430, ”limeskaft“ II 430f.; England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 81f. Nos. 675, 683; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 48 No. 106; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 138 No. 106; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3651; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 156.


Witch‘s sabbath. A meeting of witches in which church services are burlesqued. **Kittredge Witchcraft chapter XVI; Sahlgren Blåkulla och blåkullafärderna (Namn och Bygd 1915); Siebs Zs. f. Vksk. III 391; Schell ibid. IV 213; Gruessing ibid. III 172; *Fb ”heks“ I 580b, ”Bloksbjærg“ IV 49b, ”Troms kirke“ III 858b, 859ab, ”Sankt Hansdag“ III 161b, ”Valborg aften“ III 993a, ”kirke“ IV 258b. – England: Baughman; Icelandic: Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 81 Nos. 673 – 675; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3651; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 296 No. 23, 315 No. 128; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 151, 156, 157.


Obeisance to devil at witch’s sabbath. England: Baughman; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 151, 155, 156; West Indies: Flowers 444.


Witches dance. *Fb ”danse“ IV 93a; U.S.: Baughman; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 150, 155 – 157, 171.


Witch steals children. *Type 710; *Hoffmann-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 121 n. 3; Krappe Balor 87ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 233.


Witch sucks blood. Striges. *Kittredge Witchcraft 224f., 531f. nn. 103 – 114; England: Baughman; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.


Witch transforms person to animal. (Cf. D100.) German: Grimm Nos. 11, 49, 69, 123, 141, 197; India: Thompson-Balys.


La Belle Dame Sans Merci. Witch entices men with offers of love and then deserts or destroys them. Hartland Science 71; Huet Contes Populaires 47; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 172; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 259; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Mitford 243ff., 254ff., 275ff.; Korean: Zong in-Sob 74, 100; Marquesas: Handy 48; N. A. Indian (Micmac): Parsons JAFL XXXVIII 94 No. 26, (Seneca): CurtinHewitt RBAE XXXII 402 No. 71, 425 No. 79, 485 No. 105, (Fox): Owen PFLS LI 87, (Yurok): Powers CNAE III 59, (Anvik): Chapman PAES VI 67 No. 11; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 251.


Witch rides horse at night. Howie 174ff.; *Kittredge Witchcraft 219, 527 n. 66; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 650, 667; Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 3657, 3683f.; India: Thompson-Balys.


Witch powerless when one makes sign of cross. (Cf. G271.2.1.) Fb ”heks“ I 581b; England, Ireland, Wales: Baughman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 304 No. 33; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 116; Argentina: Jijena Sanchez 82, 87.


Witch powerless at cockcrow. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 261, 307; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 83 No. 686.


Witch powerless to cross stream. *Fb ”vand“ III 1001a; England: Baughman.


Devil. (The Devil, Satan, The Bad Man, Old Nick, etc.)1 Not clearly differentiated, especially in German tradition, from the stupid ogre. (See also F531 (Giant), G100 – 199 and G500 – 699.) – **Wünsche Teufel; **A Graf The Story of the Devil (tr. E. N. Stone) (London, 1931); **M. J. Rudwin The Devil in Legend and Literature (Chicago 1931); P. Carus History of the Devil (Chicago, 1900); **Toldo II 329ff.; **O. A. Erich Die Darstellung des Teufels in der christlichen Kunst (Berlin, 1931); *De Vooys Middelnederlandse Legenden en Exempelen 159ff.; S. Freud Die Teufelsneurose im 17. Jahrhundert (Wien, 1928). – Irish myth: Cross; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 687; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: **P. Danielsson Djävulgestalten i Finlands svenska Folktro (Bidrag till kännedom af Finlands natur och folk LXXXIV pt. 2, [Helsingfors, 1932] 157); Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 135 – 152; Jewish: *Neuman. Motif: Supplementary Bibliography for G303 SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR G303 Campbell, J. G. Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Glasgow, 1900. Hunt, R. Popular Romances of the West of England. London, 1903. Danielsson, P. Djävulgestalten i Finlands Svenska Folktro. Helsingfors, 1930.


Not in Motif-Index. The epic of Gilgamesh contains the adventures of a strong hero (F610) and his friend; the death of the friend and the visit of Gilgamesh to the world of the dead (F81; E481.1 to interview the ghost. This world of the dead is found under the sea (F133) and is guarded by monsters (cf. F152.0.1). The reason for the visit to the otherworld is to learn from the dead the solution of certain riddles (cf. H1292). In the garden of the gods (A151.2) which he finds on the way, the trees bear jewels instead of fruit (F811.2.2). He is carried over into the world of the dead by a boatman (A672.1). In the lower world he obtains possession of a life-giving plant (D1346.5), but a serpent steals it back from him (cf. G303.3.3.15), so that never again will man be able to overcome death (cf. A1335).


Devil plays fiddle at wedding. Causes bad luck (kills bridegroom). Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 40 No. 24; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 118 No. 24.


Trolls cannot endure churchbells. Fb ”kirkeklokke“ II 130b; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 120, 124, Boberg; Swedish: Grimm Deutsche Mythologie II 798 n. 1; Finnish-Swedish: Landtman Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII 560.


Troll bursts when sun shines on him. Or he may become stone. *Fb ”sol“ III 356a; Icelandic: Arnason Icelandic Legends (London, 1864) I 122, Boberg.


Old man of the sea. Burr-woman. Ogre who jumps on one‘s back and sticks there magically. *Chauvin VII 23 No. 373E; Fb ”ryg“ III 103ab; *Basset 1001 Contes I 190; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 126 No. 58; Greek: Grote I 7; Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 626; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 330 n. 191e; Africa (Luba): DeClerq Zs. f. Kolonialsprachen IV 226.


Ogre deceived into stabbing himself. He imitates the hero who has stabbed a bag of blood. Fb ”mave“ II 565; S. A. Indian (Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 300; Missouri French: Carrière.


Help from ogre‘s daughter (or son). (Cf. G455.) *Type 975**; **Aarne FFC XXIII 160f.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 54, *Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 9, V No. 4; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 109 n. 4; India: *Thompson-Balys; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 8f., 31, 44ff., 48; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 325 n. 171; S. A. Indian (Ceuici): Alexander Lat. Am. 303; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 49, (Ekoi): Talbot 7.


Hero hidden and ogre deceived by his wife (daughter) when he says that he smells human blood. *Type 327, 425, 461, 480; *Aarne FFC XXIII 161; Tegethoff 44; *BP I 289; *Fb ”fugl“ I 380; *Saintyves Perrault 303ff.; Roberts 219. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 16, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 203, (Greenland): Rink 218; Africa (Zanzibar): Bateman 133, (Basuto): Jacottet 206 No. 30, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 124 No. 22.


Test of king (pope): his candle lights itself. *Type 671; *Köhler-Bolte I 148.


Recognition by knife. Man who is werwolf recognized by knife which was carried away by the wolf. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 74; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 131 No. 74.


Bird indicates election of king (pope). *Type 671; *BP I 325; Fb “pave” II 793a; *Loomis White Magic 66; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Suitor tests. A suitor is put to severe tests by his prospective bride or father-in-law. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Wells 16 (Guy of Warwick); Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 187; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 324 n. 170, 328 n. 186; S. A. Indian (Tropical Forests): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55, (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 264; Africa: Werner African 153f., (Benga): Nassau 227 No. 34.


Suitor Tests.


Suitor contests: bride offered as prize. *Types 513, 514, 900; Philippson FFC L 12f. – Icelandic: Egils saga einhendsa ok Ásmundar Berserkjabana (FAS III) 366; Finnish: Kalevala rune 3; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 9, *Rotunda; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 420; Japanese: Ikeda; Oceanic (New Zealand, Tahiti, Cook Group, Society Group): Dixon 61, 64; Eskimo (Aleut): Golder JAFL XXII 17; N. A. Indian: *Thompson-Tales 328n. 186; West Indies: Flowers 457.


Suitor in contest with bride.


Tasks assigned suitors. Bride as prize for accomplishment. (For nature of tasks see H1000ff.) *Types 313, 502, 513, 514, 518, 570, 577; BP II 87ff., III 267ff., 424ff.; Hibbard 275ff. (Sir Eglamour). – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala runes 7, 8, 13, 14, 19; Italian Novella: *Rotunda, Basile Pentamerone II Nos. 5, 7; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 87 n. 3, II 61 n. 3, Fox 107; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries‘s list No. 168; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 290; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 262; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/174, 13/203, 13/276, 13/317, 13/441, 13/499, 13/730, 13/243, 13/1241); Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 57; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 324 n. 170; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 31 No. 4, (Benga): Nassau 134 No. 15; West Indies: Flowers 458. Cf. Wünsche Teufel 33 (devil).


Bride test.


Contest in lifelike painting. India: Thompson-Balys.




Queen of Sheba propounds riddles to Solomon. *Penzer VI 74; FL I 349ff.; Anderson FFC XLII 237 n. 2; Hertz Gesammelte Abhandlungen (1905) 412ff.; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 32, 297f., *Neuman; *Frazer Old Testament II 564.


Solomon and Marcolf. Witty questions and answers between youth and servant. *BP II 359 n. 2; Fb “Salomon”; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 317 No. 146.


King and clever minister. King propounds riddles and questions to his clever minister. **De Vries FFC LXXIII 365ff.; *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s.v. “Ahiqar”; *Marc Studien zur vgl. Littgesch. II 393f., III 52; **Meissner Das Märchen vom weisen Achikar (Leipzig, 1917); Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.


“Love like Salt.” Girl compares her love for her father to salt. Experience teaches him the value of salt. *Type 923; *BP III 305 n. 2, IV 407; *Hartland FLJ IV 309; *DeCock Studien en Essays 4f.; Cosquin Contes Indiens 103ff.; Köhler Aufsätze 14; India: *Thompson-Balys. Cf. Shakespeare‘s King Lear.


Heads placed on stakes for failure in performance of task. Unsuccessful youths are beheaded and heads exposed. Hero sees them when he sets out to accomplish his task. *Types 329, 507A; *BP III 368; *Taylor Romanic Review IV 21ff.; *Brown Iwain 137 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 119, Frazer Apollodorus II 160 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Paradoxical Tasks.


Answers found in other world to questions propounded on the way. (Cf. H1278, H1282, H1283, H1284.) *Type 461; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.


Quest for three persons as stupid as his wife. *Type 1384; BP I 335, II 440; Christensen DF L 35.


Counsels proved wise by experience. *Types 910A, 910B, 910C, 910D; *Cosquin Études 85ff., 100ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.


J21.23. ”Rise earlier“: counsel proved wise by experience. Man seeking explanation for being in debt arises earlier and catches his servants stealing. (Cf. H588.1.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.   J21.24. ”Do not make a horse run down hill“: counsel proved wise by experience. Horse breaks its neck. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 52; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.   J21.25. ”Do not keep bad company“: counsel proved wise by experience. Breaking of father’s first counsel causes the breaking of all the others. Italian Novella: Rotunda.   J21.26. ”Don‘t be too greedy in making a trade“: counsel proved wise by experience. Man refuses fifty ducats for horse. Horse suddenly dies. Italian Novella: Rotunda.   J21.27. ”Do not adopt a child“: counsel proved wise by experience. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *911; Italian Novella: Rotunda.   J21.28. ”Do not trust a ruler who rules by reason alone“: counsel proved wise by experience. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *911; Italian Novella: Rotunda.   J21.29. ”Keep head dry, feet warm, and eat meat“: counsel proved wise by experience. King recovers from illness. Italian Novella: Rotunda.   J21.30. ”Never have to do with a woman unless wed to her“: counsel proved wise by experience. Italian Novella: Rotunda.   J21.31. ”Do not marry a woman before seeing her and finding her to be your equal“: counsel proved wise by experience. Italian Novella: Rotunda.


Wisdom of hidden old man saves kingdom. In famine all old men are ordered killed. One man hides his father. When all goes wrong in the hands of the young rulers, the old man comes forth, performs assigned tasks, and aids with his wisdom. Type 981*; *Anderson FFC XLII 182 n. 1; *DeVries FFC LXXIII 220ff.; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 446, cf. No. 538; Fb “gammel” IV 174a; Scala Celi No. 281; *Paudler FFC CXXI. – Irish myth: *Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *995; Russian: Andrejev No. 981*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 995*; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 910F*; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 115ff. No. 71.


The widow‘s meal. King upbraids wind for blowing away a poor widow’s last cup of meal. Finds that the wind has saved a ship full of people by that very act. The king is humbled. **Schiller Anthropos XII – XIII 513; DeVries FFC LXXIII 324ff.; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 67, *301, *Neuman.


Cheater discovered by fishing in the street. Man arouses the curiosity of the rascal who has swindled his wife. Type 1382.


Talkative wife discredited. Husband tells his talkative wife about treasure he has discovered. To discredit her report he tells her also of impossible things (woodcock in the fish net, fish in the bird trap, etc.). She repeats it all and whole story is disbelieved. Husband may keep his treasure. *Type 1381; BP I 527; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Husband discredited by absurd truth. Wife puts fish in furrow where husband plows them up (or like absurdity). At mealtime the husband says, “Where are the fish?” – “What fish?” – “Those I plowed up.” He is laughed to scorn. Bédier Fabliaux 196, 436; India: Thompson-Balys.


The sausage rain. (Or rain of figs, fishes, or milk.) A mother in order to discredit testimony of her foolish son who has killed a man makes him believe that it has rained sausages. When he says that he killed the man on the night it rained sausages his testimony is discredited. Chauvin VI 126, VIII 35, 69; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 184, 195, 204 Nos. 347, 383, 407; *BP I 527; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No 4; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Susanna and the elders: separate examination of witnesses. Testimony as to exact circumstances of her deed does not agree. Witnesses discredited. **W. Baumgartner Susanna, die Geschichte einer Legende (Archiv f. Religionswiss. XXIV 259 – 80); *Chauvin VI 193 No. 362; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 361f., Neuman.


Solomon’s judgment: the divided child. Two women claim a child. Judge offers to cut it in two. Real mother refuses. *Frazer Old Testament II 570; *Goebel Jüdische Motive im Märchenhaften Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 21ff.; *Gaidoz Mélusine IV 313, 337, 366, 385, 414, 446, 457; *Köhler-Bolte I 531; *Chauvin VI 63 No. 231. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “partage”; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Menomini): Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 397; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 348 n. 1; West Indies: Flowers 479. Cf. Cook Group: Dixon 37 (child actually cut in two to settle dispute).


Reductio ad absurdum of judgment. *Chauvin VI 63, 231; *Zachariae Zs f. Vksk. XXX – XXXII 50 n. 2; *Wesselski Arlotto II 215 No. 73; India: Thompson-Balys; Oceanic: *Dixon 199 n. 37; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 197 No. 26.


Killing the fly on the judge‘s nose. The judge has told the boy that he should kill a fly wherever he sees one. Type 1586; *BP I 519; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 271 No. 280; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 673; Fansler MAFLS XII 390, 435; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII 69 No. 4.


A rule must work both ways.


The besieged women‘s dearest possession. (Women of Weinsberg.) Permitted to carry from the city their dearest possession, they take their husbands. *DeVries FFC LXXIII 278ff.; *Gaster Germania XXV 285ff.; *Wehrhan Die Sage 31ff.; *Bolte Montanus Gartengesellschaft 615 No. 80.


One Thing Mistaken for Another.


Rabbit thought to be a cow. Servant sent to bring in cows is found chasing rabbits. BP III 260 (Grimm No. 162); U.S.: Baughman.


Pumpkin thought to be an ass‘s egg. Numskull thinks he has hatched out an ass’s egg. He thinks that the rabbit which runs out is the colt. *Type 1319; *BP I 317ff.; *Köhler-Bolte I 323; *Clouston Noodles 38; *Fb “æg” III 1142a; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 249 No. 163; Christensen DF XLVII 208 no. 63. – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 157; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “oeuf”, “âne” “lièvre”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.


Steamship thought to be the devil. Type 1315*.


Inappropriate action from misunderstanding


Swimming (fishing) in the flax-field. Peasants go to visit the sea. They see a waving flax-field, and, thinking it is the sea, jump in to swim. *Type 1290; *BP III 205; Köhler-Bolte I 112; Christensen DF XLVII 195 no. 20; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “lin”, “pêche”; India: Thompson-Balys.


Goat chewing cud angers fool, who thinks goat is mimicking him. Type 1211; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Animals or Objects Treated as if Human.


Meat fed to cabbages. *Type 1386; BP I 520; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 60 No. 92.


Filling cracks with butter. Numskull sees cracks in the ground and feels so sorry for them that he greases them with the butter he is taking home. *Type 1291; BP I 521; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 250 No. 165; Missouri French: Carrière.


Cloak given to a stone to keep it warm. Köhler-Bolte I 71; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 140 No. 1651; Japanese: Ikeda.


One cheese sent after another. Numskull lets one roll down hill; sends the other to bring it back. *Type 1291; BP I 521.


The ass as mayor. Fool made to believe that his ass (ox) has been educated and has become mayor. *Type 1675; *BP I 59; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 224 No. 63; *Fb “tyr” III 908b; Christensen DF XLVII 229; England: Baughman; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Absurd disregard or ignorance of animal’s nature or habits.


Cow (hog) taken to roof to graze. *Type 1210; *Köhler-Bolte I 66, 135; *Fb “ko” II 241a, “tyr” III 908b; Christensen DF XLVII 219 No. 81; English: Clouston Noodles 55; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 295 No. 15; Spanish: Espinosa III 147 Nos. 181 – 188.


Marking the place on the boat. An object falls into the sea from a boat. Numskulls mark the place on the boat-rail to indicate where it fell. *Type 1278; *Fb “båd” IV 87a; *Clouston Noodles 99; Penzer V 92f.; Japanese: Ikeda.


Absurd disregard of natural laws.


Absurd practices connected with crops. Christensen DF XLVII 207.


Boots sent by telegraph. A peasant hangs boots and an accompanying letter on a telegraph wire, expecting them to reach the city. Type 1710; Christensen DF XLVII 204 no. 50; U.S. (Ozarks): *Randolph Devil‘s Pretty Daughter (New York, 1955) 195.


Person does not know himself. Fb “selv”; L. Schmidt Oesterr. Zs f. Vksk. 1954, 129ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Numskulls cannot find their own legs. A stranger helps them with a switch. (Usually get them mixed up when they sit down to bathe their feet.) Type 1288; BP III 150 n. 1; *Fb “ben” IV 32b; Clouston Noodles 32; Christensen DF XLVII 183.


Counting wrong by not counting oneself. Numskulls conclude that one of their number is drowned. *Type 1287; *BP III 149 n. 1; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 267 No. 261; *Clouston Noodles 28ff., 192; *Field Pent Cuckoo 8; Köhler-Bolte I 112; Christensen DF XLVII 181ff. – Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 317 No. 153; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 66 No. 111.


Absurd short-sightedness


Quarrel and fight over details of air-castles. *Type 1430; BP III 275; *Gerould MLN XIX 228; India: *Thompson-Balys; Arab: Azov JPASB (n.s.) II 402f.; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 269, Coster-Wijsman 65f. Nos. 107 – 110.


Air-castle shattered by lack of forethought.


Distress over imagined troubles of unborn child. (Clever Else.) Girl sent to cellar to get wine to serve the suitor begins weeping over the troubles of the child which she might have if she married the suitor. Her parents join her. Meanwhile the suitor leaves. *Type 1450; *BP I 335; *Clouston Noodles 191; Christensen DF L 35; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 55, 277; India: Thompson-Balys; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 285 No. 125.


Three foolish wishes. Three wishes will be granted: used up foolishly. *Bédier Fabliaux 212ff., 471; Type 750; *Bolte Zs. f. vgl. Litgsch. VII 453; *BP II 212; *Fb “[ö]nske” III 1179a. – Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “souhaits”; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 213, Coster-Wijsman 46 No. 56.


Short-sighted wish: Midas’s touch. Everything to turn to gold. *BP II 213; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 180; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *775.


Foolish bargain: horse for cow, cow for hog, etc. Finally nothing left. *Type 1415; *BP II 199; English: Wells 118 (Octovian); India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 57 No. 84; N. A. Indian (Zuni): Boas JAFL XXXV 74 No. 3. Cf. Africa (Ibo, Nigeria): Thomas 128.


The foolish pawn. The woman sells cows and gets one of them back as a pledge for the unpaid purchase price. *Type 1385; *BP II 440; Christensen DF L 35.


Remedies worse than the disease.


Numskull cuts off tree-limb on which he sits. *Type 1240; Köhler-Bolte I 51, 135, 486ff.; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 216f. No. 49; Chauvin II 201 No. 47; Clouston Noodles 158; Fb “træ” III 967; Christensen DF XLVII 229; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 293 No. 2; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Men hang down in a chain until top man spits on his hands. They all fall. *Type 1250; Köhler-Bolte I 113; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 242 No. 124; *Bolte Schweiz. Arch. f. Vksk. XXIII (1920 – 21) 36ff.; Clouston Noodles 46; Christensen DF XLVII 179ff., 193 No. 7; Virginian: Parsons JAFL XXXV 302; Chinese: Chavannes II 324.


Wolves climb on top of one another to tree: lowest runs away and all fall. Type 121; *BP II 530 n. 3; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Other short-sighted acts.


Fool lets wine run in the cellar. He (she) falls into a study (or chases a dog) while the spigot is open. *Type 1387; BP I 316, 521ff.; *Fb “tosse” III 832a, “t[ö]nde” III 935a, “[ö]l” III 1175; Christensen DF L 49; Italian Basile Pentamerone I No. 4.


Let them eat cake. The queen has been told that the peasants have no bread. Type 1446*; Bolte Montanus 601 No. 48.


Person made to believe that he is dead. *Penzer IX 156; Christensen DF XLVII 228 No. 94.


Parson made to believe that he will bear a calf. In having his urine examined by a doctor, a cow‘s is substituted by mistake. (Or he dreams that he has borne a calf.) When a calf comes into the house he thinks that he has borne it. (Cf. J1734.1, K1955.2.) *Type 1739; *BP I 317 n. 1; *Fb ”kalv“; *Wesselski Bebel I 232 No. 148.


Numskull talks about his secret instructions and thus allows himself to be cheated. Told not to serve a man with a red beard or to keep sausage for the long winter, etc. *Type 1541; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 53 No. 400*B.


The bungling host. A trickster (animal) visits various animals who display their peculiar powers in obtaining food (often magic). He returns the invitation and tries to provide food in similar ways. He fails and usually has a narrow escape from death. (Cf. J2411.3.) N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 301 n. 103, Speck U Pa I 141 n. 2; Lepers Island: Dixon 128; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 27 n. 1; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 280 No. 97.


A man undertakes to do his wife’s work. All goes wrong. *Type 1408; *BP I 321; Bolte Frey 222 No. 20; Fb ”øl“ III 1175a; Nouvelles Récréations No. 45.


What should I have done (said)? The mother teaches the boy (the man his wife) what he should say (do) in this or that circumstance. He uses the words in the most impossible cases and is always punished. *Type 1696; *BP I 315, III 145; *Taylor JAFL XLVI 78 No. 1696; **Haavio FFC LXXXVIII 94ff.; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 251f. No. 169; *Fb ”tosse“ III 831b; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 1691*, 1691A*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC No. 1363A; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 286; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 54ff. Nos. 79 – 82; Africa: Werner African 217f.


Foolish bridegroom follows instructions literally. *Type 1685; *BP I 311; *Fb ”brud“ IV 64b; Gaster Oldest Stories 167; U.S.: Baughman; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Clearing out the room. Fool throws out all the furniture. *Type 1685; Italian Novella: Rotunda.


The silence wager. A man and his wife make a wager as to who shall speak first (close the door). The man (woman) becomes jealous and scolds; loses the wager. *Type 1351; Child No. 275; **Brown Amer. Journ. of Philol. XLIII 289; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 263; Clouston Tales II 15; *Basset 1001 Contes II 401; Chauvin VIII 132 No. 124; Clouston Noodles 108, 184; Fb ”tie“ III 792a; Christensen DF L 79; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.


The fool seeks a midwife. Accidentally strikes the dog dead, drowns the midwife, and kills the child. *Type 1680.


The boy‘s disasters. Foolishly kills his horse and throws his axe into the lake to kill a duck. Undresses to recover axe. Clothes stolen. Goes into barrel of tar to hide. In tar and feathers. *Type 1681.


Race won by deception: relative helpers. One of the contestants places his relatives (or others that resemble him) in the line of the race. The opponent always thinks the trickster is just ahead of him. (Told of animals or of men; often of the hare and the turtle.) *Type 1074; *Dh IV48; Chauvin III 32; *Parsons JAFL XXI 221 n. 2; BP III 340ff., *343. – North Carolina: Brown Collection I 703; Finnish-Swedish: Hackman FFC VI No. 275*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 92*; Spanish: Espinosa III 457f. – India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Basset Contes Berbères 139; Japanese: Ikeda. – Indonesia: *Dixon 192, 334 n. 18, DeVries‘s list No. 120; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 445, (Tinguian): Cole 198. – N. A. Indian: *Boas BBAE LIX 307, (Oaxaca, Mexico): Boas JAFL XXV 214; S. A. Indian (Araucanian): Lehman-Nitsche Int. Cong. Americanists XIV 686, (Amazon): Alexander Lat Am. 288. – Africa (Cameroons): Mansfield 224, (Benga): Nassau 95 No. 5, (Kaffir): Kidd 239 No. 8, (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 390 No. 15, (Suk): Mervin The Suk 38, (Ibo, Nigeria): Basden 274, Thomas 153, (Vai): Ellis 199 No. 16; Bahama: Edwards MAFLS III 69; Cape Verde Islands: *Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 308 n. 1; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 261 No. 60, Jekyll 39ff.; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 86 No. 18, (Virginia): Parsons JAFL XXXV 271, (North Carolina): Backus JAFL XI 284, Parsons JAFL XXX 174, (South Carolina): Stewart JAFL XXXII 394, Parsons MAFLS XVI 79, (Florida): Parsons JAFL XXX 225f.


Race won by deception: riding on the back. One contestant rides on the other’s back. (Cf. K25.1.) *Types 221, 250, 275; *Dh IV 72ff., 91, 160ff.; Wienert FFC LVI *54 (ET 139), 114 (ST 248); BP III 278, *339. – Italian Novella: Rotunda; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list Nos. 102, 121; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 441, (Kalispel): Curtis N. A. Indian VII iii, (Jicarilla Apache): Goddard PaAM VIII 236 No. 45; Africa (Vai): Ellis 189 No. 5, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 155 No. 30; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 261 No. 60; American Negro (Virginia): Parsons JAFL XXXV 270f., (Pennsylvania): ibid. XXX 209, (North Carolina): ibid. XXX 189.


Hare and tortoise race: sleeping hare. In a race between the fast and the slow animal, the fast animal sleeps on the road and allows the slow animal to pass him. *Dh IV 66ff.; *BP III 341ff.; Jacobs Aesop 162 No. 68; Haupt Zs. f. deutsches Altertum XII (1865) 527; *Wienert FFC LVI 44 (ET 22), 135 (ST 412); Halm Aesop No. 420. – Japanese: Ikeda; Ainu: Chamberlain, B. Aino Folktales (London, 1888) No. 14; N. A. Indian (Ojibwa): Schoolcraft Algic Researches 181, (Cherokee): Mooney RBAE XIX 290 No. 43; Africa (West Africa): Cronise and Ward Cunnie Rabbit, Mr. Spider and the Other Beef (London, 1903) 155f.; West Indies: Flowers 494; Bahama: Parsons MAFLS XIII 102; American Negro (Pennsylvania): Parsons JAFL XXX 214, (North Carolina): Parsons JAFL XXX 174, (South Carolina): Parsons MAFLS XVI 79, (Florida): Parsons JAFL XXX 226.


Race won by deception: rabbit as “little son” substitute. A man challenged by an ogre to a running race persuades the ogre to race with his little son instead. By this he means a rabbit. (Cf. K12.2, K15.1.) *Type 1072; *Köhler-Bolte I 58, 477ff.


Wrestling match won by deception: where to throw the ogre. The ogre squeezes the man so that his eyes bulge out. The ogre: “Why do you glare so?” – “I am looking to see where to throw you.” The ogre flees (Cf. K18.1.) *Type 1070; Hdwb d. Märchens I 193b. n. 9; *Hackman cf. K12.


Wrestling match won by deception: bear as “grandfather.” A man challenged by an ogre persuades the latter to wrestle with his old grandfather instead. By this he means a bear. (Cf. K11.6, K15.1.) *Type 1071; Köhler-Bolte I 477ff.; *Hackman cf. K12.


Throwing contest: golden club on the cloud. Trickster shows the ogre the club he has thrown. (Really only a bright spot on the cloud.) (Cf. K1746.) *Type 1063; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 22.


Throwing contest: bird substituted for stone. The ogre throws a stone; the hero a bird which flies out of sight. *Type 1062; BP I 148; Lappish: Qvigstad Lappiske Eventyr II 237, 251; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 95; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 51; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 431ff., (Navaho): Matthews MAFLS V 84; Africa: Meinhof Afrikanische Märchen 178, (Jaunde): Nekes 252.


Flying contest won by deception: riding on the other. Wren hides in eagle’s wings. (Cf. K11.2.) *Type 221.


Contest in pushing hole in tree: hole prepared beforehand. Hero and ogre to vie in pushing a hole in a tree with their heads. *Type 1085, 1640; BP I 163; Köhler-Bolte I 86.


Contest in squeezing water from a stone. The ogre squeezes a stone; the trickster a cheese or egg. *Types 1060, 1640; *BP I 148; *Fb “sten” III 554a, “øst” II 763a; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 438; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 51; Caucasian: Dirr Kaukasische Märchen 7 No. 2; Malay: Hambruch Malaiische Märchen 109; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis IX 289; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 146 No. 30.


Contest in biting a stone. The ogre bites a stone; the man a nut. *Types 1061, 1640; BP I 68 n. 1, II 528; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 387 No. 13.


Deceptive contest in carrying a tree: riding. The trickster has the dupe carry the branches of a tree while he carries the trunk. He rides on the trunk. *Type 1052; *BP I 149; Africa (Dzalamo): Meinhof ZsES XI 280. Cf. Type 1640.


Deceptive contest in carrying a horse. The ogre carries it on his back and soon tires; the man carries it between his legs (rides). *Type 1082; Köhler-Bolte I 473.


Deceptive eating contest: hole in bag. The hero slips his food into a bag and makes the ogre believe that he is the greater eater. (In many versions the hero cuts open the bag; the ogre imitates and kills himself.) (Cf. K82.1.) *Type 1088; Saintyves Perrault 282; Krohn Tutkimuksia Suomalaisten Kansansatujen alalta 220ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 86; *Fb “æde” III 1139b. – Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 211, MacCulloch Eddic 93, Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 439; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 330 n. 191b; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis IX 368, XII 349.


Deceptive eating contest: relative helpers. Trickster wins with the aid of substitutes. (Cf. K82.2.) N. A Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 69; Africa (Congo): Weeks 214 No. 10.


Deceptive bargains


Deceptive crop division: above the ground, below the ground. Of root crops the ogre (stupid animal) chooses the tops; of other crops the roots. (Cf. J242.8.) *Type 1030; *BP III 355, 363 n. 1; **J. Hackman “Sagan om skördelningen” Folkloristika och etnografiska studier III 140ff.; *Krohn “Bar (Wolf) und Fuchs” JSFO VI 104ff.; Wünsche Teufel 70ff.; Taylor PMLA XXXVI 58 n. 34; *Köhler-Bolte I 69; **Hdwb. d. Märchens I 193a, 593b; *Fb “rød”. – Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 441, (1928) 271; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 161; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; West Indies: Flowers 497; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 441, 447ff.; American Negro: Parsons JAFL XXX 175.


Deceptive division of pigs: curly and straight tails. All with curly tails belong to the trickster, others to the dupe. *Type 1036.


Deceptive division of animals for shearing. The trickster shears the sheep; the dupe the pig. *Type 1037.


Anger bargain. The trickster makes a bargain with his master that the first to become angry must submit to punishment. He thereupon heaps abuses on his master till the latter breaks out in anger and must take his punishment. *Types 650A, 1000; *BP II 293; *Fb “næse” II 716a, “vred” III 1195b; Köhler-Bolte I 327; Irish myth: *Cross, Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “domestique”; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 240; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 433f.; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 113.


Deceptive bargain: first to say “Good morning.” The first to give the greeting shall have the disputed property. The trickster is early on the scene and witnesses the other’s adultery. He may keep the property without saying good morning. *Type 1735; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 324.


Deceptive land purchase. (Dido.)


Strokes shared. The boy promises the soldier what the king has promised to give him. The soldier receives a beating in place of the boy. *Type 1610; **Reinhard JAFL XXXVI 380; *BP I 62; *Basset 1001 Contes I 321; Köhler-Bolte I 495; *Chauvin V 282 No. 166; *Wesselski Märchen 202 No. 13; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 614; Hibbard 80 n. 3; Wesselski Mönchslatein 161 No. 122. – English: Wells 161 (Sir Cleges); Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Counting out pay. Hole in the hat and hat over a pit. *Type 1130; *BP III 421; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 752.


Object falls on robbers from tree. They flee and leave money. India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 144, 147 No. 64.


Corpse thrown among robbers frightens them from treasure. *Type 1653B.


Robbers frightened from goods by sham-dead man. Type 1654**; DeVries Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsche Taal- en Letterkunde XLV 213; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 211 No. 429; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1654*, 1654A; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 1654*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1654*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 130 No. 1532, 137 No. 1654*, 142 No. 1716*; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.


For the long winter. The numskull has been told to keep the sausage “for the long winter”. When the trickster hears this, he claims to be Long Winter and receives the sausage. *Type 1541; *Fb “tosse” III 832a, “pølse” II 907b; BP I 521, 526; Christensen DF L 46; *Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 194 n. 3; Icelandic: Sveinsson FFC LXXXIII No. 1541.


Cow makes a hundred-fold return. The trickster has a cow that leads the parson’s cows to him. He thus tests the parson‘s text, “He who gives in God’s name shall have it back a hundred-fold.” *Type 1735; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 324; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 25; *Wesselski Mönchslatein 167 No. 129.


The lamb without a heart. Accused of eating the lamb’s heart, the thief maintains that it had no heart. *Type 785; *BP II 149, 153; Wienert FFC LVI 40, 107; Oesterley No. 83; Herbert III 205; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 57; Penzer V 130 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Thief claims to have been transformed into an ass. While the owner sleeps the thief steals his horse, hitches himself to the wagon, and claims that he is the horse transformed into a man. *Type 1529; *BP III 9, 391 n. 3; Chauvin VII 137; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 229 No. 487; *Basset 1001 Contes I 492; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 150 No. 1852*; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 437.


The devil gets into the ark. The devil wants to know what Noah is doing when he is building the ark. He forbids Noah’s wife to enter the ark until Noah has also invited him. *Type 825; *Dh I 258; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3100, Legends Nos. 192 – 195.


Compassionate executioner. A servant charged with killing the hero (heroine) arranges the escape of the latter. Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Wells 96 (Chevalere Assigne); Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 74; Italian: Boccaccio Decameron II No. 9 (Lee 56), Basile Pentamerone II No. 6, III No. 2; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 95 No. 53.


Compassionate executioner: substituted heart. A servant charged with killing the hero (heroine) substitutes an animal, whose heart he takes to his master as proof of the execution. *Types 671, 709; *Böklen Sneewittchenstudien 79ff.; *BP I 450ff., 463; *Aarne FFC XXIII 57, MSFO XXV 181; *Prato RTP IV 178; Chauvin V 208 No. 120; *Cox 474; *Saintyves Perrault 68; Fb “hjaerte” I 631a, “lever” II 404b, “tunge” III 894a. – Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC No. 706C*; Missouri French: Carrière; French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman (S350); Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; N. A. Indian (Shuswap): Teit JE II 730 No. 50; S. A. Indian (Quiche): Alexander Lat. Am. 172.


Captor’s bag filled with animals or objects while captives escape. *Type 327C; Icelandic: Sveinsson FFC LXXXIII No. 327C; Norwegian: Christiansen Norske Eventyr 44; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 44 No. 311B*; India: *Thompson-Balys; Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 181, 212; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 351 n. 268a; S. A. Indian (Aymara): Tschapik BBAE CXLIII (1) 571; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 120, 136, (Basuto): Jacottet 66 No. 10, (Zulu): Callaway 6, 74, 345, (Congo): Grenfell 824; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 386 No. 70, (Virginia): Parsons JAFL XXXV 262.


Escape by reversing shoes (boat).


Respite from death granted until particular act is performed. *Type 122A; U.S.: Baughman; West Indies: Flowers 515.


Executioner kept busy or interested until rescue comes. Sometimes until he changes his mind.


Drowning punishment for turtle (eel, crab). By expressing horror of drowning, he induces his captor to throw him into the water – his home. *Type 1310; *Dh IV 43; Köhler-Bolte I 266; *Fb ”ål“ III 1190b; England: Baughman; Danish: Christensen DF XLVII 171; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Dixon 195, 196 n. 32, *DeVries Volksverhalen II 360 No. 107; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 443, (Tinguian): Cole 196, 197 n. 1; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 302 n. 108; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 153 No. 17, (Jaunde): Heepe 107; (Benga): Nassau 124 No. 12, (Ibo, Nigeria): Thomas 88, (Yoruba): Ellis 266 No. 3, (Zanzibar): Bateman 40 No. 2; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 58 No. 12, 115 No. 24, Friends 167 No. 23, cf. Harris Nights 61 No. 12; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 236 No. 5; West Indies: Flowers 516.


”Noman.“ Escape by assuming an equivocal name. (Sometimes ”myself.“) *Hackman Polyphemsage 179, 203, 219; *Fb ”selv“; Clouston Noodles 194 n.; BP III 378; *Oertel Studien zur vgl. Literaturgeschichte VIII 117f.; *Toldo Zs. f. Vksk. XV 70. – Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 56 No. 480; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 262; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 36.


Escape under ram’s belly. By hiding under the belly of a ram the hero escapes under the legs of the blind ogre. *Type 1137; **Hackman Polyphemsage 160ff.; *BP III 375; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 163 – 7; Icelandic: Boberg.


Fool‘s brothers substitute a goat for the body of the man he has killed: thus save him. *Type 1600; *Chauvin VI 126 No. 280; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 183 No. 347; India: *Thompson-Balys; cf. Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 308, Coster-Wijsman 53 No. 78.


Capture by hiding in animal carcass. Animal who comes to eat of carcass caught. Babylonian: Spence 297.


Trojan wooden horse. Permits capture of the city by concealing soldiers. *Fb ”stud“ III 619b; *Penzer II 133 n. 1; Wesselski Archiv Orientální II 431; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus II 229 n. 1, 231 n. 1.


Uriah letter. Man carries written order for his own execution. *Types 428, 930; *Aarne FFC XXIII 64ff., 91; Irish: *Cross, O’Suilleabhain 38, Beal XXI 314; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 262ff., Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 828, II 267; Japanese: Ikeda. See also all references to K511.


Eye-remedy. Under pretence of curing eyesight the trickster blinds the dupe. (Often with a glowing mass thrust into the eye.) *Type 1135; *BP III 375; **Hackman Polyphemsage; *Herbert III 40ff.; Hervieux IV 204 No. 29; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ibo, Nigeria): Basden 140.


Making the beard golden: ”such a one“. A man named ”Such a one“ persuades an ogre to have his beard gilded. He covers it with tar and leaves the ogre caught to the tar-kettle. The ogre with his tar-kettle wanders about and asks everyone, ”Have you seen such a one?“ *Type 1138.


Hot porridge in the ogre‘s throat. He is tricked into burning his throat. *Type 1131.


Gun as tobacco pipe. The trickster gives the ogre the gun to smoke. *Type 1157; *Fb ”tobak“ III 814a.


Dupe wishing to learn to play fiddle has finger caught in cleft of tree. *Type 151, 1159; *BP I 68; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1147A*.


Ogre‘s (dwarf’s) beard caught fast. *Types 1160, 426; BP III 259; Grimm No. 4 (type 326), 161 (type 426).


Dupe caught in crack in ground. Dies. India: Thompson-Balys.


Dupe deceived concerning the thunder; finally killed by it. The dupe has asked the trickster to tell him when it thunders. *Type 1148A; Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, Latvian, Lithuanian: *Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI 13 – 26. Cf. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 179.


Deception into humiliating positionץ


The entrapped suitors. (Lai l’épervier.) The chaste wife has them one at a time undress and hide. The husband and guests come and chase them off. *Type 1730; *Penzer I 33ff., 42ff., 160ff.; *Baumgarten Arch. f. rel. Wiss. XXXIV 275 n. 3; Bédier Fabliaux 454ff.; Chauvin VI 12 No. 185; *Wesselski Morlini 315 No. 73; *Cosquin Études 457ff.; Clouston Tales II 289ff.; von der Hagen III *xxix. Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1730A*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1730 II*; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Bride escapes from foolish husband and leaves goat as substitute in bed. *Type 1685; *BP I 320.


Holding up the rock. Trickster makes dupe believe that he is holding up a great rock and induces him to hold it for a while. (Sometimes steals the dupe‘s goods.) *Type 1530; *Parsons JAFL XXX 237, XXXI 227 n. 2, MAFLS XV (1) 59; N. A. Indian (Mexico): Boas JAFL XXV 206, 237; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 113, 189, (Hottentot, South of Zambezi): Theal 91, (Basuto): Jacottet 44 n. 1; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 314 No. 54.


Holding up the roof. Fox pretends to be holding up the roof; hence cannot help the bear, who must do the threshing alone. *Type 9A; Dh IV 249ff.; Krohn Bär (Wolf) und Fuchs (JSFO VI) 97ff.; Japanese: Ikeda.


Holding down the hat. Dupe persuaded to guard hat supposed to cover something valuable. It covers a pile of dung. (Dupe’s goods are sometimes stolen.) *Type 1528; *Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 54; Java: Dixon 186 n. 2; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 420, 426. Cf. Indonesia: DeVries Volksverhalen II 396 No. 185B.


Man hidden in roof sees girl and lover and falls: they flee and leave him in possession. *Types 1360, 1776; Wesselski Morlini 303 No. 54; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 890; Italian Novella: Rotunda.


Man having seen woman and lover from roof threatens to tell about it; is paid to stop. *Type 1360B; Lappish: Qvigstad Lappiske Eventyr III No. 84.


Man disguised as woman admitted to women‘s quarters: seduction. *Types 516, 1542; Rösch FFC LXXVII 109; *Fischer-Bolte 215; *Krappe Balor 12 n. 42; Penzer I 47n., 48n.; Herrmann Saxo II 239, 493, 641; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 73 n. 2 (Achilles); India: *Thompson-Balys, Ruben FFC CXXXIII 41.


Woman deceived into sacrificing honor. Ruler promises to release her brother (husband) but afterward refuses to do so. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XII 65; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 107, 366, Neuman.


”Both?“ The youth is sent to the house to get two articles. He meets the two daughters and calls back to the master. ”Both?“ ”Yes, I said both!“ replies the master. The youth has his will of both daughters. *Type 1563; Chauvin VI 180 No. 342; Bolte Montanus Gartengesellschaft 611 No. 73; Köhler-Bolte I 150, 291; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 420ff.; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 115.


Lover‘s gift regained. The husband appears before payment can be made to wife. *Type 1731; **Spargo FFC XCI 50ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2913*.


Guarding the door. It is lifted off and carried away. *Types 1009, 1653A; Penzer V 117 n.; Clouston Noodles 97; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1014A*.


Old Hildebrand. Hidden cuckold reveals his presence by rhymes. He responds to the rhymes made by the wife and paramour concerning their entertainment. *Type 1360C; **Anderson Der Schwank vom alten Hildebrand (Dorpat, 1931); *BP II 373; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 188a nn. 164 – 5; Spanish: Espinosa II No. 93, III No. 193.


Trickster discovers adultery: food goes to husband instead of paramour. *Types 1535, 1725; *BP II 18; von der Hagen III *xxix; Wesselski Märchen 216 No. 27; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1360A*, 2901*, 2902*; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 1380 VIII*; Russian: Andrejev 1360A*, 1730 IV; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Trickster makes woman believe that her husband is coming to punish her adultery. She confesses. *Type 1725; BP II 131; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 136.


Trickster sends his master running after the paramour. Though the master does not know of the adultery, the lover is thoroughly frightened. *Type 1725; BP II 131; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 136.


Trickster as sham magician buys chest containing hidden paramour. (Cf. K1515, K1542, K1555, K1556.) *Types 1535, 1725; *BP II 18; India: Thompson-Balys.


Weak animal (man) makes large one (ogre) believe that he has eaten many of the large one‘s companions. The latter is frightened. Types 126*, 1149; *BP I 160 n. 1; *Krappe Neophilologus XV 274ff.; Russian: Andrejev No. 126; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 249f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: *Dixon 191 nn. 15, 16, 192 n. 17; Africa: Weeks Jungle 394, Werner African 223, (Kaffir): Kidd 230 No. 2, (Vai): Ellis 191 No. 7, (Hottentot): Bleek 24; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 317, 320, 322; West Indies: Flowers 543; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 44 No. 9, 291 No. 49.


Bluff: only one tiger; you promised ten. Child (or shepherd) calls out to the small hero (ape, hare) and makes the tiger (ogre) think that he is lucky to escape alive. *Type 1149; Aarne FFC XI 154; Dh IV 278; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 322.


The wolf flees from the wolf-head. The sheep have found a sack and a wolf-head. They make the wolf believe that they have killed a wolf, and he flees in terror. *Type 125; BP I 237ff., 254; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 249f., 255f., 266; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Wakweli): Bender 54.


Ogre overawed by hero’s boasts about marvelous relatives.


The bear trainer and his bear. (Schrätel und Wasserbär.) Ogre is driven out by hero’s bear. The next year the ogre asks, ”Is the big cat still living?“ Hero says that it now has many kittens. Ogre is overawed. *Type 1161; **Taylor MPh XVII 305ff.; **Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII – XXXIV 33ff.; Christiansen ”Kjætten paa D[ö]vre“ Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter 2 kl. (1922) No. 6; *Fb ”hund“ I 678b; Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 434ff., (1928) 291 – 92; Scotland: Baughman.


Felling the whole forest. Told to bring in a tree, the hero asks, ”Why not the whole forest?“ The ogre is frightened. *Type 1049; *BP III 333; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 163 – 167; India: Thompson-Balys.


A thousand at one shot. Told to shoot one or two wild boars, hero asks, ”Why not a thousand at one shot?“ The ogre is frightened. *Type 1053; *BP III 333.


Bringing the whole well. Told to get water, hero demands bucket large enough to bring in the whole well. The ogre is frightened. Type 1049; *BP III 333; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 163 – 167.


Hero threatens to pull the lake together with a rope. The ogre is intimidated. *Types 1045, 1650; Spanish: Espinosa Nos. 163 – 167; Missouri French: Carrière.


Hero threatens to haul away the warehouse with a rope. The ogre is intimidated. Type 1046.


Bluff: provisions for the swimming match. In a swimming match from a ship the hero takes a knapsack of provisions on his back. His rival is afraid and gives up. *Type 1612; N. A. Indian (Maliseet): Speck JAFL XXX 482 No. 7; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 190.


Bluff: climbing the mast. In a contest in climbing the mast the hero falls into the rigging. ”You do the same thing,“ he challenges. The sailors are persuaded of his expertness. *Type 1611; N. A. Indian (Maliseet): Speck JAFL XXX 482 No. 7; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 190.


Gods (saints) in disguise visit mortals. *Types 330A, 750A, 751, 752A, 753, 768, 785, 791; *BP II 210, III 198, 451; *Dh II 129; *Rohde Der Griechische Roman 451 n.; Fb ”Sankt Peder“ III 164a; United States (Mormon): **Lee, Hector, ”The Three Nephites: the Substance and Significance of the Legend in Folklore“ (Albuquerque, 1949), ”The Three Nephites: a Disappearing Legend“ Am. Notes and Queries II 35 – 38, Hand, ”The Three Nephites“ Am. Notes and Queries II 56 – 57, Fife, ”The Legend of the Three Nephites among the Mormons“ JAFL LIII 1 – 49; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 22, Beal XXI 307, *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 80, *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. ”Pierre“; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Fox 200, Grote I 36, 63, 88, 103, 160; Jewish: *Neuman, *bin Gorion Born Judas I 176f., 374; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Tawney I 370; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 19, 318, 473, 477, 648, 840, II 471, 504, 519, 572, 602, 1079, 1182, 1258, 1353, 1366; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 1f., 169; Japanese: Ikeda; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 69; S. A. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 316, (Chamacoso): Métraux MAFLS XL 28, (Huaroichiri): ibid. 158; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 177; West Indies: Flowers 545.


Pious pilgrim dies unknown in his father‘s house. (Miraculous manifestations.) BP III 461 (Grimm No. 204).


Army appears like forest. Surprises enemy. Each soldier carries branches. (Birnam wood comes to Dunsinane.) *Fb ”skov“ III 300a; Shakespeare‘s Macbeth; Rohde Der griechische Roman 485; Grimm Kleinere Schriften V 43; Herrmann Saxo II 341, 498; Kurth Histoire poetique des Merovingiens 396ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.


The false bride (substituted bride). An impostor takes the wife‘s place without the husband’s knowledge and banishes (kills, transforms) the wife. *Types 403, 408, 425, 450, 480, 510, 511, 533; Tegethoff 20; *BP I 79ff.; *Huet RTP XXII 1ff.; **Arfert Das Motiv von der unterschobenen Braut (Rostock, 1897); *M. Potanine Vostotchnye Motivy v srednevekom evropeiskom Epose (Moscow, 1899 – see RTP XXII 8 n. 2); *Godden FL IV 142, 143 n. 1; *Hepding Hessische Blätter fur Volkskunde V 161; Cox 478, 501; *Cosquin Contes indiens 61ff.; Penzer VI 47 n. 1, 48, VIII 12ff., IX 55ff.; *Fb ”brud“ IV 64b. – French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 22, Sister Marie Ursule; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61, 82 Nos. 445B*, 708A*; Italian: Basile Pentamerone Int., III No. 10, V No. 9; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 47f.; Korean: Zong in-Sob 48 No. 28; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 177; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 nn. 262, 265; Africa: Werner African 230, (Zulu): Callaway 75, 85, (Kaffir): Theal 67, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 85ff.


Sham parson (priest). *Fb ”smedepræst“; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.


Parody sermon. *BP III 116; Fb ”messe“ II 582a; Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 182; Boccaccio Decameron VI No. 10 (Lee 179); *Wesselski Arlotto I 174ff. No. 3; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1835*; Prussian: Plenzat 77; Italian Novella: Rotunda; West Indies: Flowers 549.


Husband answers behind the statue when wife wants to know how to fool him. He says to feed him well. *Type 1380; *Taylor MPh XV 227 n. 1; Stiefel Zs. f. Vksk. VIII 74ff.; Panchatantra III 18, (tr. Ryder) 370; Russian: Andrejev No. 1380; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Wife behind tree advises husband against having his wife work. *Type 1405; BP III 44; *Hdwb. d. Märchens II 148a nn. 381-391.


Girl behind the tree advises the unwilling suitor. Believing it to be the advice of angels, he marries her. Type 1461*.


Sexton behind crucifix tells old maid she will have no husband; she tells Christ Child that he knows nothing about it, she is praying to his mother. Type 1476; BP III 120.


Sham miracle: may the grass grow up! Tricksters who have done no mowing say to their master when he angers them, ”May the grass grow up again!“ He finds it is full height. *Type 1736; Fb ”[ö]nske“ III 1178b.


Girls keep up appearances to deceive suitors as to their desirability. Type 1459**; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 702; Japanese: Ikeda.


Potiphar’s wife. A woman makes vain overtures to a man and then accuses him of attempting to force her. *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 456 n. 102; **Bloomfield Trans. Am. Philos. Assoc. LIV 141; *Penzer II 120, IV 104, 107, V 176; *Dickson 178 n. 44; Boje 76; *Faverty Harvard Studies and Notes in Phil and Lit. XIII 81ff.; Heptameron No. 70; Saintyves Saints Successeurs 213ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 68, 128 Nos. 515*, 1516*, Espinosa III No. 146, Keller; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 6, *Rotunda; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 151 n. 2, II 63 n. 4, 74 n. 2, 106 n. 3, Fox 104; Jewish: *Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 336; India: Cowell J[a]taka I 265, IV 117, *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 264, 529; Chinese: Werner 192; Chinese-Persian: *Coyajee JPASB XXIV 191; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 326 n. 178.


The priest‘s guest and the eaten chickens. The servant who has eaten the chickens tells the guest to flee because the priest is going to cut off his ears, and he tells the priest that the guest has stolen two chickens The priest runs after him. *Type 1741; *BP II 129; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 364; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 245 No. 543; Chauvin VI 179 No. 341; *Fb ”[ö]re“ III 1181a; India: Thompson-Balys.


The corpse handed around. (The thrice-killed corpse.) Dupes are accused of murder when the corpse is left with them. The trickster is paid to keep silent. *Types 1536C, 1537; *Taylor MPh XV 221ff., 226 n. 1; **Suchier Der Schwank von der viermal getöteten Leiche (Halle a. S., 1922); *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 598; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 214 No. 438; Köhler-Bolte I 190; Bédier Fabliaux 469; BP II 10; Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 73 n. 3. – Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 176, 189, *Espinosa JAFL XLIX 181 – 193; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Unresponsive corpse. Corpse is set up so that dupe addresses it and when it does not respond knocks it over. He is accused of murder. Most references to K2151 apply to this motif as well. *Cox 501; Christiansen Norske Eventyr No. 1536; *Clouston Tales II 242; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 176, 189; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 197 No. 96; N. A. Indian (Micmac): Rand No. 57, (Zuñi): Cushing 255, (Ojibwa): Schoolcraft Hiawatha 246.


Bloody knife left in innocent person‘s bed brings accusation of murder. See references to K2155.1. Dickson 74, 225; Hibbard 25 n. 5.


Villains and traitors


Matron of Ephesus. (Vidua.) A woman mourns night and day by her husband‘s grave. A knight guarding a hanged man is about to lose his life because of the corpse he has stolen from the gallows. The matron offers him her love and substitutes her husband’s corpse on the gallows so that the knight can escape. *Type 1510; **Grisebach Die Wanderung der Novelle von der treulosen Witwe durch die Weltliteratur (Berlin, 1889); *Crane Vitry 228 No. 232; *Chauvin VIII 210 No. 254; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 752; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish: Espinosa II No. 93; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas III 240ff.; *315.


Betrayal of husband’s secret by his wife. *Oertel JAOS XXVIII 96; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Corpse set up to frighten people. *Type 1536; *Taylor MPh XV 225 n. 1; Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 73, 360; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.


The three hunchback brothers drowned. A drunken man is employed, by the woman who has accidently slain three hunchback brothers, to throw one into the river. He does so. Then she puts another out and finally the third. The man thinks they keep coming to life. Finally he sees the woman‘s hunchback husband and drowns him. *Type 1536B; *BP III 485; **Pillet Das Fablaiu von les trois bossus menestrals (1901); *Taylor MPh XV 223 n. 3; *Chauvin VIII 72; *Herbert III 203; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 31f.; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Sparrows of Cirencester. Fire is attached to birds who fly in and set fire to a besieged city. **Krappe MPh XXIII 7ff.; **DeVries Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi XLVII 66ff.; Stender-Petersen Edda Nordisk Tidsskrift f. Litteraturforskning 1929, 145 – 64; Herrmann Saxo II 93; *Liebrecht 109f.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.


Heaven entered by a trick. *Type 330; *BP I 343, II 189, III 303; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 210; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas II 164, 349; India: Thompson-Balys.


Victorious youngest son. *Types 326, 402, 471, 513, 550, 551, 554, 569, 570, 571, 577, 580, 610, 935, 1650. See also references under each of these type entries in FFC LXXIV. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 186a; Malone PMLA XLIII 398f.; *A. Christensen Danske Studier (1916) 46ff.; Chauvin II 115 No. 88. – Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 491; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 614; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/403, 615); Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 383; Polynesian: Dixon 41; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 185, (California): Gayton and Newman 74; Africa (Jaunde): Heepe 262, (Fang): Tessman 107, (Zanzibar): Bateman 155ff. No. 8, (Ekoi): Talbot 207, 259, 355, (Fjort): Dennett 65 No. 13, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 171 No. 34; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 110f. No. 39.


Victorious youngest daughter. *Types 361, 425, 431, 440, 480, 510, 511, 707, 901, 923; **Cox Cinderella passim; *BP I 185; Nutt FL IV 133; Jacobs FL IV 269; Lang FL IV 413; Cox FL XVIII 191; *Roberts 110; Tegethoff 10; *MacCulloch Childhood 357; *Saintyves Perrault 113. – Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 65 No. 471B*; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I Nos. 2, 8, II Nos. 2, 3, III No. 4, V No. 9, Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 248 No. 193; Indonesia: Dixon 210; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 382ff., 390, (Maliseet): Mechling GSCan IV No. 9, (Chinook): Boas BBAE XX 77ff. No. 4, (Kwakiutl): Boas and Hunt JE III 371, (Gros Ventre): Kroeber PaAM I 80ff. No. 19, (Wichita): Dorsey CI XXI No. 33.


Future hero found in boat (basket, bushes). Legends of Moses, Cyrus, Beowulf and others. *Usener Die Sintfluthsagen (Bonn, 1899) 80ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I s.v. ”Aussetzung in Boot“; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Proud king displaced by angel. (King in the bath.) While the king is in the bath (or hunting) an angel in his form takes his place. The king is repulsed on all sides until he repents of his haughtiness. *Type 757; **Varnhagen Ein indisches Märchen auf seine Wanderung durch die asiatischen und europäischen Literaturen (Berlin, 1882); Chauvin II 161 No. 51; *Wesselski Märchen 237 No. 49; Hibbard 58ff.; *Herbert III 202; *Oesterley No. 59; *Andraea Anglia Beiblatt XIII 302; *von der Hagen III cxv; bin Gorion Born Judas III 47ff., 299f.; *Goebel Jüdische Motive im Märchenhafte Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 89ff. – Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.


King vainly forbids tide to rise. (Canute.) Herbert III 62; Spanish Exempla: Keller.


Woman with three hundred sixty-five children. Punished for self-righteous condemnation of unchaste girl. *Taylor Notes and Queries No. 251 (Feb., 1923) 96; *K. Nyrop Grevinden med de 365 Born (København, 1909); Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 469; Child II 67f., IV 463b.; *Köhler Lais der Marie de France@2 xc; *DeCock Volkssage 9ff.


Man sells soul to devil. (Faust, Theophilus.) Types 330, 360, 361, 756B, 810, 812, 1170-1199; *BP II 164, 427, 561ff., III 12; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 46, 50, 223, 227 n.; Lidzbarski Am Urds-Brunnen IV 59 n. 1; Scala Celi 9a, 112a, 135b Nos. 58, 625, 749; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 667; *Fb ”sjæl“ III 215a; Faligan RTP V 1; Alphabet Nos. 50, 467; *Ludorff Anglia VII 60ff.; *Loomis White Magic 112f.; *K. Bittner Die Faustsage im russischen Schrifttum (Reichenberg. i. B. [Prager Deutsche Studien No. 37], 1925); *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 34. – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3400, Legends No. 757; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 49, 67 Nos. 330, 510, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 70-74, 83f.; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Argentina: Jijena Sanchez 74; N. A. Indian (Wampanoag): Knight JAFL XXXVIII 134, (Salinan): Mason U Cal X 196.


Unfavorable prophecies.


Nit in Motif-Index Cf. M341.2.4. Prophecy: three-fold death. Child to die from hunger, fire, and water. It so happens. *Jackson The Motive of the Threefold Death in the Story of Suibhne Geilt (Essays and Studies Presented to Eoin MacNeill 535 – 550); Irish myth: *Cross; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 136 No. 96; Spanish Exempla: Keller.


Vain attempts to escape fulfillment of prophecy. (Cf. M341.2.10, M343, M344.) *Type 930; **Aarne FFC XXIII 110ff.; *BP IV 116 n. 10; *Fb “rig” III 55a; *Cosquin Études 27ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Grote I 85; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 109, 428, 598, II 1220; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 202 No. 149; Africa (Wakweli): Bender 103.


Exposure of infant to avoid fulfillment of prophecy. *Type 930; **Aarne FFC XXIII 56, 91; *Encyc. Religion and Ethics s.v. “Abandonment and exposure”; *Krappe Revue de l‘Histoire des Religions CVII (1933) 126ff.; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 165, 372; Greek: Fox 5, 118; India: Thompson-Balys.


Confinement in tower to avoid fulfillment of prophecy. Type 932*; Köhler in Gonzenbach II 222; *Wesselski Mönchslatein 91 No. 77; Chauvin V 253 No. 150, VIII 105 No. 80; Irish myth: *Cross; Russian: Andrejev No. 932*; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda, Basile Pentamerone III No. 3, IV No. 6; Jewish: Neuman.


Lost ring found in fish. (Polycrates.) *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 635; *Wesselski Mönchslatein 188 No. 146; *Chauvin V 17 No. 10, 141 No. 68, VI 32 No. 202; Fb “ring” IV 328b; Toldo VIII 40; Saintyves “L‘Anneau de Polycrate” Revue de l’histoire des religions (1912) 1 – 32; *Loomis White Magic 121. – Irish: Plummer clxxxiv, *Cross; Norwegian: Solheim Register 20; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman, *Gaster Exempla 210 No. 118, *bin Gorion Born Judas@2 II 106, 344, III 51, 55, 300; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 29; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 7; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 133.


The Cranes of Ibycus. Murdered man calls on cranes, the only witnesses of the murder, to avenge him. The cranes follow the murderer and point him out. *BP II 532; *Amalfi Zs. f. Vksk. VI 115ff.; *Zachariae ibid. IX 336; Scala Celi 100b No. 539; Hertz Abhandlungen 334; Köhler-Bolte II 563; Chauvin II 123, VII 146; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 27. – England: Baughman; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 209; Jewish: *Neuman.


Secret physical peculiarity discovered by barber. (Midas.) See all references to F511.2.2. and D1316.5. Alphabet No. 268; Irish myth: *Cross; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 886 I*.


Treasure trove. **Norlind Skattsägner (bibliography 67f.); **Kittredge Witchcraft 204ff., 516ff.; *Fb “skat” III 234ff.; *Wehrhan 80f.; RTP XIV 71, 568, XVIII 418, XIX 306; *S. Hirschberg Schatzglaube und Totenglaube (Breslau, 1934); **Hurley WF X 197 – 216. – Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 419ff., (1931) 293ff., A. Olrik Nordisk Aandsliv (Copenhagen, 1907) 8 – 87; Norwegian: Solheim Register 20; Irish myth: *Cross; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 69ff. Nos. 199 – 221; German: **Winter Die deutsche Schatzsage; Missouri French: Carrière; U.S. (Texas): *Dobie Coronado‘s Children; Chinese: Graham.


Treasure at end of rainbow. *Fb “regenbue” III 31b, “skat” III 235a; African: Werner African 234.


Light indicates hidden treasure. (Cf. N511.1.4.) *Fb “lys” II 480b; *Norlind 34ff., 57; England, U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 691, 694; Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 419ff., (1931) 293ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3632.


Treasure indicated by statue (stone) with inscription, “Dig here”. *Spargo Virgil the Necromancer 363 n. 3; *Fb “skat” III 235a; *Oesterley No. 107; Danish: Blinkenberg Danske Studier (1928) 97ff.; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Treasure to be found by hand that hid it. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 77 Nos. 638, 639; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 45 No. 64; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3611; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 128 No. 64.


Tabus in effect while treasure is being unearthed.


Ceremonies and prayers used at unearthing of treasure. *Winter 77.


Raised treasure turns into charcoal (shavings). If one takes it along it will turn back into gold. *Norlind 56; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 75f. Nos. 631 – 634; West Indies: Flowers 565.


Guardian of treasure. *Fb “skat” III 235b, 236a; *Winter 41; *Norlind 69ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 73ff. Nos. 623 – 629.


Treasure from striking animal or person and disenchanting him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3627f.


King (prince) accidentally finds maiden and marries her. *Types 403, 451, 705, 709; *BP I 99ff., 295ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99 – 103, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 80, 115; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Father-son combat. Neither knows who the other is. (Sohrab and Rustem.) **Potter Sohrab and Rustem; Deutschbein I 232ff.; Potter FL XV 216ff.; Rank Inzest-Motif 164ff.; Hibbard 227 n. 5; *Köhler-Bolte II 256ff.; L. Wolff Hessische Blätter f. Volksk. XXXIX 54 – 63. – Irish: *Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 145, 169 (Cuchulainn, Fionn), Thurneysen 403ff.; English: Wells 135 (Sir Degare); Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 140 (Telegonos and Odysseus); Arabian: Burton Nights VII 89 n.; Persian Carnoy 332; Chinese: Werner Myths 315 – 319, Coyajee JPASB XXIV 179; Philippine: Dixon 235; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 508.


Santa Claus as bringer of Christmas gifts. *Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 121 nn. 7 – 9.


Disguised king punished by peasant. Beaten because he does not get up early enough. (King Alfred and the cakes.) *BP III 451 n. 1.


Sworn brethren. Friends take an oath of lasting brotherhood. *Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 98; *Hibbard 68 n. 7, 145 n. 3; Child IV 146f.; Wesselski Märchen 187 No. 2; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 17; *Abeles “Die Burgschaft als Motif in der jüdischen Literatur” Monatsch. f. Geschichte u. Wissenschaft der Juden LX 213ff., 263ff. – English: Wells 158 (Amis and Amiloun); Icelandic: Olrik Sakses Oldhistorie I (1892) 59ff., *Boberg; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas@2 IV 14, 20, 274; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 63 No. 35.


Blood-brotherhood. Friends take oath of brotherhood by means of mixing their blood. *Type 1364; **Encyc. Rel. Ethics II 717a, 857ff.; **H. C. Trumbull The Blood Covenant (London, 1887); *Chauvin VII 20 No. 373D; *Hibbard 145 n. 3; Fb “blod” IV 46b; Nitze MPh IX 291; DeVries Acta Philologica Scandinavica III 106; *Basset RTP VI 577 – XXV 438 passim; *Julian Revue d’Ethnographie et de Trad. Pop. II 1ff.; **H. Tegnæus Blood-Brothers (Stockholm, 1952). – Irish myth: Cross: Icelandic: *Boberg; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/203); Africa: Stanley 274.


Kind and unkind. Churlish person disregards requests of old person (animal) and is punished. Courteous person (often youngest brother or sister) complies and is rewarded. *Types 361, 403, 431, 440, 480, 513, 550, 551, 554, 570, 571, 577, 610, 620, 707, 750**, 287**; *BP I 86, 99, 207, 503, II 21, 39, 380, 394, 427, III 84, 267, 276; **Roberts; *Cox Cinderella 481; MacCulloch Childhood 61; *Saintyves Perrault 10. – Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 18; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 75 No. 594, Espinosa II No. 86, III Nos. 141 – 143, 153, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 117, 183, 202 – 204; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 10, IV No. 7, V No. 2; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 318f., Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 32 No. 15, 46 No. 27; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 172, Dixon 210; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/167); N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 383, 386ff., 432, *Thompson Tales 276 n. 18b, (California): Gayton and Newman 95; Africa: Werner African 138ff., 204, 208, 210, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 89 No. 16, (Benga): Nassau 213 No. 23, (Ekoi): Talbot 237, 280, (Kaffir): Theal 48, 52, (Basuto): Jacottet 140, 146, 224, (Yoruba): Ellis 244 No. 1, (Fjort): Dennett 121f., (Ibo, Nigeria): Basden 282, (Duala): Lederbogen JAS IV 70, Märchen 84; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 125 No. 44.


Reward for carrying Christ across a stream. Christ is in the form of a child. (St. Christopher.) *Type 768; Dh II 266; Legenda Aurea (ed. Graesse) 432; *Schwickert Zs. f. Vksk. NF III 14 – 26; Klapper Erzählungen des Mittelalters 111 No. 101; *Loomis White Magic 114.


Q200–Q399: Deeds punished Q400–Q599: Kinds of punishment


Mice devour hard-hearted man. (Hatto and the Mouse Tower.) (Cf. Q291.) *Fb “rotte” III 83a; Veckenstedt (Veckenstedt‘s) Zs. f. Vksk. I (1888 – 9) 364ff.; **Beheim-Schwartzbach Die Mäusenturmsage von Popiel und Hatto (Posen, 1888); *Wehrhan Die Sage 51; *Liebrecht 1ff.; Jewish: Neuman.


The Wandering Jew. Ceaseless wandering with inability to die as punishment for blasphemy. (Cf. Q221.3.) Type 754**; **L. Neubaur Die Sage vom Ewigen Jude@2 (Leipzig, 1893); **Zirus Ahasverus, der Ewige Jude (Stoff- und Motivgeschichte der deutschen Literatur No. 6 [Berlin, 1930]); Gielen de Wandelende Jood (Amsterdam, 1931); *K. Nyrop Den evige Jøde (København, 1907); **Neubaur Zs. f. Vksk. XXII 33, Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen XXVIII 495ff.; *Dübe Zs. F. Vksk. XVII 143; *Bolte ibid. XIX 308; G. Paris. Légendes du moyen âge@2 (1904) 149ff.; *Fb “Jerusalems skomager” II 40, IV 246a; *Wehrhan 50; Taylor MLN XXXIII 394ff.; Anderson Journal of English and Germanic Philology XLVI 367 – 82; Braddy California Folklore Quarterly IV 82f.; Bagatti Franciscan Studies IX 1 – 9. – Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 105 No. 933; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 778*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 754*.


Cruel relatives


Cruel stepmother. *Types 403, 425, 432, 450, 451, 480, 502, 510, 511, 516, 590, 592, 706, 708, 709, 720; BP I 42ff., 70ff., 79ff., 165ff., 207ff., 227ff., 412ff., *421, 427ff., 450ff., II 45ff., 229ff., 490ff., III 60ff., 137, 338f.; **W. Lincke Das tiefmuttermotiv im Märchen der germanischen Völker (Berlin, 1933); *MacCulloch Childhood 150; *Cox Cinderella passim; Böklen Sneewittchenstudien passim; *Arfert Unterschobene Braut passim; Rösch FFC LXXVII 120; Ranke FFC CXIV 154ff.; *Child V 497 s.v. “stepmother”; *Fb “stifmoder”; Dh III 414ff. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “marâtre”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 63 No. 453; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6, III No. 10, V No. 8, Rotunda; Greek: Grote I 103, 116; Jewish: *Neuman, *bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 375; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer I 185; Chinese: Ferguson 162, Eberhard FFC CXX 52f., 109, 125; Japanese: Ikeda, Anesaki 324; Korean: Zong in-Sob 201f. No. 97; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 209, Dixon 238f.; Hawaii, Micronesia, Melanesia: ibid 89 nn. 97 – 102; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 382ff.; S. A. Indian (Karib): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 147; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 228; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 269 No. 81.


Cruel mother-in-law. See references to K2110.1. and K2215, many of which have the present motif. *Type 706; *BP I 295ff.; *Dickson 25 n. 26, 29 n. 3, 30 n. 4, 31 n. 9, 41 n. 40; Saintyves Perrault 67; **Däumling Studie über den Typus des Märchens ohne Hände (München, 1912); *Andree (1878) 159; Hibbard 26; Schlauch Constance and Accused Queens 40. – English: Wells 96 (Chevalere Assigne), 118 (Octovian), 130 (Emare); Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 1480*; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 5, *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer III 44f.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 342, 736; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 125, 189; New Guinea: Dixon 136; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 180 n. 1.


Child sold (promised) to devil (ogre). See also references to S220 – S259, practically all of which apply here. *Types 314, 400, 502, 756B, 810; BP II 329, III 463, 531; *Cosquin Études 365, 542ff.; *Wesselski Märchen 242 No. 52; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 46; Sébillot France III 446, IV 127; Gaster Exempla 248 No. 352. – Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 42 No. 29AB; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 293 No. 1, 300 No. 2; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “enfant”, “diable”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 17; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99 – 103, Espinosa Jr. No. 66; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 147; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 210, 212; Africa: Werner African 214.


Reasons for promise (sale) of child.


Robert the Devil. Childless couple wish for a child even if he comes from the devil. He is diabolical. *Wells 784; *Hibbard 49ff. (Sir Gowther); *Krappe Mod. Lang. Rev. XXIV (1929) 200ff.; Irish myth: Cross.


Children abandoned (exposed). *Types 327, 450, 590, 675, 920, 930; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 40ff.; *Penzer VII 81 n. 1, 82 n. 250; *Boje 65; *Cosquin Études 199ff.; *Prato RTP IV 178; **Nutt FLR IV 1ff.; **Hartland FLJ IV 308; *Aarne FFC XXIII 60; Cowell Jataka V 230; Dickson 152. – Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “enfant”; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99 – 103, 119; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 8, *Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 94f.; Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 471; Tonga: Gifford 122; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 523; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 369, 385; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 349 n. 255, (California): Gayton and Newman 89, (Zuñi): Benedict II 335; West Indies: Flowers 576.


Cruel persecutions.


Persecuted wife. *Types 450, 705, 706, 707, 708, 712, 872*; *BP II 236, 284; *Schlauch Constance and Accused Queens (New York, 1927); *Hibbard 29, 35ff.; *Wehrhan 51; *Krappe Anglia XLIX 361ff. – Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa II No. 105; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 365, III 104, Rink 441, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 198.


Cast-off wife exposed in boat. *Hertel Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 83ff.


Cast-off wife and child exposed in boat. Hibbard 26ff.; English: Wells 115 (Sir Eglamour of Artois), 117 (Sir Torrent of Portyngale), 129 (Emare), Chaucer’s Man of Law‘s Tale; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 3; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 155 n. 3; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Princess offered as prize. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 130f.; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Not in Motif-Index Love through sight of hair of unknown woman.


Faithlessness in marriage. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.


Faithless widow ready to marry messenger who brings news of husband‘s death. The husband, however, has only feigned death to test her. (Cf. T235.) *Type 1350.


Belfagor. The devil frightened by the shrewish wife. A man persuades his shrewish wife to let herself be lowered into a well. When he comes to pull her out he raises a genie (devil) who is glad to escape from the woman. Later he frightens the devil by telling him that his wife has escaped. *Type 1164; **Axon The Story of Belfagor in Literature and Folklore (1902); *BP I 382, 388, IV 176 n. 1; *Prato RTP IV 174; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XV 104; Child V 107f., 305a; *Chauvin VIII 152 No. 154. – Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 1164@I*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 50 No. 332; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.


The obstinate wife or husband. (Cf. J2511.) *Type 1365; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.


Miraculous birth. *BP I 544; *Hartland Perseus ch. 4, 5, 6, Primitive Paternity passim; *Fb “barn” IV 27a; *Penzer II 136 n. 1; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 94 No. 53; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list Nos. 157, 159; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 323 n. 166.


Paramour leaves token with girl to give their son. *Type 873; *Potter Sohrab and Rustem 6ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 86, 330, 478f.


Illegitimate child taunted by playmates. *Type 873; DeVries Edda (1923) 155ff., DeVries Studiën over Faerösche balladen 44ff.; Chauvin V 72; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 52, *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 200; Missouri French: Carrière; India and China: Cowell Jataka VI 21, Chavannes 500 Contes III 331; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 78 No. 44; Oceanic: Dixon 67f., 82, 113; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis IV 273; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 277 No. 89; West Indies: Flowers 579.


Christian child killed to furnish blood for Jewish rite. (Hugh of Lincoln.) (Cf. V254.7.) **V. Manzini La superstizione omicida e i sacrifici umani, con particolare riguardo alle accuse contro gli Ebrei (2d ed., Padua, 1930); **Berger Mélusine VIII 169ff.; *Ward II 656 No. 3; *Brown PMLA XXI 486ff. – English: Child III 240ff., IV 497a.


Contest in laziness. Each cites instances of his laziness. *Type 1950; *BP III 207; Wesselski MРґrchen 213 No. 21; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 261; Oesterley No. 91; Fb doven IV 102b. – Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys.


The boy eats breakfast, dinner, and supper one immediately after the other; then lies down to sleep. *Type 1561.


Cat beaten for not working. Lazy wife must hold cat and is scratched. Type 1370*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1370.


Deaf men and their answers. *Type 1698; **Aarne FFC XX; *Fb tunghС€r; India: Thompson-Balys.


Parson put to flight during his sermon. Type 1785.


Parson rides ox into church. He wants to show how Christ rode into Jerusalem. Sexton sticks ox with needle. *Type 1786.


The hog in church. Locked in church all week by mistake. When the congregation comes, the hog runs between the parson's legs and carries him out. *Type 1838; Fb svin.


Parson is to let a dove fly in the church. It dies in his pocket. *Type 1837.


At the blessing of the grave the parson's ox breaks loose: Now the devil has him. *Type 1840; *Fb tyr III 908b.


The devil in the cemetery. A sexton hears thieves in the cemetery cracking nuts and thinks it is the devil cracking bones. With the gouty parson on his back he comes upon the thieves who, thinking it is their companion with the sheep, call out, Is he fat? The sexton: Fat or lean, here he is! *Type 1791; *BP III 395; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 82; Scala Celi 101b No. 547; Alphabet No. 333; U.S., England: *Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1791, Legends No. 889.


The hungry parson and the porridge-pot. Overnight at the peasant's house. The hungry parson hunts the porridge in the dark, guided by a rope the sexton has given him. Series of accidents. *Type 1775; Fb seng III 187a.


The boy applies the sermon. Makes a present application of the words of the parson. *Type 1833; U.S.: Baughman.


The parson sings like a goat. The parson sees an old woman weeping and believes that she is touched by his singing. When spoken to she says that she has been reminded of her old goat which she has lost. *Type 1834; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 243 No. 539; *Crane Vitry 157 No. 56; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 576; Fb prРdiken II 882; Scala Celi 25a No. 164; – Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.


Parson and sexton at mass. Parson intones instructions to the sexton (cook) as a part of the mass. *Type 1831; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 147 No. 1831A*.


Parson refreshes himself during the sermon.


Humor of lies and exaggeration


Lie concerning birth of hero. U.S.: *Baughman.


Lie: death of extraordinary man. U.S.: *Baughman.


= X1731.2.1 Man falls and is buried in earth: goes for spade and digs self out. (First ed. X917.) *Type 1882; KСhler-Bolte I 323; Gardner JAFL XXVII 305; U.S.: *Baughman.


Lie: remarkably tall person. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

X925 (=X908)

=X908/ Lie: sea has burned up. (Often with answer: Many fried fish.) (First ed. X925.) Type 1920A; *BP II 371; Fb vesterhav III 1042b, a III 1187b; Indonesian: DeVries Volksverhalen II 377.


Lie: remarkable squeezer. (Cf. X955.) U.S.: *Baughman.


Remarkable man's extraordinary possessions.




Endless tales. Hundreds of sheep to be carried over stream one at a time, etc. The wording of the tale so arranged as to continue indefinitely. *Type 2300; *BP II 209; Taylor Hdwb. d. MРґrchens II 190a; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Unfinished tales. Just as the interest is aroused the narrator quits. If the bowl had been stronger my tale had been longer. *Types 2250, 2260; BP II 210, III 455; Taylor Hdwb. d. MРґrchens II 189b; Köhler-Bolte I 269.


Catch tales. The manner of the telling forces the hearer to ask a particular question, to which the teller returns a ridiculous answer. Type 2200; England, U.S., Canada: *Baughman; West Indies: Flowers 586.


Rounds. Stories which begin over and over again and repeat. Type 2350; Taylor JAFL XLVI 88, Hdwb. d. MРґrchens II 190; U.S.: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2300; India: Thompson-Balys.


Origin of chess. Inventor asks one wheat-grain for first square, two for the second, four for the third, eight for the fourth, etc. The king cannot pay. **Taylor JAFL XLVI 79 No. 2009; *Livingston MLN XLV 246 – 51; Murray History of Chess (Oxford, 1913) 207 – 9, 755; India: Thompson-Balys.

Z21.2 (=Z22)

=Z22. Ehod mi yodea (One; who knows?); Le dodici parole della verità, Las doce palabras retorneadas. The numbers from one to twelve are brought into relation with various objects, often of religious significance. **Espinosa Revista de Filologia Española XVII 390ff.; *Taylor JAFL XLVI 79 No. 2010; *Greenleaf Ballads and Sea-songs of Newfoundland (Cambridge, Mass., 1933) 93 No. 41; **Hdwb. d. Märchens II 171ff.; *Newell “The Carol of the Twelve Numbers” JAFL IV (1891) 215 – 220; Köhler-Bolte III 370 n. 2; BP III 15 n. – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2010*; Russian: Andrejev No. 812B*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 156 No. 2045*; Jewish: *Neuman.

Z21.3.1 (=Z53)

=Z53. The animals with queer names: as hen (henny-penny), cock (cocky-locky), goose (goosey-poosey). (First ed. Z21.3.1.) (Cf. Z32.2.1.) *Wesselski Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXXII 55; *Taylor JAFL XLVI 80 No. 2010 IA; Jacobs English Fairy Tales 118; *T. Norlind Svenska Allmogens Liv@2 (Stockholm, 1925) 612; Kristensen Danske Dyrefabler 182 Nos. 431 – 32. – Antigua (British West Indies): Johnson JAFL XXXIV 68 No. 24.

Z23.1 (=Z51.1)

=Z51.1. The house is burned down. – That is too bad. – That is not bad at all, my wife burned it down. – That is good. – That is not good, etc. (First ed. Z23.1.) Type 2014; *Taylor JAFL XLVI 81 No. 2014; Nouvelles Récréations No. 75.

Z31.2.1 (=Z32.1).

=Z32.1. The funeral procession of the hen. Animals one by one join the procession. The funeral carriage breaks down or the procession drowns. *Type 2021; *BP II 147 n. 1; *Wesselski Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXXII 2ff.; *Taylor JAFL XLVI 82 No. 2021.

Z31.2.1.1 (=Z32.1.1).

=Z32.1.1. The death of the cock. (Der Tod des Hühnchens.) The cock chokes and the hen seeks aid of objects and persons (stream, tree, pig, miller, baker, etc.). *Taylor JAFL XLVI 82 No. 2021A; BP II 146; **Haavio FFC XCIX; **Wesselski Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXXII 2ff.

Z31.2.2.1 (=Z32.2.1).

=Z32.2.1. The death of the little hen described with unusual words. Each act of mourning described by a neologism: the table untables itself. (First ed. Z31.2.2.1.) (Cf. X1506.) *Taylor JAFL XLVI 82 No. 2022A, Hdwb. d. Märchens II 177a; Tegethoff Französische Märchen II 78 No. 18; Rolland Rimes et jeux d‘enfance (1881) 119f.; Kristensen Danske Dyrefabler 98ff. No. 171ff.


=Z32.2. The death of the little hen. She is characteristically mourned by objects and animals; e.g., flea, door, broom, cart, ashes, tree, girl. (First ed. Z31.2.2.) *Taylor JAFL XLVI 82 No. 2022A; *BP I 293; Parsons JAFL XXXIII 37; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

Z31.3.1 (=Z33.1)

=Z33.1. The fleeing pancake. A woman makes a pancake, which flees. Various animals try in vain to stop it. Finally the fox eats it up. (First ed. Z31.3.1.) *Taylor JAFL XLVI 82 No. 2025; *Dh III 272; Fb “pandekage” II 782b; Danish: Kristensen Danske Dyrefabler 58f. Nos. 113 – 18; Norwegian: Christensen Norske Eventyr 149; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2025; Russian: Andrejev Nos. 295, 296*.

Z31.3.2 (=Z33.2).

=Z33.2. The fat cat. While the mistress is away, the cat eats the porridge, the bowl, and the ladle. When the mistress returns she says, “How fat you are!” The cat: “I ate the porridge, the bowl, and the ladle, and I will eat you.” The cat meets other animals and eats them after the same conversation. Finally eats too many. (First ed. Z31.3.2.) *Taylor JAFL XLVI 83 No. 2027; *Fb “kat” IV 255b; Danish: Kristensen Danske Dyrefabler 59ff. Nos. 119 – 130.

Z31.3.4 (=Z33.4).

=Z33.4. The fat troll (wolf). A troll eats the watcher’s five horses and finally the watcher himself. The master goes to investigate. The troll: “I ate the five horses, I ate the watcher, and I will eat you.” Does so. Likewise the wife, servant, daughter, son, and dog. The cat scratches the troll open and rescues all. (First ed. Z31.3.4.) *Taylor JAFL XLVI 83 No. 2028; *Fb “ulv” III 970b, “æde” III 1139b, “bjørn” IV 43b; Danish: Kristensen Dyrefabler 68ff. Nos. 131 – 144; Swedish: T. Norlind Svenska Allmogens Liv@2 (Stockholm, 1925) 613; Russian: Andrejev No. 333B*.

Z31.4.1 (=Z39.1).

=Z39.1. The goat who would not go home. One animal after another tries in vain to persuade the goat to go home. Finally a wolf (bee) bites him and drives him home. (First ed. Z31.4.1.) *Taylor JAFL XLVI 81 No. 2015; *BP I 348 n. 1, II 100, 104; Fb “gjed” IV 178a; Swedish: T. Norlind Svenska Allmogens Liv@2 (Stockholm, 1925) 613.


Woman has meat (liver) stolen by bird. Recovery chain (similar to Z41). *Wesselski Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXXII 25.

Z41.10 (=Z46).

=Z46. The climax of horrors. The magpie is dead. Overate on horseflesh. – Horses dead? – Overworked at fire. – House burned down? – etc. (First ed. Z41.10.) *Taylor JAFL XLVI 87 No. 2040; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 203; Wesselski Mönchslatein 25 No. 20; **Zachariae Kleine Schriften 191ff.; *Crane Vitry 216ff. No. 205; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VII 99 n. 5. – Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2040*; Russian: Andrejev No. 2014 I*; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.


Crow must wash his bill in order to eat with other birds. Asks water; water must first have horn from stag, who must first have milk from cow, etc. *Wesselski Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXXII 33; India: Thompson-Balys.


Conflict between fowl and thistle. Wind obeys and breaks the chain. India: *Thompson-Balys.


The mouse regains its tail. The cat bites off the mouse’s tail and will return it in exchange for milk. The mouse goes to the cow for milk, the farmer for hay, the butcher for meat, the baker for bread. Other persons mentioned are the locksmith and the miner. *Taylor JAFL XLVI 86 No. 2034, Hdwb. d. Märchens II 185b; *Wesselski Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXXII 28; *Newell JAFL XVIII (1905) 34 n. 1; BP II 107 – 8; Basset Contes Berbères No. 45, Nouveaux Contes Berbères No. 168. – England, U.S.: *Baughman.


Lending and repaying: progressively worse (or better) bargain. Type 2034C*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2009*; Africa (Tonga): Torrend Specimens of Bantu Folklore (New York, 1921) 169ff., (Ila): Smith and Dale II 392ff. No. 17, (Pende): Frobenius Atlantis XI 265 No. 4, (Bassari): ibid. 97ff. No. 12, (Ashanti): Rattray 268 No. 73.


Bird‘s pea gets stuck in socket of mill-handle. She goes to carpenter, king, queen, who refuse to help. She asks snake to bite queen, stick to beat snake, fire to burn stick, etc. Final formula: cat eats mouse, mouse cuts plant creeper, creeper snares elephant, elephant drinks up sea, sea quenches fire, fire burns stick, stick beats snake, snake bites queen, queen speaks to king, king chides carpenter, carpenter cuts mill handle, and pea is extracted. Questions in rhyme. India: Thompson-Balys.


The lazy servant and the grain. “Lentils, lentils, get into my sack!” Final formula: the hungry hawk attacks the hens, the hens the worms, the worms the stick, the stick the ox, the ox runs to the water, the water attacks the fire, the fire the hunters, the hunters the wolf, the wolf the goat, the goat the willow, the willow the cat, the cat the mice, the mice the lentils, the lentils go whoosh whoosh into the sack. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2011*.

Z31.1.1 (=Z31.1)

=Z31.1. Pif Paf Poltrie. The suitor sent from one relation to the other for consent to the wedding. *Type 2019; *BP III 71; *Taylor JAFL XLVI 81 No. 2019; India: Thompson-Balys.


Not in Motif-Index. Cf. F725. Submarine world. See all references under F133, Submarine otherworld. Ignacius Donnelly Atlantis: the Antediluvian World (New York, 1882); W. Scott-Elliot The Story of Atlantis, a Geographical, Historical and Ethnological Sketch (London, 1896); Spence The Problem of Atlantis (New York, 1925); E. M. Whishaw Atlantis in Andalucia (London, 1929); *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXV (1933) 107ff.; Penzer VII 19f. – India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 26; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/249, 441.); Maori: Clark 111; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 343 n. 236a.