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C. F. F

Center of Folktales and Folklore

 

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Professional storytellers in Israel
Dr. Yoel Perez

Ben Gurion University, Israel

 

Doctorate Synopsis 2005

The subject of this research is Professional storytellers in Israel. The concept "teller" or storyteller in this work refers to its limited significance: A professional storyteller who performs in front of audience for money and earns his living from this work partially or wholly.

In the western world, including Israel, professional storytelling as a modern performing art, is relatively a new phenomenon. Some researches had been done in the United States and in Canada, but to the best of my knowledge, in Israel there was no ordered attempt to investigate the scope of this phenomenon and its social and cultural significance.

In this work: (a) I map, classify and describe the phenomenon in its generality. (b) I describe the formal and informal training processes of professional storytellers in Israel. (c) I check their narrative repertoire, its sources and the ways of its shaping, and their linkage to traditional storytellers and traditional narrative materials. (d) I propose a typological model of the storytelling art. (e) I examine a small number of selected storytellers according to the proposed model and I make a profound analysis that includes defining of personal profile of each one of them, giving qualitative evaluation to their capabilities as storytellers, analyzing of their professional development processes and checking their place in the community of professional storytellers.

The typological model that is proposed in this work: (a) Defines and describes the storytelling art with all its components: narrative sources, repertoire, audiences, and narrative techniques. (b) Gives tools and criterions for qualitative evaluation of professional storytellers (c) Enables building of unique profile for every teller, profiles that can be a basis for comparison with other tellers. (d) Enables to understand the building, preparation and shaping processes of the show that precede to its performing on the stage (e) Enables to characterize the artistic development processes of tellers.

 

In the first chapter, the research questions are presented in 3 domains: (a) General mapping of the phenomenon and its characteristics. (b) Describing and analyzing of the workshop for training of storytellers in Bet Ariela in 2002. (c) Detailed analyzing of 4 storytellers that represent different orientations in modern art of storytelling.

In the sequel of this chapter, I discussed the research background and I review the professional literature of this domain. First I review briefly the research of folktales and I deal with different approaches. Then I discuss the research of storytelling as traditional verbal performing art in Asia and Africa.

Later I review guiding books and handbooks that deal with the new art of professional storytelling. In this part I deal with non-academic publications, mainly in the Unites States, that were written by professional storytellers. I also discuss briefly the history of the storytelling renaissance in the United States, Canada, and some other countries

Then I discuss the scientific research of the new storytelling art. I review in particular the books of the American researcher Josef Sobol and the Canadian researcher Kay Stone. In the end of this part I discuss the phenomenon of the new storytelling art in Israel and review books and essays that deal with this domain, in particular the books of Tamar Alexander, Galit Hazan-Rokem and Eli Yasif.

Later I describe the research populations that I checked: (a) The group of professional storytellers in Israel (b) The graduates of the workshops of 'Bet Ariela' (c) Three teachers in these workshops. (d) A group of students in the workshop of 'Bet Ariela'. (e) Four professional storytellers that represent different orientations according to the model that I built.

In the end of this chapter I discuss briefly the innovations of my research: (a) The first attempt to check the phenomenon of professional storytellers in Israel. (b) A new perspective for the understanding of the phenomenon of the stage performer, a perspective that includes the processes of selection, shaping and performing of narrative material that precede to the performance itself. (c) Presenting of the training system in a central workshop of storytelling training in Israel. (d) Proposing of a typological model of the professional storytelling art. (e) Describing of the repertoire and the training techniques of 4 storytellers in Israel. (f) Characterizing of the linkage of professional storytellers in Israel to traditional materials and techniques of traditional storytelling.

 

The second chapter deals with the general population of storytellers in Israel. The information source is 47 questionnaires that were sent to Jewish storytellers all over Israel.

The responders to the questionnaire can be considered as a representative statistical specimen of all Jewish storytellers in Israel that according to my estimation their number is about 200.

From the analysis of these questionnaires one can sketch a characteristic profile of a professional storyteller in Israel: Born in Israel to Ashkenazi parents, has academic degree, age 45-55 that defines himself as secular. The proportion of women in the storytelling population is 74% women and 26% men. Checking of the professional occupations of the tellers in past and present shows that a great part of the storytellers have strong tendencies to the domains of teaching, education, artistic and theatre occupations.

71% of them passed through the workshops of Bet-Ariela. Additional formal trainings of the participants in the survey were voice training, theatre studies of different kinds, biblio-therapy studies and workshops of creative writing. 13% from the participants in the survey did not pass any formal training as storytellers.

27% from the participants in the survey defined their occupation in storytelling as their main profession. Most of the tellers occupy with storytelling as a secondary profession or as completion to other activities, like theatre and bibliotherapy. The scope of activity changes a lot from one teller to another and moves between 2-20 performances per month.

The main performing places are home-circles, libraries, pensioners clubs, schools and kindergartens. More than 60% perform for all ages. The professional storytelling in Israel is more and more relevant to adult populations.

75% perform also as volunteers to audiences of senior populations and patients in hospitals and are involved in social activities.

Most of the storytellers perform alone on the stage. 28% of them use special costumes. 38% of them combine singing in their performances. 55% use games, story-games, or other forms of audience activation.

According to the data I collected storytelling clearly differs from the theater art. The main tools they use are the voice and the intonation. The visual side is limited mainly to body language.

Checking of the repertoire show that 81% of the stories are folktales from all over the world, but only 17% of them take stories from their own tradition.

Most of the storytellers in Israel take their repertoire from written sources. Only few of them are connected to a living tradition and traditional storytellers, but the percentage of Jewish folktales in their repertoire is 55%.

The popular traditional material is 81% in comparison to literary material (64%). This fact is very interesting: Storytellers feet old written traditional materials to m,odern audiences.

The length of the performance is between 45 minutes to 1.5 hour.

Many storytellers intertwine connecting segments between their stories. 47% of them use verbal connecting segments short anecdotes, explanations and dialogue with the audience. 26% of the storytellers integrate as connecting segments music or singing.

 

In the absence of an established institution where storytellers can perfect their art, their artistic development is done primarily by experimentation and gaining experience in throughout their performances.

 

The third chapter deals with graduates of the workshops in Bet-Ariela. The source of the information is 35 questionnaires that were filled out by the workshop graduates. The survey asked for personal information, family and ethnic background, employment and education, previous training in storytelling, the scope of activity as a storyteller and an evaluation of the workshops. The ratio between men and women in the workshop was 1:3. The average age of the graduates, at the time they were admitted to the workshops was 46. Although the professed goal of the workshops was to train students to become active storytellers after their studies, the percentage of young people that were admitted (ages 23-35) was very low: only 25.7%. It seems that in spite of the increase in demand for storytellers in Israel, the profession is not considered desirable enough for young people. The profile that emerges, over 19 years, of the students of the workshops in storytelling training at Bet Ariela is very similar to the one that exists in the group of storytellers: Israeli born, born to Ashkenazi parents, has college level education, is between the ages of 31 and 49 and defines himself as secular. An investigation into the employment of the storytellers in the past and at present shows a strong tendency in the direction of employment in the areas of education, arts and theater. 71.4% of the storytellers define themselves as secular.

63% of the workshop graduates who answered the survey serve today as professional storytellers. 54% of the graduates who are not active today as storytellers reported that the workshops improved their storytelling very very much, while of the graduates who are active today as storytellers 50% reported that the workshops improved they storytelling very much. This finding can be due to the fact that those graduates who put into practice what they learned in the workshops have less regard to the benefit they drew from the workshops, as opposed to those graduates who did not experience in practice professional storytelling. Likewise, it is possible to point towards an increase throughout the years (especially in the last few years 1998-2002) in the benefit the graduates have assessed the workshops to provide them with.

39% of the graduate who are not active today as storytellers say that the workshops increased greatly their ability to locate storytelling material and prepare it for telling from memory. 15% of this group said that there was little benefit. In the group of active storytellers the situation is opposite: only 23% thought the workshops increased a great deal their ability to locate storytelling material while 43% said that the workshops only helped them very little in this regard. As with the previous question, one can witness a difference between those graduates who became active storytellers and those who did not implement what they learned professionally. The graduates who became professional storytellers have less regard to the impact and benefit the workshops had on their ability to locate stories and prepare them for storytelling from memory.

46% of the graduates who are not currently active as storytellers, believe that the workshops improved their understanding of the art of storytelling greatly, while only 27% of the active graduates believe so.

From an analysis of the answers to the question In which areas do you think the workshops gave you new abilities or deepened and made broader previous abilities? it seems that active graduates benefited from the workshops, generally, more than inactive graduates. The average difference between the two groups was almost 12%. In particular there was a big difference between the groups in areas that involve the use of voice, dramatic ability, emotional expressiveness and communication with the audience. In these areas the disparity between the two groups was more than 18%.

When one reviews the difference between the groups in different years, one can see that there is an upward trend in the benefit that active graduate got from the workshops while there is a decrease in the benefit drawn from the workshops for the inactive graduates. It seems that there is, with time, an increasing heterogeneity among the students who are admitted to the workshops. It seems plausible that those students who became active storytellers once the workshops ended made better use of the tools their acquired, and in any case because of the work in practice as story tellers, they tend to appreciate more the tools they received in the workshops.

The sample upon which this chapter is based is of 6.1% of the workshop graduates. (35 out of 568 graduates). Statistically, this is a good and reliable and sample for the first five parts of the survey (personal information, family and ethnic background, employment and education, previous training in storytelling and scope of activity as a storyteller). However, one must treat with some caution the conclusions that result from the sixth question which dealt with the evaluation of the workshops, for two reasons: (1) Those who were interviewed did not all answer the survey within the same period of time from having completed the workshops. (2) Some of those interviewed completed the survey immediately upon finishing the workshop or very closely thereafter. These interviewees did not have enough time to solidify their assessment of the workshops and their benefit as storytellers or future storytellers.

These workshops were given throughout a period of about 20 years during which there were many changes in the content of the workshops and their leaders. Nonetheless, one can point towards a general trend of improvement in the assessment of the benefit of the workshops by the graduates throughout the years. This upward trend can be attributed to the improvement in the teaching strategies and the content of the workshops.

Another trend that can be pointed out, and which is supported by material I gathered from interviews with the workshop leaders, is that in the workshops there was greater emphasis on providing practical storytelling techniques rather than an in depth study of theoretical material that had to do with the art of storytelling sources for stories, relation to the past, the cultural and social significance of the art of storytelling and its place in the cultural activity in Israel.

 

The fourth chapter deals with the teaching techniques in the workshops for storytelling training in Bet-Ariela. In order to learn about the character of the teaching in the workshops and its guiding world view, I interviewed in depth the three senior leaders of the workshops: Michal Porat, Bilhaa Feldman and Naomi Yoeli. Likewise, I documented one lesson given by Bilhaa Feldman to first-year students.

The guiding philosophy that characterizes the cultural center of Bet-Ariela is that storytelling is a profession that needs to be cultivated and developed, similar to theater, by careful study. All the teachers on the faculty of the workshop came to the discipline of storytelling by way of the theater. This fact had a great impact on the design of the workshop. None of the teachers that I interviewed had real past experience in professional storytelling and none of them performs as a professional storyteller apart from their work in the workshop. Some of the terms and techniques that are taught in the workshop are taken from the theater. Nonetheless, all the teachers are well aware that the art of storytelling is a separate art from that of the theater, and they integrate techniques which they have borrowed from the theater with techniques which are unique to storytelling. This workshop had a very competitive character. The students were under constant pressure of performing in front of an audience, and competed amongst themselves for opportunities to perform as much as possible.

During the interviews the teaching pointed to a variety of techniques which they employ in order to achieve the goals they have set for themselves. The main techniques are: (1) Grounding that is an awareness to ones body and posture during the storytelling and the sense of connection with the ground. (2) Cleansing and emptiness an awareness of the body and neutralizing disturbances. (3) Work on the content of the story. (4) Work on short texts and understanding the viewpoint of the original author of the text. (5) Choreographing of movement and body control. (6) Becoming free of stage freight. (7) Facial expression with voices and identification of an action (tonal design of the sentences and movements from rest to motion). (8) Group work.

The general feeling of the teachers that came to light in the interviews is that the workshops do in fact achieve their goals and provide students, upon completion of the workshop, with a good starting point for their professional work, but that the time constrains are too severe. Economical reasons make it so that the number of students in a group (between 20 and 25) is far greater than optimal.

It was emphasized in the interviews that not enough time is given to the topics of locating sources for stories, and cultural background. For this reason, many students prefer to tell modern works of fiction which are less suitable for oral storytelling than folk-tales and material that has been passed down orally.

My impression as a bystander, is that the workshop centers on the basic and important elements in the art of storytelling; such as self-awareness while storytelling, a deeper understanding of the content of the story and its recreation as a story which is told orally with emphasis on the dramatic characterization of the characters.

On the other hand, from listening to the students during the course and later from watching performances of students who completed the courses and began to perform professionally, there is a feeling of a unified product. A great number of the course graduates perform with a dramatic style with a declamatory character.

Not enough emphasis is put in the workshops on locating storytelling material and acquaintance with folk storytellers and folk material as they are recorded by folklore researchers. There is some effort made to give the students some background in folklore and folk-tales separate from the workshops themselves. However, the emphasis is on a theoretical acquaintance with story genres and schools of research in the field.

My investigation shows the status of the workshops at a given moment (in 2002). There is a constant effort on behalf of Bet-Ariela and the workshop leaders to change and update the content of the courses and teaching methods from year to year.

The fifth chapter presents a typological model for storytelling which I developed. The model is primarily for use as a research tool in the analysis of the new art of storytelling in Israel and treats the characteristics of the new art of storytelling. Nonetheless, it is also applicable to similar phenomena around the western world and for the study of the art of traditional storytellers both professionals and amateurs.

The model does not only relate to the performance of the story in front of an audience. It deals also with many of the preliminary processes that have to do with choosing the story material and its manipulation and to a variety of other processes that have to do with the personal development of the storyteller and the development of his world. The goals of the model are: (1) a definition and description of the techniques and processes that characterize the art of storytelling and set it apart from other performing arts. (2) A definition and description of different types of storytellers, and a comparison between their working methods. (3) Providing tools for a qualitative assessment of the art of storytelling. (4) Presentation of the artistic development of the storyteller as a process in time and a characterization of the connection between this process and the more general biography of the storyteller. (5) An assessment of the place of the art of storytelling within the new Israeli culture and art.

The structure of the model. The art of the storyteller is presented as a temporal process, a process that lasts durably. The storyteller gathers his stories from different sources, refashions them and presents them to his audience. In light of this, the model centers on three areas: (1) the sources of the story repertoire and its creation. (2) The design of narrative material. (3) The presentation techniques and the connection with the target audience.

This tri-part process, of locating the stories, their re-fashioning and their performance in front of an audience, occurs on four different levels: (1) the biography of the storyteller. (2) The artistic activity of the storyteller taken generally. (3) The performance of the stories. (4) A single story. The difference among the levels goes beyond the difference in their temporal duration. In each level there are processes of feedback, learning and change. In what follows is a general scheme of the model:

 

1. First Field - Spotting the sources of the narrative repertoire and its construction.

1.1 Biographical scale of the teller.

1.1.1 Familial, social and cultural background.

1.1.2 Active process of looking for roots.

1.2 The general artistic activity scale of the teller.

1.2.1 Formal ways of training workshops and courses.

1.2.2 Informal ways of training.

1.2.3 Teaching and guidance.

1.2.4 Boundaries of the repertoire.

1.3 The show scale.

1.3.1 Spotting a group of stories that have inner connections.

1.4 The single story scale.

1.4.1 Written sources.

1.4.2 Oral sources.

1.4.3 Personal sources.

 

2. Second Field - Shaping of the narrative materials.

2.1 Biographical scale of the teller.

2.2 The general artistic activity scale of the teller.

2.3 The show scale.

2.3.1Combining stories to an entire show.

2.3.2 Constructing the show map.

2.3.3 Integration of musical elements.

2.3.4 Integration of visual elements and elements of senses of taste, smell and touch.

2.3.5 Integration of additional tellers and integration of an instructor.

2.3.6 Integration of additional artists.

2.4 The single story scale.

2.4.1 The passage from written text to oral text.

2.4.2 Re-shaping of the story and memorizing it.

 

3. Third Field - Performing techniques and relationship with the audience.

3.1 The audience.

3.1.1 Age.

3.1.2 The communal element.

3.1.3 The gender element.

3.1.4 The Socio-economic element.

3.1.5 Special elements.

3.2 Size of audience.

3.3 Place of show.

3.4 Time and duration of show.

3.5 Performing techniques.

3.5.1 Vocal and visual techniques.

3.5.2 Techniques that activate the senses of smell, taste and touch.

3.5.3 Lingual, structural and substantial techniques.

3.5.4 Combination of channels.

3.6 The interaction between the teller and his audience.

3.6.1 Creating contact with the audience in the opening and ending of the show.

3.6.2 Fitting stories to capability of audience.

3.6.3 Verbal dialogues.

3.6.4 Non-verbal dialogues and literary dialogues.

3.6.5 Creating a common secret between teller and audience.

3.6.6 Using the technique of story within story.

3.6.7 The presence and attention state of the teller.

 

In the successive part of this chapter the different parts of the model are discussed in details. In the ending of the chapter I discuss the possibilities of practical applications of the model and its contribution to research. The model can be used in several forms: (a) building of personal profile of a storyteller and making comparisons between different tellers. (b) Building of group profile of tellers with common denominator. (c) Analyzing the storytelling art of traditional storytellers and comparing it to the art of modern storytellers.

In spite of the fact that the described model was built mainly in order to characterize the professional modern tellers, it can be used as a methodic tool for analyzing of traditional storytellers, either amateurs or professional. Such use demands of course many changes on the detailed level in order to feet it to other techniques and other processes, but it will keep the basic division to fields and scales.

In the successive 4 chapters of my work I analyze according to the typological model that I built, 4 experienced storytellers that represent 4 different orientations in the professional storytelling in Israel: (a) Generic orientation. (b) Ideological orientation. (c) Orientation of transmission of tradition. (d) Therapeutic orientation.

 

The sixth chapter discusses the storyteller Limor Shipponi. Limor came to the domain of professional storytelling from the domain of music. She is occupied by both: She is a player and conductor of orchestra and a professional storyteller. Limor is a diverse storyteller with a very rich repertoire which includes: folk-tales, Arthurian legends, personal stories, wine stories and stories about women. Since 1997 she has performed in many places in Israel and takes part in festivals locally and abroad. Likewise, she performs in home circles and in schools. In the past few years she is also involved in leading a variety of workshops for storytellers. With respect to her development as an artist, Limor represents the group of storytellers that, throughout the years, have gone through structured training and studying due to which they have become professional storytellers.

In her storytelling art women have a prominent place. Her stories have feminist themes and through them she presents her audience the world of women. In the chapter dedicated to her, I center on one of her performances, called the valley of vision which presents the stories of the women of the first Aliah. In my analysis I deal with her sources and the way she designs them and emphasizes the feminine element. The analysis is not only of the content of the text, but also treats the other elements of her storytelling art: the use of voice and body language, building of the tension in the story, language and style, the involvement of the audience and other elements.

Limor, as someone with a musical background, spends a lot of time in a meticulous planning of her performances. In the chapter I discuss in depth the methodological tools she has developed in order to create an entire, complete, performance from diverse elements.

Another topic that is dealt with at length in this chapter is the passage from a written text to a spoken, or told, text. In the art of modern storytellers, which relies primarily on written sources, these processes are of great significance. By making a detailed comparison between the written sources and the spoken text, I characterize these processes and show how Limor designs the material she gathers and makes it suit a heterogenic audience.

Likewise, in this chapter I discuss the parallels between the vocal and visual aspects during the storytelling and show how these two aspects are intertwined.

In the biographical section of this chapter it is emphasized how the art of storytelling is not only a profession for Limor but a way of life. Limor considers the art of storytelling as a high art which contains cultural and social messages. Her connection to her sources is strong and visible in all areas, ranging from her personal biography to her choice of material she wishes to include in her performances.

In addition to her work as a storyteller, Limor does much to further develop professional storytelling in Israel. She meets with other storytellers, she conducts an active correspondence with colleagues around the world, gives lecture about her art, leads workshops for storytellers and leads a forum for storytellers on the internet.

 

The seventh chapter is dedicated to the storyteller Moshe Kharmatz. Moshe is a tour guide for sites having to do with the Holocaust and the revival (tkuma the establishment of the state of Israel), such as Yad VaShem in Jerusalem and the Hagana museum in Tel Aviv. Moshe represents an entire group of guide who function as storytellers in open areas.

Moshe has been involved in guiding tours for over fifteen year. In his tours he is not satisfied with presenting merely the historical facts. The site or artifact he talks about provides him with a starting point for presenting a very wide historical picture. Underlying his captivating descriptions is a clear ideology which tries to show the connection between the Holocaust in the Second World War and the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948.

His repertoire centers around four topics: (1) Historical events from the early settlement in Israel (during the end of the nineteenth century) until today. (2) Stories and anecdotes of people who lived during that period. (3) The Holocaust heritage. (4) Battle stories.

In addition, Moshe weaves into his performances historical knowledge of other periods and stories which are drawn from the Jewish heritage more generally biblical stories, Talmudic stories and legends, etc.

In this chapter I concentrate on a guiding performance that Moshe gave to an audience of members of the Moshavim movement, of Giva't HaTachmoshet, of Mount Scopus, and of the Scroll of Fire memorial (of the sculptor Nathan Rapoport) in the Jerusalem hills. I analyze the different storytelling techniques that Moshe uses in order to connect the different sites to the way in which he presents to his audience his ideology. As in the previous chapter, I also show and analyze the process of going from a written text to a told, or spoken, text. Likewise, special emphasis is place on the continuing dialogue Moshe conducts during his performances with his audience and the different techniques he uses to create this dialogue: rhetorical questions, relating to comments and questions, relating to political and ideological subjects, actual conversation with his listeners, etc.

Another important topic that is discussed at length is the theatrical techniques Moshe uses while using the actual sites as scenery (for example, a demonstration of the fighting sequence in Givat HaTachmoshet by a reconstruction of the combatants movements in the existing trenches).

 

The eighth chapter treats the storyteller Tzila Zan-bar Tzur. Tzila is a storyteller and lecturer on magical texts from central Asia and her Judeo-Afghani tradition. Her repertoire include stories, anecdotes, poems and saying she heard from her family, stories and other folkloric material she gathered for Jewish, Afghani, and Persian informants, and stories and folkloric material that she gathered from written scholarly sources. Tzilas ethnic background serves as an important element in her activity as a storyteller. In this respect she can be seen as representing a group of storytellers that gather their stories from a living tradition.

As to Tzilas development as an artist she can be classified as a member of natural storytellers who did not go through a structured studies and training, but rather arrived to the discipline as a result of their interest in their heritage and ethnography.

Tzila considers herself as one who is at the junction of traditional and modern society. She treats her art as a therapeutic tool as well as a tool for female empowerment. Her activity as a storyteller has three goals: (1) The preservation of a unique heritage of a small Jewish community with its tradition and stories. (2) An encouragement of the members of that community to change their low self-esteem and be proud of their tradition and pass it on to other members of that community. (3) The presentation of this unique tradition to the rest of the Israeli public and its integration into the more general cultural heritage of the Jewish people in their renewing homeland.

In this chapter I concentrate on two similar performances that Tzila did in front of two different types of audiences. In the chapter the question of the affect of the audience on the design and structure of the performance and its comparison to similar phenomena in the traditional art of storytelling is dealt with at length.

Other elements that were treated in this chapter on Tzila are the integration of musical elements into her performances, the use of puppets and other visual elements and the use of techniques which stimulated the senses of smell and touch of the listeners.

 

The ninth chapter deals with the storyteller Tully Flint. In this chapter emphasis was given to the place storytelling has in all the areas of activity and life of a professional storyteller (and not only in his artistic performances).

Tully Flint is a storyteller in addition to being a social worker and treating people who have suffered a trauma. His activity as a storyteller is very diverse, ranging from giving classes in "home circles" and workshops to theatrical performances on stage. He stands out as a storyteller because of the use he makes of the art of storytelling for therapeutic purposes. In this respect he represents a growing number of psychologists and social workers who use storytelling as a way of communicating with their patients.

In 1991 Tully studied at the workshop for the training of storytellers in Bet-Ariela. Today he is a professional storyteller who performs widely. In addition he works as a group therapist at the Tel HaShomer Hospital, and as a therapeutic social worker as well as consultant for organization and leader of communication workshops.

He began his career as a storyteller prior to arriving at Bet-Ariela, while guiding tours and different social function. However with the completion of the workshop he became a professional storyteller and sees himself primarily as such.

Tullys repertoire is primarily based on folk-tales he has gathered from different sources, both Jewish and other. Even when he uses literary works he re-fashions them as folk-tales.

Tully uses to a great extent stories that are taken from Greek Mythology. He believes that a great number of these stories provide deep psychological insights that are applicable to our times.

Tully is not only a professional storyteller but is also employed as a social worker in hospitals where he treats trauma patients individually and in groups. In his work he utilizes to a great extent the art of storytelling to communicate with his patients and make them arrive at new insights. In this chapter on Tully I present different storytelling techniques which he uses during his therapeutic work: (1) The establishments of the first contact with the patients. (2) Building a story that is specifically tailored as a therapeutic method. (3) Building a new story for those who have suffered a trauma.

In addition to his performances as a professional storyteller, whether alone or with a musician, Tully has participated in the last few years in two performances by a Jewish-Arab theater group, in the yearly theater festival in Akko (Acre). In the chapter I discuss his social involvement in areas that have to do with relation between Jews and Arabs in Israel.

 

In the last chapter of my work, the summering chapter, I discuss the innovations of my work and the conclusions that result from it, and I compare my work to previous research in this domain. In this chapter I present also my personal linkage to this field as one who is occupied for many years with professional storytelling.

The subjects that are emphasized in this chapter are the direction of an over-al lookout, the importance of understanding the artistic development processes of storytellers in time, and the analysis of the linkage between these processes to the biographies of the tellers as a key point for research of modern professional storytelling. One of the subjects that are emphasized in the summery is the concept of the integral show that has a special meaning in the case of professional storytelling. One more idea that is discussed here is the proposed model as a research tool for the understanding of storytelling processes from the point of view of the storytellers themselves.

In this chapter I compare also in detail the personal profiles of the four tellers that were discussed in the previous chapters. This comparison is presented from point of view of: (a) General orientation. (b) Generic division. (c) Linkage to therapeutic massages. (d) Overlapping areas in the activity of the four tellers.

In the comparison I emphasize the necessity of an over-al analysis that is based on all three fields of the proposed model: (a) Sources of the narrative repertoire and its construction. (B) Shaping of the narrative materials. (c) Performing techniques and relationship with the audience.

In comparison tables that I bring in this chapter, the tellers are compared according to the different features of the typological model: familial, social and cultural background, active process of looking for roots, formal and informal ways of training, teaching and guidance, boundaries of the repertoire, basis of linkage between the parts of the show, written, oral and personal sources, constructing of the show map, integration of musical elements, integration of visual elements and elements of senses of taste, smell and touch, integration of additional tellers, integration of personal stories, lingual shaping, categories of audiences, place of show and its duration, vocal and visual techniques, lingual, structural and substantial techniques, creating contact with the audience in the opening of the show, verbal dialogues and using the technique of story within story.

Then I discuss briefly storytelling in the Arabic sector and orthodox sector, and the cooperation of Israeli storytellers with their colleagues in other countries.

In the end of the chapter I emphasize the necessity that is a consequence being of my research, to formulate the art of storytelling with terms that are not borrowed from other arts, but with are unique to this art.